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DEPARTMENT OF

MANUFACTURING AND
MATERIALS ENGINEERING
MME 4116
PRODUCT DESIGN AND
DEVELOPMENT
BY:
DR MOHD RADZI BIN HAJI CHE DAUD

CHAPTER 3
PROBLEM DEFINITION AND
NEED IDENTIFICATION

3.1 Introduction
What is problem definition
step in PDP?

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Design 5e. 2013. The McGrawHill Companies

Problem Definition: Start of the


Conceptual Design Process

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Design 5e. 2013. The McGrawHill Companies

Problem Definition
Product Development begins by determining
what the needs are that a product must meet.
Problem definition is the most important of
these steps in the PDP.
Understanding any problem thoroughly is
crucial to reaching an outstanding solution.
The problem definition process is mainly the
need identification step.

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Design 5e. 2013. The McGrawHill Companies

3.2 Identifying Customer


Needs
Who are my customers? What
does the customer want?

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Design 5e. 2013. The McGrawHill Companies

Definition of Customer
Webster Definition of Customer:
One that purchases a product or service.
End user

Total Quality Management Viewpoint of Customer:


Anyone who receives or uses what an individual or
organization provides.
Home Depot and Lowes act as customers but they are not end
users!

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Design 5e. 2013. The McGrawHill Companies

Preliminary Research on Customers


Needs
In a large company, the research on customer needs for
a particular product or for the development of a new
product is done using a number of formal methods and
by different business units.
The initial work may be done by:
Marketing department specialist
Team made up of marketing and design professionals.
Designers focus on need that are:
Unmet in the marketplace
Products that are similar to the proposed product
Historical ways of meeting the need
Technological approaches to engineering similar
products of the type under consideration
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Design 5e. 2013. The McGrawHill Companies

The Shot-Buddy Example

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Gathering Information from


Customers
Interviews
with
customers

Focus
groups
Customer
surveys

Customer
complaints

Warranty
data

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Constructing a Survey Instrument


Determine the survey purpose.
Identify what specific information is needed.
Design the questions. Each question should be:
Unbiased
Unambiguous
Clear
Brief

Three categories of questions:


Attitude questions
Knowledge questions
Behavior questions
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Example of Customer Survey


for Shot-Buddy

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Evaluating Customer Surveys


Evaluating a survey question depends on the type of question and
the kind of information sought.

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Ethnographic Studies
Ethnography is the process of investigation and
documentation of the behavior of a specific
group of people under particular conditions.
Ethnography entails close observation, even to
the point of immersion, in the group being
studies while they are experiencing the
conditions of interest.
By this method, the observer can get a
comprehensive and integrated understanding
of the scenario under investigation.
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3.3 Customer
Requirements
What are customer
requirements?

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Customer Requirements
Designers must compile a ranked listing of
what customers need and want from the
product being designed.
This set of needs and wants is often called
customer requirements.
Hierarchy of human needs:
Rank
Rank
Rank
Rank
Rank

of
of
of
of
of

1:
2:
3:
4:
5:

Physiological needs
Safety and security needs
Social needs
Psychological needs
Self-fulfillment needs
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Design Point of View of Customer


Requirements

Performance deals with what the design should do


when it is completed and in operation.
The time dimension includes all time aspects of the
design.
Cost pertains to all monetary aspects of the design.
Quality is a complex characteristic with many
aspects and definitions.

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Garvins Eight Dimensions of Quality

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Classifying Customer Requirements


Kano recognized that there are four levels of
cutomer requirements:
Expecters: These are the basic attributes that one would
expect to see in the product, i.e., standard features.
Spokens: These are the specific features that customers
say they want in the product.
Unspokens: These are product attributes the customer
does not generally talk about, but they remain
important to him or her.
Exciters: Often called delighters, these are product
features that make the product unique and distinguish it
from the competition.
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Kano Diagram

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3.4 Gathering Information


on Existing Products
How can gathering
information on existing
products be done?
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Product Dissection
Observing a product during its use is
one of the most natural ways to gather
information about it.
The process of taking the object apart
to see how it works is known as both
product dissection and reverse
engineering.
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Product Dissection (2)


The product dissection process includes four
activities:
1) Discover the operational requirements of the product.
2) Examine how the product performs its functions.
3) Determine the relationship between parts of the product.
4) Determine the manufacturing and assembly processes
used to produce the product.

Engineers do reverse engineering to


discover information that they cannot
access any other way!

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Design 5e. 2013. The McGrawHill Companies

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Product and Technical


Literature
Consumer Product Literature:
There are private nonprofit organization dedicated to
informing consumers about products (e.g. Consumers
Union).

Internet Shopping Sites:


Internet sites exist to compile information for specialty
products.

Technical Literature:
In addition to information from special interest
publications, there are scholarly journals that publish
research quality information.

Patent Literature:
Not all products are patented, but patent literature does
include inventions that have become successful products.
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US Patent 5,540,428

Basketball retrieval
and return device

J. G. Joseph, , Basketball Retrieval and Return Apparatus, Patent


Engineering
5540428, JulyDieter/Schmidt,
30, 1996.
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US Patent 5,681,230

Basketball retrieval
and return device

H. F. Krings, Automatic Basketball Return Apparatus, Patent


Dieter/Schmidt, Engineering
5681230,
Oct 28,
1997. The McGrawDesign
5e. 2013.
Hill Companies

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Physics of the Product or


System
Engineering Models of a problem:

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Model of Free Throw

C. M. Tran and L. M. Silverberg (2008), Optimal release conditions


for the free throw in mens basketball, Journal of Sports Sciences,
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26:11, 1147-1155.
Design 5e. 2013. The McGraw28
Hill Companies

Free Body Diagrams

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3.5 Establishing the


Engineering Characteristics
How does establishing the
engineering characteristics help to
write the product design
specifications?
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Engineering Characteristics
Establishing the engineering characteristics is a
critical step toward writing the product design
specification.
The process of identifying the needs that a product
must fill is a complicated undertaking.
Just knowing what a customer or end user wants
from a product is not sufficient for generating
designs.
Concept generation starts when a good description
of the product is given.
A good description of a product is comprised of
solution-neutral specifications.
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Description of a Product
Design Parameters:
Parameters are a set of physical properties
whose values determine the form and behavior
of a design.

Design Variable:
A design variable is a parameter over which the
design team has a choice.

Constraints:
A design parameter whose value has been fixed
becomes a constraint during the design process.
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Genera and Competitive


Performance Benchmarking

Benchmarking is a process for


measuring a companys operations
against the best practices of
companies both inside and outside of
their industry.
Benchmarking operates most
effectively on a quid pro quo basis.
A company can look for benchmarks in
many different places.
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Sources of Resistance to Benchmark


Fear of being perceived as copiers.
Fear of yielding competitive advantages
if information is traded/shared.
Arrogance: A company may feel that
there is nothing useful to be learned by
looking outside of the organization.
Impatience: Companies that engage in
an improvement program often want to
begin making changes immediately.
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Two Initial Steps of Benchmarking


Select the product, process, or functional area of
the company that is to be benchmarked:
That will influence the selection of key performance
metrics that will be measured and used for
comparison.

Identify the best-in-class companies for each


process to benchmarked:
A best-in-class company is one that performs the
process at the lowest cost with the highest degree of
customer satisfaction, or has the largest market share.
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Competitive-Performance
Benchmarking

Determine features, functions, and any other factors that are


important to:
End user satisfaction
Technical success of the product

Determine functions that are:


Increase the costs of the product
Have the greatest potential for improvement

Determine the features and functions that differentiate the product


from its competitors.
Establish metrics by which the most important functions or
features can be quantified and evaluated.
Evaluate the product and its competing products using
performance testing.
Generate a benchmarking report summarizing all information
learned about the product, data collected, and conclusions about
competitors.
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3.6 Quality Function


Deployment
What is Quality Function
Deployment?

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Quality Function Deployment


Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is a planning and
team problem-solving tool that has been adopted by a
wide variety of companies as the tool of choice for
focusing a design teams attention on satisfying customer
needs throughout the product development process.
The term deployment is QFD refers to the fact that this
method determines the important set of requirements for
each phase of PDP planning and uses them to identify the
set of technical characteristics of each phase that most
contribute to the satisfying the requirements.

QFD process is known as a methodology for


infusing the voice of the customer into every aspect
of the design process.
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House of Quality
House of Quality translates customer requirements into
quantifiable design variables, called engineering characteristics.

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House of Quality Configuration

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Streamlined House of Quality

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Example: Streamlined House of


Quality for Shot-Buddy

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Example: HOQ Rooms 2 and 3 for


Shot-Buddy

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Example: Streamlined Configuration


of HOQ for Shot-Buddy

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Interpreting Results of HOQ


The highest-ranking ECs from the HOQ are either
constraints or design variables whose values can be
used as decision-making criteria for evaluating candidate
designs.
If a high-ranking EC has only a few possible candidate
values then it may be appropriate to treat that EC as a
constraint.
There are certain design parameters that can only take a
few discreet values.
The lowest-ranking ECs of the HOQ are not as critical to
the success of the design. These ECs allow freedom
during the design process because their values can be
set according to priorities of the designer or approving
authority.
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3.7 Product Design


Specification
What is product design
specification?

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Product Design Specification


In the product development process, the results of
the design planning process that governs the
engineering design tasks are compiled in the form of
a set of product design specification (PDS).
(example: Table 3.3)
The PDS is the basic control and reference document
for the design and manufacture of the product.
The PDS is a document that contains all of the facts
related to the outcome of the product development.
Creating the PDS finalizes the process of establishing
the customer needs and wants, prioritizing them, and
beginning to cast them into a technical framework so
that design concepts can be established.
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THANK YOU