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Lesson 4




curriculum according to Howell and

Evans (1995) and Sands, et at (1995) is a
structured set of learning outcomes or
tasks that educators usually call goals and
objectives. Students are expected to learn
the information specified in the curriculum
so that they will have the skills needed to
prepare students to succeed in society.
Curriculum is the what of teaching.

Further, Howell and Evans (1995) says that

knowledge of the curriculum is for successful
assessment, evaluation, decision making and
teaching. Without a curriculum component
there is no need of the teacher-directed
instruction and therefore no lesson. Deciding
which curriculum task should be taught and
which instructional approach to use best,
requires the use of evaluate procedure.
Curriculum here is understood as the
content. Curriculum developers need to bring
to the content selection the criteria of
significance, validity, interest, learn ability
and feasibility.

brings the content to the degree to which it
contributes the basic ideas, concepts, principles
and generalizations and to the development of
particular learning abilities, skills processes and
refers to the degree of authenticity of the
content selected and to the congruence of the
content in the light of the objectives selected.

is the degree to which the content either caters or
fosters particular interests in the students.

is the appropriateness of the content in the light if

the particular students who are to experience the

refers to the question, can the selected content be

taught in the time allowed considering the
resources, staff and particular community?


other aspect of curriculum described

here are the objectives. The objectives
provide cue to the what content should be
included. Curriculum objectives guide the
learning outcomes to be achieved as well
as the activities to accomplish these
objectives. Each objective provides a
condition, a performance and an extent of
performance of course, objectives should
meet the criteria of SMART specific,
measurable, attainable, result-oriented
and time-bound.

Meaningful instruction can be achieved through the

different learning experiences provided.
Does instruction provide learning experience that :
Bring about optimum benefit to the learners?
Approximate real life situations?
Encourage the learners to inquire further?
Heighten learners interest and motivation?
Involve the use of different senses?
Approximate real life situations?
Provide opportunities for broad and deep study?
Provide mastery of total learning?
Thus it is important that the curriculum content and
objectives should match with the instruction from where
learning experiences are provided.


Like instruction, curriculum is also called
related to assessment in fact it is curriculum as
explained above that determines what assessment
should be done and how do it.
What to accomplish is established by the
curriculum How to determine if the curriculum has
been achieved is determined by assessment.
Assessment is the process of collecting information
which describes student achievement based on
curriculum expectations, These levels can be used
to judge the quality of students work.

Level 4-Student has demonstrated all the required

knowledge and skills and achievement has
exceeded the standard set.
Level 3- Student has demonstrated most of the
required knowledge and skills and achievement
exceeded the standard set .
Level 2- Student has demonstrated some of the
required knowledge and skills and achievement
exceeded the standard set.
Level 1-Student has demonstrated few of the
required knowledge and skills and achievement
exceeded the standard set.

To ensure that assessment is aligned with the

curriculum, the teacher needs to ask the following
key questions:
For diagnostic assessment
1.What do I expect my students to learn?
2.What is the best way for my students to demonstrate
their achievement?
3.How will I provide an on-going feedback to help them
improve learning?
4.What are other ways of facilitating learning so that
learners will succeed?

For formative assessment

1.How will I monitor learners progress?
2.What does the feedback tell about the curriculum?
3.Is there a need to modify the objectives?
4.Are the intended contents too high or too low for the
5.Is the curriculum addressing the learners needs?
For summative assessment
1.Are the objectives set in the curriculum accomplished?
2.What is the level of performance in the various tasks?
3.Are there gaps between the set objectives and the
4.Are the outcomes truly the result of the curriculum?
5.Have the learners acquired the intended knowledge,
skills and attitudes planned in the curriculum?



Instruction refers to the various ways of teaching,

teaching styles, approaches, techniques and steps
in delivering the curriculum. It is a complex
That requires teachers to use a variety of action
to accomplish a variety of functions.
As discussed previously, instruction is a means
of delivering the curriculum. It puts into action
the plan set at the beginning, How well
instruction will be done will depend on several
factors. These factors may include the following:

1. Learner- the center and the one who receives instruction.

The learners will be the one to put action on the objectives
and learn the content. All factors in instruction will be
greatly influenced by the learners are the object of
2. Teacher-he/she guides the implementation of the plan.
Often times referred to as instructors because they give
3. Learning environment- This is where learning occurs. The
learning environment provides the situation or the
conditions for teaching and learning to occur. It embraces
all the physical and psychological environment where
teaching and learning happens. It includes the physical
environment like classroom, materials, temperature,
lighting, resources. It also includes human environment
like the teachers, learners, school officials, community
people and other resource persons. The learning
environment includes all the support materials for
teaching and learning.

4.Subject matter- This is the content of instruction.

This includes the ideas, concepts, principles and
theories in the different disciplines that are
taken us a means to accomplish the objectives.
5. Method of teaching and learning- This is the
heart of instruction. How well the teachers
teach and how far the students learn is
determined by the methods, strategies, styles
and approaches to teaching.
6. Measurement- This refers to assessment. As
stated in the beginning, objectives are
measurable, hence at the end of the teachinglearning process, the intended objectives should
be measured in terms of the learning outcomes
Measurement also refers to assessment.

As we can very well see instruction and assessment

are two built in components of instruction itself.
However these two can be taken separately and
their relationships analyzed.
Instruction and assessment should be intertwined
to provide a system that supports and encourages
students progress Assessment will provide the
teacher or curriculum maker the value of their
work it will also tell the general public the quality
or kind of product that resulted from a prerequisite
process. Which is instruction Assessment gives the
quantitative measure of the instruction

The interaction of the three elements shows
how each affects one another. Good plan will be
implanted through good instruction. This will
result to good outcomes. Beginning with a strong
curriculum and professional development
program, the school can use continued school
improvement process to assess needs, set
targets, design strategies and evaluate success of
the curriculum content are of the program.