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Incarcari din vant /wind

loads

conf
normativ
CR1-1-

Vantul este un agent climatic dat de

Wind is a climatic agent given by the

miscarea unor mari mase de aer in

movement of large air masses with

raport cu suprafata pamantului.


Miscarea este datorata incalzirii neuni
forme a atmosferei si scoartei
terestre de catre soare

z
(m)

H= inaltime de gradient

Miscare
laminara
umed(z)
=constant
u
(z) =constant in
timp
Miscare
umed =variaza
turbulenta
logaritmic cu
inaltimea

u(z)
=variaza in
timp u(z
)

respect to Earth level. The nonuniform


solar heating of the atmosphere is

responsible for the air masses

Click to edit the


outline text format
movement

z (m)
umed

Second Outline
Laminar flow
Level
= constant

Third Outline
Level

u(z)=cst.in time

Turbulent flow

Fourth
Outline
u(z)
Level
u(z)= varies in time
Fifth
Outline

umed = logarithmically varies

with height

in zona de interes pentru domeniul

for building design purposes, the wind

cladirilor viteza vantului poate fi ex-

speed may be expressed as the sum

primata ca suma de 2 componente:

of two components:

componenta statica constanta in

the
static component constant in

timp u(H)med= viteza medie a vantului


in intervalul de timp considerat la
inaltimea H deasupra terenului
componenta dinamica dependenta
de timp u*H(t)= viteza de rafala,
introduce variatia in timp a vitezei
vantului ,in raport cu viteza medie
u (H,t)= u(H)med + u* H(t)

Click to edit the


time, u
=mean wind velocity within
outline
text format
Hmed

the considered interval evaluated at the

Second Outline
Level
the dynamic component time dependent

height H above the ground.

Third Outline
variation of wind velocity
with respect to
Level
u*H(t)= gust speed,
introducing the time

the mean velocity

u (H,t) = u(H)med

uH(t)
u* H(t)

uH(t)

u(H)med

u(H)med

Fourth
+ u*
Outline
Level
u* H(t)
Fifth
Outline

H(t)

The value of average speed and the one of the gust


speed at a certain height H, depends on the rugosity
of the surroundings at a height H. In the case of the
zones with reduced rugosity umed has an greater value
than in the case of the zones with increased rugosity
at the same height H.
The amplitude of the variation of the gust speed is
smaller in the zones with reduced rugosity.
The response of a construction to the wind action is,
generally, the sum of two components:

- a quasistatic one of due to the average speed of wind


- a dynamic component given by the gusts with big
frequency

The current buildings are rigid, for this reason the


dynamic response to the wind action is negligible and
can be considered of static type.
The kinetic energy of the air masses in motion change
in to potential energy at the contact with rigid envelope of
the building, and is materialized by a pressure exerted
on the respective surface.
The relationship between the wind speed and the
pressure exerted on a surface normal to its direction is:
qb= 0, 625 nb2.

In structural design of the buildings, the wind actionis


modelled starting from a reference dynamic wind
pressure qb, associated to a territorial macrozonation.
It is established on the basis of an average wind speed

- the intermediation is done with instantaneous

values moderated within a 10 min interval


- the measurements are done in the open field to
a conventional height of 10 meters
-

the annual probability of exceeding in the


undesirable sense for a building is of 2%.

The values of qref, besides the fact that they


are refering to a conventional height of 10 m,
are also refering to plane building surfaces,
disposed perpendicular to the direction of the
wind and situated in open field.

In the case of constructions of usual type, the wind


pressure/sucction on the exterior or interior surface
of an envelope area is depending on height z with
respect to the surface of the ground.
The expression of this functions is, as given in
codes:
we=q p (ze)*c pe*giw [KN/m2] (interior pressures
respect the formula with diff. coeff.)

where:

we= the wind pressure /sucction on an envelope


area at a hight z above the ground level
Ze= the refference height for exterior pressure

When the expression is applied to an exterior surface the


coefficient cp has the notation cpe, when the expression
is applied to an interior surface the coefficient cp has the
notation cpi.
q p = the peak value of the dynamic wind pressure at a
certain height z above ground level is given by the
formula:
qp(z) = cpq(z) * qm(z)= cpq(z) * cr2(z) * q b

where

cr( z) = rugosity factor

cpq(z)= gust factor

qm(z)= mean value of dynamic wind pressure at a


certain height z

z0= rugosity caracteristic of the ground (in


meters with the significance of the rugosity
length)
kr( z0) = coefficient of rugosity.

The values of the two elements are given


in codes depending on the type of the
rugosity of the ground below
The maximum values are met in the case