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Hydro power plants

Hydro power plants


Inlet gate
Air inlet

Surge shaft

Penstock
Tunnel
Sand trap
Trash rack
Self closing valve

Tail water

Main valve
Turbine
Draft tube
Draft tube gate

The principle the water conduits of


a traditional high head power plant

Ulla- Frre

Original figur ved Statkraft Vestlandsverkene

gate hoist

Intake gate
Intake trashrack

Tunnel Inlet

Surge tank

Tunnel Inlet
trashrack

Penstock inlet
Valve

Desilting basin

Headrace tunnel
Anchor block

Anchor block

Shaddle
Power house

Exp. joint

IV

G
SC

IV -inlet valve
R -turbine runner
R
SC -spiral case
G -generator

DT

Typical Power House with Francis Turbine

DT end gate
Tailrace

Arrangement of a small hydropower


plant

Ligga Power Plant, Norrbotten, Sweden

H = 39 m
Q = 513 m3/s
P = 182 MW
Drunner=7,5 m

Borcha Power Plant, Turkey

H = 87,5 m
P = 150 MW
Drunner=5,5 m

Water intake

Dam
Coarse trash rack
Intake gate
Sediment settling basement

Dams
Rockfill dams
Pilar og platedammer
Hvelvdammer

Rock-fill dams

1.
2.
3.
4.

Core
Filter zone
Transition zone
Supporting shell

Moraine, crushed soft rock, concrete, asphalt


Sandy gravel
Fine blasted rock
Blasted rock

Slab concrete dam

Arc dam

Gates in Hydro Power Plants

Types of Gates
Radial Gates
Wheel Gates
Slide Gates
Flap Gates
Rubber Gates

Radial Gates at lvkarleby, Sweden

Radial Gate
The forces acting
on the arc will be
transferred to the
bearing

Slide Gate

Jhimruk Power Plant, Nepal

Flap Gate

Rubber gate
Flow disturbance

Reinforced rubber
Open position

Reinforced rubber
Closed position

Bracket

Air inlet

Circular gate
End cover
Ribs

Hinge

Manhole

Pipe

Ladder

Bolt
Fastening element
Seal

Frame

Circular gate

Jhimruk Power Plant, Nepal

Trash Racks

Panauti Power Plant, Nepal

Theun Hinboun Power Plant


Laos

Gravfoss
Power Plant
Norway
Trash Rack size:
Width: 12 meter
Height: 13 meter
Stainless Steel

CompRack
Trash Rack delivered
by VA-Tech

Cleaning the trash rack

Pipes
Materials
Calculation of the change of length due to the
change of the temperature
Calculation of the head loss
Calculation of maximum pressure
Static pressure
Water hammer

Calculation of the pipe thickness


Calculation of the economical correct diameter
Calculation of the forces acting on the anchors

Materials
Steel
Polyethylene, PE
Glass-fibre reinforced Unsaturated
Polyesterplastic , GUP
Wood
Concrete

Materials
Material

Max.
Diameter

Max.
Pressure

Max.
Stresses

[m]

[m]

[MPa]

Steel, St.37

150

Steel, St.42

190

Steel, St.52

206

PE

~ 1,0

160

2,4

320

Max. p = 160 m.

Max. D: 1,4 m.

Wood

~5

80

Concrete

~5

~ 400

GUP

Steel pipes in penstock


Nore Power Plant, Norway

GUP-Pipe
Raubergfossen Power Plant, Norway

Wood Pipes

Breivikbotn Power Plant, Norway

vre Porsa Power Plant, Norway

Calculation of the change of length


due to the change of the temperature

L T L
Where:
L =
L =
=
T =

Change of length
[m]
Length
[m]
Coefficient of thermal expansion [m/oC m]
Change of temperature
[oC]

Calculation of the head loss


2
L c
hf f
D 2g
Where:
hf =
f =
L =
D =
c
=
g =

Head loss
Friction factor
Length of pipe
Diameter of the pipe
Water velocity
Gravity

[m]
[-]
[m]
[m]
[m/s]
[m/s2]

Example
Calculation of the head loss
Power Plant data:
H
= 100 m
Head
Q
= 10 m3/s Flow Rate
L
= 1000 m Length of pipe
D
= 2,0 m
Diameter of the pipe
The pipe material is steel

cD
Re

Where:
c
= 3,2 m/s
Water velocity

= 1,30810-6 m2/s Kinetic viscosity


Re = 4,9 106
Reynolds number

L c
hf f
D 2g

Where:
Re = 4,9 106
Reynolds number

= 0,045 mm Roughness
D
= 2,0 m
Diameter of the pipe
/D = 2,25 10-5 Relative roughness
f =
0,013
Friction factor
The pipe material is steel

0,013

Example
Calculation of the head loss
Power Plant data:
H
= 100 m
Head
Q
= 10 m3/s Flow Rate
L
= 1000 m Length of pipe
D
= 2,0 m
Diameter of the pipe
The pipe material is steel

L c
1000 3,2
hf f
0,013

3,4 m
D 2g
2 2 9,82
Where:
f
= 0,013
c
= 3,2 m/s
g
= 9,82 m/s2

Friction factor
Water velocity
Gravity

Calculation of maximum pressure

Hgr

Static head, Hgr (Gross Head)


Water hammer, hwh
Deflection between pipe supports
Friction in the axial direction

Maximum pressure rise due to the


Water Hammer
h wh
hwh
a
cmax
g

=
=
=
=

a c max

2L
IF TC
a

Pressure rise due to water hammer


Speed of sound in the penstock
maximum velocity
gravity

Jowkowsky

[mWC]
[m/s]
[m/s]
[m/s2]

Example
a
= 1000 [m/s]
cmax = 10 [m/s]
g
= 9,81 [m/s2]
2L
TC
a

Jowkowsky

h wh

c=10
m

/s

a c max

1020 m
g

Maximum pressure rise due to the


Water Hammer
h wh

2L
a c max
c max 2 L
a

g
TC
g TC

Where:
hwh
a
cmax
g
L
TC

=
=
=
=
=
=

Pressure rise due to water hammer


Speed of sound in the penstock
maximum velocity
gravity
Length
Time to close the main valve or guide vanes

C
L

2L
IF TC
a
[mWC]
[m/s]
[m/s]
[m/s2]
[m]
[s]

Example
L
TC
cmax
g

=
=
=
=

300
10
10
9,81

[m]
[s]
[m/s]
[m/s2]

h wh

C=10
m /s
L

c max 2 L

61 m
g TC

Calculation of the pipe thickness


L Di p Cs 2 t L t

Based on:
Material properties
Pressure from:

p ri Cs
t
t

Water hammer
Static head

p g H gr h wh
Where:

= Length of the pipe

Di
p
t
t
Cs

Hgr
hwh

= Inner diameter of the pipe


= Pressure inside the pipe
= Stresses in the pipe material
= Thickness of the pipe
= Coefficient of safety
= Density of the water
= Gross Head
= Pressure rise due to water hammer

[m]
[m]
[Pa]
[Pa]
[m]
[-]
[kg/m3]
[m]
[m]

ri

Example
Calculation of the pipe thickness

L Di p Cs 2 t L t

p ri Cs
t
0,009 m
t
p g H gr h wh 1,57 MPa

Based on:
Material properties
Pressure from:
Water hammer
Static head

Where:

= 0,001 m

Length of the pipe

Di
t

Cs
Hgr
hwh

=
=
=
=
=
=

Inner diameter of the pipe


Stresses in the pipe material
Density of the water
t
Coefficient of safety
Gross Head
Pressure rise due to water hammer

2,0 m
206 MPa
1000 kg/m3
1,2
100 m
61 m

ri

Calculation of the economical


correct diameter of the pipe

Cost [$]

dK tot d K f K t

0
dD
dD
al
t
o
T

s, K to
t
s
co

o st s, K t
Installation c

Costs for h

ydraulic lo
ss

Diameter [m]

es, K

Example
Calculation of the economical correct diameter of the pipe
Hydraulic Losses
Power Plant data:
H
= 100 m
Q
= 10 m3/s
plant = 85 %
L
= 1000 m

Head
Flow Rate
Plant efficiency
Length of pipe
2

PLoss

L
Q
C2
g Q hf g Q f

5
2
4
2r 2g r
r

Where:
PLoss

g
Q
hf
f
L
r
C

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Loss of power due to the head loss


Density of the water
gravity
Flow rate
Head loss
Friction factor
Length of pipe
Radius of the pipe
Calculation coefficient

[W]
[kg/m3]
[m/s2]
[m3/s]
[m]
[-]
[m]
[m]

Example
Calculation of the economical correct diameter of the pipe
Cost of the Hydraulic Losses per year

K f PLoss T kWh price


Where:
Kf
=
PLoss
=
T
=
kWhprice =
r
=
C2
=

C2
5 T kWh price
r

Cost for the hydraulic losses


Loss of power due to the head loss
Energy production time
Energy price
Radius of the pipe
Calculation coefficient

[]
[W]
[h/year]
[/kWh]
[m]

Example
Calculation of the economical correct diameter of the pipe
Present value of the Hydraulic Losses per year

Where:
Kf
=
T
=
kWhprice =
r
=
C2
=

C2
K f 5 T kWh price
r
Cost for the hydraulic losses
Energy production time
Energy price
Radius of the pipe
Calculation coefficient

[]
[h/year]
[/kWh]
[m]

Present value for 20 year of operation:

K f pv
Where:
Kf pv
n

Kf

i
i 1 1 I

= Present value of the hydraulic losses


= Lifetime, (Number of year )

[]
[-]

Example
Calculation of the economical correct diameter of the pipe
Cost for the Pipe Material

pr
m m V m 2 r t L m 2 r
L C1 r 2

K t M m M C1 r
Where:
m =
m =
V =
r =
L =
p =

=
C1 =
Kt =
M =

Mass of the pipe


Density of the material
Volume of material
Radius of pipe
Length of pipe
Pressure in the pipe
Maximum stress
Calculation coefficient
Installation costs
Cost for the material

[kg]
[kg/m3]
[m3]
[m]
[m]
[MPa]
[MPa]
[]
[/kg]

NB:
This is a simplification
because no other
component then the pipe
is calculated

Example
Calculation of the economical correct diameter of the pipe

Installation Costs:
Pipes
Maintenance
Interests
Etc.

Example
Calculation of the economical correct diameter of the pipe
K f pv

C2
T kWh price
n
5
r
i

I
i 1

K t M C1 r

d K t K f
5 n C 2 T kWh price
2M Cr 6
0
i
dr
r i 1
1 I

Where:
Kf
Kt
T
kWhprice
r
C1
C2
M
n

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Cost for the hydraulic losses


Installation costs
Energy production time
Energy price
Radius of the pipe
Calculation coefficient
Calculation coefficient
Cost for the material
Lifetime, (Number of year )

[]
[]
[h/year]
[/kWh]
[m]

[/kg]
[-]

Example
Calculation of the economical correct diameter of the pipe

d K t K f
5 n C 2 T kWh price
2M Cr 6
0
i
dr
r i 1
1 I

5 n C 2 T kWh price
r 7
i
2 i 1 M C 1 I

Calculation of the forces acting on


the anchors

Calculation of the forces acting on


the anchors
F5

F1

F
F2 F3 F4

F1 = Force due to the water pressure


[N]
F2 = Force due to the water pressure
[N]
F3 = Friction force due to the pillars upstream the anchor
F4 = Friction force due to the expansion joint upstream the anchor
F5 = Friction force due to the expansion joint downstream the anchor

[N]
[N]
[N]

Calculation of the forces acting on


the anchors
F

R
G

Valves

Principle drawings of valves


Open position
Closed position

Spherical valve

Hollow-jet valve

Gate valve

Butterfly valve

Spherical valve

Bypass system

Butterfly valve

Butterfly
valve

Butterfly valve
disk types

Hollow-jet Valve

Pelton turbines
Large heads (from
100 meter to 1800
meter)
Relatively small flow
rate
Maximum of 6
nozzles
Good efficiency over
a vide range

Jostedal, Norway
*Q = 28,5 m3/s
*H = 1130 m
*P = 288 MW

Kvrner

Francis turbines
Heads between 15
and 700 meter
Medium Flow Rates
Good efficiency
=0.96 for modern
machines

SVARTISEN

P = 350 MW
H = 543 m
Q* = 71,5 m3/S
D0 = 4,86 m
D1 = 4,31m
D2 = 2,35 m
B0 = 0,28 m
n = 333 rpm

Kaplan turbines
Low head (from 70
meter and down to 5
meter)
Large flow rates
The runner vanes can
be governed
Good efficiency over
a vide range