máquinas hidráulicas

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máquinas hidráulicas

© All Rights Reserved

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Inlet gate

Air inlet

Surge shaft

Penstock

Tunnel

Sand trap

Trash rack

Self closing valve

Tail water

Main valve

Turbine

Draft tube

Draft tube gate

a traditional high head power plant

Ulla- Frre

gate hoist

Intake gate

Intake trashrack

Tunnel Inlet

Surge tank

Tunnel Inlet

trashrack

Penstock inlet

Valve

Desilting basin

Headrace tunnel

Anchor block

Anchor block

Shaddle

Power house

Exp. joint

IV

G

SC

IV -inlet valve

R -turbine runner

R

SC -spiral case

G -generator

DT

DT end gate

Tailrace

plant

H = 39 m

Q = 513 m3/s

P = 182 MW

Drunner=7,5 m

H = 87,5 m

P = 150 MW

Drunner=5,5 m

Water intake

Dam

Coarse trash rack

Intake gate

Sediment settling basement

Dams

Rockfill dams

Pilar og platedammer

Hvelvdammer

Rock-fill dams

1.

2.

3.

4.

Core

Filter zone

Transition zone

Supporting shell

Sandy gravel

Fine blasted rock

Blasted rock

Arc dam

Types of Gates

Radial Gates

Wheel Gates

Slide Gates

Flap Gates

Rubber Gates

Radial Gate

The forces acting

on the arc will be

transferred to the

bearing

Slide Gate

Flap Gate

Rubber gate

Flow disturbance

Reinforced rubber

Open position

Reinforced rubber

Closed position

Bracket

Air inlet

Circular gate

End cover

Ribs

Hinge

Manhole

Pipe

Ladder

Bolt

Fastening element

Seal

Frame

Circular gate

Trash Racks

Laos

Gravfoss

Power Plant

Norway

Trash Rack size:

Width: 12 meter

Height: 13 meter

Stainless Steel

CompRack

Trash Rack delivered

by VA-Tech

Pipes

Materials

Calculation of the change of length due to the

change of the temperature

Calculation of the head loss

Calculation of maximum pressure

Static pressure

Water hammer

Calculation of the economical correct diameter

Calculation of the forces acting on the anchors

Materials

Steel

Polyethylene, PE

Glass-fibre reinforced Unsaturated

Polyesterplastic , GUP

Wood

Concrete

Materials

Material

Max.

Diameter

Max.

Pressure

Max.

Stresses

[m]

[m]

[MPa]

Steel, St.37

150

Steel, St.42

190

Steel, St.52

206

PE

~ 1,0

160

2,4

320

Max. p = 160 m.

Max. D: 1,4 m.

Wood

~5

80

Concrete

~5

~ 400

GUP

Nore Power Plant, Norway

GUP-Pipe

Raubergfossen Power Plant, Norway

Wood Pipes

due to the change of the temperature

L T L

Where:

L =

L =

=

T =

Change of length

[m]

Length

[m]

Coefficient of thermal expansion [m/oC m]

Change of temperature

[oC]

2

L c

hf f

D 2g

Where:

hf =

f =

L =

D =

c

=

g =

Head loss

Friction factor

Length of pipe

Diameter of the pipe

Water velocity

Gravity

[m]

[-]

[m]

[m]

[m/s]

[m/s2]

Example

Calculation of the head loss

Power Plant data:

H

= 100 m

Head

Q

= 10 m3/s Flow Rate

L

= 1000 m Length of pipe

D

= 2,0 m

Diameter of the pipe

The pipe material is steel

cD

Re

Where:

c

= 3,2 m/s

Water velocity

Re = 4,9 106

Reynolds number

L c

hf f

D 2g

Where:

Re = 4,9 106

Reynolds number

= 0,045 mm Roughness

D

= 2,0 m

Diameter of the pipe

/D = 2,25 10-5 Relative roughness

f =

0,013

Friction factor

The pipe material is steel

0,013

Example

Calculation of the head loss

Power Plant data:

H

= 100 m

Head

Q

= 10 m3/s Flow Rate

L

= 1000 m Length of pipe

D

= 2,0 m

Diameter of the pipe

The pipe material is steel

L c

1000 3,2

hf f

0,013

3,4 m

D 2g

2 2 9,82

Where:

f

= 0,013

c

= 3,2 m/s

g

= 9,82 m/s2

Friction factor

Water velocity

Gravity

Hgr

Water hammer, hwh

Deflection between pipe supports

Friction in the axial direction

Water Hammer

h wh

hwh

a

cmax

g

=

=

=

=

a c max

2L

IF TC

a

Speed of sound in the penstock

maximum velocity

gravity

Jowkowsky

[mWC]

[m/s]

[m/s]

[m/s2]

Example

a

= 1000 [m/s]

cmax = 10 [m/s]

g

= 9,81 [m/s2]

2L

TC

a

Jowkowsky

h wh

c=10

m

/s

a c max

1020 m

g

Water Hammer

h wh

2L

a c max

c max 2 L

a

g

TC

g TC

Where:

hwh

a

cmax

g

L

TC

=

=

=

=

=

=

Speed of sound in the penstock

maximum velocity

gravity

Length

Time to close the main valve or guide vanes

C

L

2L

IF TC

a

[mWC]

[m/s]

[m/s]

[m/s2]

[m]

[s]

Example

L

TC

cmax

g

=

=

=

=

300

10

10

9,81

[m]

[s]

[m/s]

[m/s2]

h wh

C=10

m /s

L

c max 2 L

61 m

g TC

L Di p Cs 2 t L t

Based on:

Material properties

Pressure from:

p ri Cs

t

t

Water hammer

Static head

p g H gr h wh

Where:

Di

p

t

t

Cs

Hgr

hwh

= Pressure inside the pipe

= Stresses in the pipe material

= Thickness of the pipe

= Coefficient of safety

= Density of the water

= Gross Head

= Pressure rise due to water hammer

[m]

[m]

[Pa]

[Pa]

[m]

[-]

[kg/m3]

[m]

[m]

ri

Example

Calculation of the pipe thickness

L Di p Cs 2 t L t

p ri Cs

t

0,009 m

t

p g H gr h wh 1,57 MPa

Based on:

Material properties

Pressure from:

Water hammer

Static head

Where:

= 0,001 m

Di

t

Cs

Hgr

hwh

=

=

=

=

=

=

Stresses in the pipe material

Density of the water

t

Coefficient of safety

Gross Head

Pressure rise due to water hammer

2,0 m

206 MPa

1000 kg/m3

1,2

100 m

61 m

ri

correct diameter of the pipe

Cost [$]

dK tot d K f K t

0

dD

dD

al

t

o

T

s, K to

t

s

co

o st s, K t

Installation c

Costs for h

ydraulic lo

ss

Diameter [m]

es, K

Example

Calculation of the economical correct diameter of the pipe

Hydraulic Losses

Power Plant data:

H

= 100 m

Q

= 10 m3/s

plant = 85 %

L

= 1000 m

Head

Flow Rate

Plant efficiency

Length of pipe

2

PLoss

L

Q

C2

g Q hf g Q f

5

2

4

2r 2g r

r

Where:

PLoss

g

Q

hf

f

L

r

C

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

Density of the water

gravity

Flow rate

Head loss

Friction factor

Length of pipe

Radius of the pipe

Calculation coefficient

[W]

[kg/m3]

[m/s2]

[m3/s]

[m]

[-]

[m]

[m]

Example

Calculation of the economical correct diameter of the pipe

Cost of the Hydraulic Losses per year

Where:

Kf

=

PLoss

=

T

=

kWhprice =

r

=

C2

=

C2

5 T kWh price

r

Loss of power due to the head loss

Energy production time

Energy price

Radius of the pipe

Calculation coefficient

[]

[W]

[h/year]

[/kWh]

[m]

Example

Calculation of the economical correct diameter of the pipe

Present value of the Hydraulic Losses per year

Where:

Kf

=

T

=

kWhprice =

r

=

C2

=

C2

K f 5 T kWh price

r

Cost for the hydraulic losses

Energy production time

Energy price

Radius of the pipe

Calculation coefficient

[]

[h/year]

[/kWh]

[m]

K f pv

Where:

Kf pv

n

Kf

i

i 1 1 I

= Lifetime, (Number of year )

[]

[-]

Example

Calculation of the economical correct diameter of the pipe

Cost for the Pipe Material

pr

m m V m 2 r t L m 2 r

L C1 r 2

K t M m M C1 r

Where:

m =

m =

V =

r =

L =

p =

=

C1 =

Kt =

M =

Density of the material

Volume of material

Radius of pipe

Length of pipe

Pressure in the pipe

Maximum stress

Calculation coefficient

Installation costs

Cost for the material

[kg]

[kg/m3]

[m3]

[m]

[m]

[MPa]

[MPa]

[]

[/kg]

NB:

This is a simplification

because no other

component then the pipe

is calculated

Example

Calculation of the economical correct diameter of the pipe

Installation Costs:

Pipes

Maintenance

Interests

Etc.

Example

Calculation of the economical correct diameter of the pipe

K f pv

C2

T kWh price

n

5

r

i

I

i 1

K t M C1 r

d K t K f

5 n C 2 T kWh price

2M Cr 6

0

i

dr

r i 1

1 I

Where:

Kf

Kt

T

kWhprice

r

C1

C2

M

n

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

Installation costs

Energy production time

Energy price

Radius of the pipe

Calculation coefficient

Calculation coefficient

Cost for the material

Lifetime, (Number of year )

[]

[]

[h/year]

[/kWh]

[m]

[/kg]

[-]

Example

Calculation of the economical correct diameter of the pipe

d K t K f

5 n C 2 T kWh price

2M Cr 6

0

i

dr

r i 1

1 I

5 n C 2 T kWh price

r 7

i

2 i 1 M C 1 I

the anchors

the anchors

F5

F1

F

F2 F3 F4

[N]

F2 = Force due to the water pressure

[N]

F3 = Friction force due to the pillars upstream the anchor

F4 = Friction force due to the expansion joint upstream the anchor

F5 = Friction force due to the expansion joint downstream the anchor

[N]

[N]

[N]

the anchors

F

R

G

Valves

Open position

Closed position

Spherical valve

Hollow-jet valve

Gate valve

Butterfly valve

Spherical valve

Bypass system

Butterfly valve

Butterfly

valve

Butterfly valve

disk types

Hollow-jet Valve

Pelton turbines

Large heads (from

100 meter to 1800

meter)

Relatively small flow

rate

Maximum of 6

nozzles

Good efficiency over

a vide range

Jostedal, Norway

*Q = 28,5 m3/s

*H = 1130 m

*P = 288 MW

Kvrner

Francis turbines

Heads between 15

and 700 meter

Medium Flow Rates

Good efficiency

=0.96 for modern

machines

SVARTISEN

P = 350 MW

H = 543 m

Q* = 71,5 m3/S

D0 = 4,86 m

D1 = 4,31m

D2 = 2,35 m

B0 = 0,28 m

n = 333 rpm

Kaplan turbines

Low head (from 70

meter and down to 5

meter)

Large flow rates

The runner vanes can

be governed

Good efficiency over

a vide range

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