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# Failure Mode and Effects

Analysis (FMEA)

## FMEA is a design tool for assessing risk associated with

the different ways (modes) in which a part or system
can fail, identifies the effects of those failures, and
provides a structure for revising the design to mitigate
risk where necessary.
Inductive process, asks question If this failure
occurred, then what could happen?
Provides a method for quantitative analysis of
risk
Useful for comparing design concepts and
refining designs
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Ohio University - Dr. Cyders
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Process Steps:
1: Identify modes of failure (e.g.: car wont stop)
2: Identify consequences & related systems for
each mode
3: Rate the Severity (S) of each effect
4: Identify potential root causes for each failure
mode
5: Rate the Probability of Occurrence (O) of each
root cause
6: Identify process controls and indicators (e.g.:
brake squeal)
7: Rate Detectability (D) of each mode/root cause
8: Calculate riskOhio
priority
(S*O*D) and criticality 2
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University - Dr. Cyders

Example:
Possible Failure Modes:
Light doesnt turn on
Light doesnt turn off

Switch
Battery

## Possible Root Causes:

Possible Consequences:
Light doesnt turn on
Light doesnt turn on
Driver cant see
Broken wire (3)
obstacles
Car inoperable at
Switch corroded (2)
night (8)
Switch broken (3)
Light doesnt turn of
9/28/2013
Ohio University - Dr. Cyders
Battery dies

ht

Example:
Possible Failure Modes:
Light doesnt turn on
Light doesnt turn off

Switch
Battery

ht

## Possible Root Causes:

Possible Consequences:
Light doesnt turn of
Light doesnt turn on
Short circuit in switch
Driver cant see
(2)
obstacles
Operator error (left on)
Car inoperable at
(8)
night (8)
Light doesnt turn of
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Ohio University - Dr. Cyders
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Battery dies

Example:
Controls/indicators:
Light doesnt turn on
User notices lights on in
dark
Light doesnt turn of
User notices lights on in
dark

Switch
Battery

ht

## Light doesnt turn of (6)

User notices lights on
Detectability:
Light doesnt turn on (6)
in dark
User notices lights on in
User doesnt notice
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Ohio University - Dr. Cyders
dark
lights not on during 5

Example:
ailure Mode: Light doesnt turn on

9/28/2013

Possible
Effect

Root
Cause

Car
inoperable
at night

Battery

1
0

Broken
wire

out

RPN

Crit.

480

80

144

24

10

480

80

Switch
corroded

96

16

Switch
broken

144

24
6

## Ohio University - Dr. Cyders

Example:
ailure Mode: Light doesnt turn on

Redesign: Use
add visual lightson display in
console.

9/28/2013

Possible
Effect

Root
Cause

Car
inoperable
at night

Battery

1
0

Broken
wire

out

RPN

Crit.

160

80

60

30

10

120

60

Switch
corroded

40

20

Switch
broken

60

30
7

## Ohio University - Dr. Cyders

Example:
ailure Mode: Light doesnt turn of
Possible
Effect

Root
Cause

Car wont
start

Short
circuit in
switch

1
0

Operator
error

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## Ohio University - Dr. Cyders

RPN

Crit.

140

20

560

80

Example:
ailure Mode: Light doesnt turn of

audible indicator
when drivers
door is opened
while lights are
lights-on display
in console.
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Possible
Effect

Root
Cause

RPN

Car wont
start

Short
circuit in
switch

1
0

40

20

160

80

Operator
error

Crit.