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STREAM

SANITATION
What is stream ?
Types of Stream
Sources
Effects
Prevention

STREAM

a small, narrow
river.

Astreamis a
body of water
with acurrent,
confined within a
bedand
stream banks.

Types of Streams

BROOK

- a stream smaller than a creek. It is usually small and


easily forded. A brook is characterised by its shallowness
and its ben being composed of primarily rock

CREEK
- a medium-sized natural stream

RIVER
- a large natural stream

Sources of STREAM Pollution

Urban Runof
Fertilizers, pesticides, and
herbicides don't all come from
farms, though. Most of them
these days actually come from
peoples' lawns and gardens.

Every year, approximately


75,000 litres of detergents and
12,000 kilograms of dirt and
other pollutants flow into
North Shore Citys streams,
lakes and beaches from
people washing their cars on
the road.

Sewage
Urban pollutants also enter rivers
through water-treatment plants.
One of the results we are
beginning to see is that male fish
are becoming feminized and
incapable of reproducing. Sex
ratios are changing.
In one week, a typical cruise ship
generates: (a) 795,900 litres of
sewage (b) 3.8 million litres of
'grey water' from showers, sinks,
dishwashers and washing
machines (c) 149,230 litres of oily
bilge water (d) More than 8,128
kgs of solid waste and (e) Toxic
wastes from on board operations
like dry cleaners and photoprocessing bottles.

Power Plant
-Nuclear, natural gas, and coal
power plants inject heated water into
rivers, raising temperatures above
normal. Thisheat pollutioncan
cause a devastating change in river
ecology.
In the USA alone, an estimated 200
million gallons of used motor oil are
improperly disposed off by dumpping
on the ground, tossed in the trash
(ending up in landfills) and poured
down storey sewers and drains.

Solid waste

Poor waste disposal activities

Mining
-During the early years of
gold mining, mercury was used
to separate gold from ore. This
mercury remains in streambeds,
continuing to poison life long
after the practice became
illegal. Today, the main pollutant
from gold mining is sulfuric acid.
Acidification not only kills
streams but also puts toxic
metals found in the soils--such
as aluminum, copper, and
cadmium--into solution, enabling
them to enter streams. Nearly
all mining results in large
quantities of acids leaching into
streams as well as runoff of
heavy metals like lead,
cadmium, and arsenic

Agriculture
Modern agriculture depends on chemical
fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation to
produce high-quality crops for animal and
human consumption. To maximize the crop
yield, nitrogen-based fertilizers are spread on
the land. In addition, phosphorus and other
essential minerals also may be applied where
they are lacking or have been depleted in the
soil.

Confined disposal facilities, such as


this one in Lake Erie, are areas
wheredredge spoilis disposed.

Airborne.
Rain and snow are considered by some
individuals to be relatively "pure," yet gases
and particles introduced into the atmosphere
by human activities and natural phenomena,
such as volcanoes, can contaminate
precipitation that falls back to Earth

EFFECTS OF STREAM POLLUTION


Death of aquatic (water) animals
Disruption of food-chains
Destruction of ecosystems
Eutrophication
-This is when a water body has a lot of
pollutants containing nutrients thrown into
it in a way that increases algae and plant
growth in the water

PREVENTING STREAM POLLUTION


Individuals
Know where all your drains and sewage lead to and make an effort not to
throw waste water into drains
Ensure that you comply with the waste disposal arrangements made by your
council.
Reduce waste creation
Be mindful of where to dispose off hazardous chemicals and medicines.
Policy
Government policies and laws can make a world of difference. Here is what
can be done:
Governments can invest in research, and assist with the provision of
logistics for industries, farms and businesses to dispose off waste.
Planning with these industries and farms creates an awareness of the
consequences of their actions and establishes a commitment to
reducing the negative impact of nutrient pollution.

Education on the dangers of water pollution is extremely important, as it


helps people to apply the right attitudes when dealing with the
environment. Education activities that get people informed and
empowered to help protect water should be encouraged and invested in.
Laws must be enforced, with very hefty fines and actions for industries
that do not comply with water pollution prevention laws. If industries
know that they are being monitored and checked regularly, they will
usually ensure best practices of waste and chemical dumping at all cost.