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Pra-treatment

(Raw Material
Preparation)

Yosfi Rahmi S.Gz. MSc. Jurusan Gizi Fakultas
Kedokteran
Unibraw Malang 2011

Sorting. grading or peeling High quality food Further processing .Background Food after harvesting (variation and contaminants) Cleaning.

CLEANING Definition: Process where contaminating materials are removed from the food and separated to leave the surface of the food in a suitable condition for further processing Peeling (fruits and vegie). skinning meat or descaling fish  considered as cleaning process .

herbicides Microbial Soft rots. twigs. filings Soil.CLEANING Contaminants on raw foods Type of contaminant Metals Examples Ferrous and non-ferrous metals. engine oil. grease. pesticides. pods. yeast . excreta. fungal growth. weed seeds. stones Mineral Leaves. bone. Plant and skins Animal Hair. Chemical insects. blood. bolts. larvae Microbial cells Fertiliser.

CLEANING Should take place at the earliest opportunity in a food process to: Prevent damage to subsequent processing equipment by stones. bone or metals Prevent time and money from being spent on processing contaminants Reducing food wastage Improve the quality of final product Protecting the consumer .

Wet Cleaning 2. more than one type of cleaning procedure is required to remove variety of contaminants on food .Cleaning Procedure 1. Dry Cleaning The selection of cleaning procedure is determined by: The nature of the product to be cleaned The type of contaminant to be removed In general.

drum or rod washers and flotation tanks . and chlorinated water is used whenever possible to reduce costs The equipment include spray washers. filtered. brush washers.Wet Cleaning More effective than dry methods for removing soil from root crops or dust and pesticide residues from soft fruits/vegie Dustless and causes less damage to foods than dry methods Recirculated.

Wet Cleaning .

the surface are dry  preservation But. grains and nuts After cleaning. produce dust .Dry Cleaning Used for smaller product Used for product have greater mechanical strength and possess a lower moisture content Ex.

Dry Cleaning Main groups of equipments:  Air classifiers  Magnetic separators and  Separators based on screening of foods .

Dry Cleaning .

SORTING Definition: The separation of foods into categories on the basis of a measurable physical property Size Shape Weight Colour Purpose: to ensure a uniform product for subsequent processing .

GRADING Definition: The assessment of a number of attributes to obtain an indication of overall quality of a food carried out by trained operators in some cases. the grade of food is determined from laboratory analyses results .

Caustic peeling 5.PEELING Definition: Process to remove unwanted or inedible material and to improve the appearance of the final product 5 main methods of peeling: 1. Knife peeling 3. Abrasion peeling 4. Flash steam peeling 2. Flame peeling .

SIZE REDUCTION Because of grinding. compression or impact forces Benefit of Size reduction in food processing: Increase rate of drying. heating or cooling and improves the efficiency and rate of extraction of soluble component Important for the correct functional or processing properties of some products More complete mixing of ingredients .

slicing and dicing  Milling to powders or pastes (comminution) Fluid food:  Emulsification and homogenisation . cutting.SIZE REDUCTION Classification of the Methods: Solid food  Chopping.

Pengolahan Dasar Bakso Nugget Dendeng Kerupuk .