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Housekeeping

 Please remember, this is more of a
discussion session than instruction one
 No question is a bad question
 Your questions are always welcome
 No smoking in the classroom
 Please turn your ring tone of the cell phone
down while discussion is in progress

Objectives of the course

 Understand Basics of NGN
 Outline the NGN architecture and every
layer‟s functions
 Appreciate NGN Migration Strategy
 To Understand Success Stories of NGN

ITU-T Definition of NGN

Next Generation Network (NGN): a packet-based
network able to provide telecommunication services
and able to make use of multiple broadband, QoS-
enabled transport technologies and in which service-
related functions are independent from underlying
transport-related technologies. It offers unfettered
access by users to different service providers. It
supports generalized mobility which will allow
consistent and ubiquitous provision of services to
users.

• Interworking with legacy networks via open . ITU-T Definition of NGN (Contd. and application/ service • Decoupling of service provision from transport. call/session.)  And this recommendation further specifies key features of NGN as following: • Packet-based transfer • Separation of control functions among bearer capabilities. and provision of open interfaces • Support for a wide range of services. applications and mechanisms based on service building blocks (including real time/ streaming/ non-real time services and multi-media) • Broadband capabilities with end-to-end QoS (Quality of Service).

. for example concerning emergency communications.)  Generalized mobility  Unfettered access by users to different service providers a variety of identification schemes  Unified service characteristics for the same service as perceived by the user  Converged services between Fixed/Mobile  Independence of service-related functions from underlying transport technologies  Support of multiple last mile technologies  Compliant with all Regulatory requirements. privacy. and etc. security. ITU-T Definition of NGN (Contd.

It is probably easiest to say what ―NGN‖ is not - ―NGN‖ is not a single network technology. but rather a means of providing services across a range of technologies. What are “Next Generation Networks”? The meaning of the term ―Next Generation Networks‖ (or the more frequent abbreviation ―NGN‖) is not clear ―Next generation‖ is very general. almost marketing talk Next generation networks could refer to the Internet (Internet 2 or IPV6). mobile and ―nomadic‖ users. . telecoms. ―NGN‖ covers multiple networks and layers –serving fixed. or …… This simple question is perhaps the hardest to answer.

Background of NGN standardization Number of fixed (wired) telephone users had been saturated and is decreasing Number of mobile (cellular) telephone users is also near saturated The number of Broadband users is rapidly increasing Network operators are looking for new sources of revenue NGN (Next Generation Networks) is expected to provide a solution for this need .

Background of NGN standardization  Standards are set of rule accepted by everybody in the industry  Various SDOs started developing its own standards  Regional SDOs were having its standards matured  As the technology started to become matured need for interoperability among various regions emerged  ITU formed Focus Group for NGN (FG-NGN) in 2004 with a view to addressing the urgent need for an initial suite of global standards for NGN  ITU took initiatives to bring all stakeholders under one umbrella through its Study Group-13  Partners of ITU Focus Group for NGN xDSL Forum. ATIS. Metro Ethernet Forum. OIF. . ETSI TISPAN. MFA. ITU-D Study Group 2 etc.

functional blocks and defined interfaces  Maximizing fixed and mobile convergence  Provisioning for emerging services . Defining standard based architecture  Based on well defined subsystem.

including cultural and linguistic diversity. So-called Objectives of the NGN  To promote fair competition.  To define a framework for architecture and capabilities to be able to meet various regulatory requirements. While—  Ensuring universal provision of and access to services.  Promoting diversity of content.  To provide open access to networks.  Promoting equality of opportunity to the citizen.  To encourage private investment.  Recognizing the necessity of worldwide cooperation with particular attention to less developed countries. .

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323 SG TMG UMG UMG access Phone Phone PSTN PLMN/3G .NGN Network Architecture Service management iOSS Policy Application Location MRS SCP Video Server Server Server server Network control SoftSwitch SoftSwitch Core switching Packet core network IAD/ Edge Eudemon MTA UA SIP H.

Network Generations Fixed Network Mobile Data Analog PSTN Analog Mobile X. EMD AMPS.25 Crossbar. UMTS . NMT Digital PSTN Digital Mobile Frame Relay GSM. CDMAone “Carrier Grade IP” 3G “Carrier Grade IP” CDMA2000.

with intelligence at the terminal sending individual packets of information which are routed across diverse networks using the simple Internet Protocol  The Internet Protocol (IP) is connectionless – each packet finds it own way across the network. with packets sent only as required . Second (Current) Generation  The Internet is based on the Internet Protocols (IP).

Today’s network vs NGN .

NGN Drivers  Economic Drivers  Erosion of fixed line voice call revenues  Competitive pressure from new entrants of high margin-sectors of the market  Saturation of both fixed and mobile telephone services  Retain and extend users‟ base  Ability to enter into new market segment  Possibility of „ladder of investment‟ .

NGN Drivers (Contd.)  Technological Drivers  Obsolescence of legacy networks plus excessive maintenance cost  Lower capital and operational expense  IP based network enable provision of cheaper VoIP service  IP based network enables provision of wider range of services  Evolution and convergence of terminal equipment .

NGN Drivers (Contd.)  Social Drivers  Demand for innovative high bandwidth service  Demand for more targeted and personalized services  Demand for increased interactivity  Demand for evolve and more flexible form of communications  Business demand for integrated services .

iqbal@iqbalmahmud.com)  The user‟s equipment creates a packet of information. but if the destination is unavailable or the packet is not delivered after a number of hops.  The DNS returns the IP address of the desired destination (iqbalmahmud. . the packet is dropped. with a packet header containing the destination address  The packet is launched into the network. Carriage is “best endeavours” – the packet may arrive.g. Internet Operation  The user‟s equipment prepares to send the first packet  The initiating user provides the details of the desired destination e. Routers in the network direct the packet according to the destination address.com  A request for information goes to the DNS and is processed through the Domain Name system.

(The network is “connectionless”.) . Internet Operation (Contd. (The sender will retransmit if necessary)  The sending equipment puts together further packets. and may take a different path. as required.)  The destination equipment can use the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) to acknowledge the packet (with a return packet) to the sender. Each packet is carried independently.

Telco Network & Internet • 64 kbit/s circuit switching • Packet switching over a wide range of • Well defined architecture. dumb network Next Generation Networks • Largely Packet based (IP & ATM). smart rapid innovation network Smart terminal. fixed media and mobile. with necessary extensions to give a level of service equal to or better than current carrier networks . • Defined by protocols rather than • Designed for reliability and QoS architecture (TCP/IP) • Specified at national level • Specified at global level growing to global • Best endeavours network • Main area for national – no QoS guarantee regulation • Open interfaces support Dumb terminal.

• These sub-systems of NGN are different in many aspects: —functionality. method & media of transmission. • They share one commonality. —transmission capacity. — core network. —system configurations. there may have dedicated network / system for signalling & control and operation & maintenance as well. —method of signalling and etc. • On top of these sub-networks. —intelligence. . — access network. NGN Simplified • NGN would normally comprise of several sub-networks including: — user network or home network.which is the delivery of bearer traffic and signalling traffic in the form of data packets.

323 Phone Phone Phone PLMN .248 STP TMG WMGW AMG PSTN IAD PC SIP H.Optimization of PSTN with NGN IN UMS App Server Policy Server Softswitch SIP/BICC Softswitch SG Packet core ISUP H.

E-whiteboard.Service Provisioning After Consolidation NGN • Traditional switch Services 100% inherit exist services • What is NEW ? • Traditional service enhancement Traditional Switch Wide Area IP CENTREX. • Data services • Supplementary services File transfer. UM. Voice Internet ... application sharing. • Centrex Services • IT convergence services UC Workspace (with IBM/Microsoft). . Sequential ringing. • Multimedia service • Basic Voice services Video call.. Simultaneous ringing. conference. • Wireless services Interactive Customer Care Services...... Only... Location Services. WEB800. • Internet Related services CTD. ICW. IM.. CTF. • IN Services • Personalization services PCA....

Compare two System Architecture Centralized Model Distributed Model Service Management Call Control Network Control T POTS Time Slot Core Switch D Switching M Edge Access PSTN NGN .

more competition • Volume effect on costs • Merging of Markets and Industries • Wide coverage wireless systems require so massive investments that it is not feasible for a single company to specify and launch a . Why Standardization is Important Telecom Market is Governed by Standards Functional Reasons • Global network interconnectivity • Global service interoperability • Regulatory reasons -.radio spectrum is limited Commercial and political interests • Open interfaces -.

248/MGCP STP TMG switch H.323 Softswitch M3UA/SCTP Softswitch SG H. Standard Protocols in NGN System IN Location Server MRS OSS AppServer SNMP/MML PARLAY/ SIP TRIP INAP MGCP/H248/SIP SIP-T/BICC/H.248 H.323 SIP/H.248 IP Core ISUP H.323 PSTN PLMN AMG IAD E-Phone Soft-phone E-phone .323 SIP/H.248/MGCP SIP/ MGW H.

248 MGCP SIP H.248 MGCP SIP H.NGN Protocol System SS7 H.323 7 S U P TCAP 6 SCCP 5 MTP3 M3UA M2UA TCP UDP SCTP UDP UDP UDP TCP 4 MTP2 SCTP IP IP IP IP 3 IP MTP1 MAC MAC MAC MAC MAC 2 1 .323 OSI I INAP H.

SS7 Signaling T I S U INAP U P P User Part TCAP SCCP MTP MTP3 M3UA MTP2 M2UA SCTP IP MTP1 MAC .

SIP Protocol  Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)  An application-layer control protocol. . SIP  Establish. UDP  The core protocol of IP IETF multimedia MAC data and control architecture.  It can be easily expanded. modify User Part and terminate MTP multimedia session or call.

H.  Used to establish point-to.323 defines entities such as MAC  H.245 RAS  Provide multimedia UP communication services. MTP point media conference TCP UDP and multipoint media conference.323 is a communication control H.323 Protocol  H.931/H. IP  H.323 protocol put forward by ITU Q.323 Gateway  Gatekeeper  Multipoint Controller  Multipoint Processor  Multipoint Control Unit .

248  MGCP: Media Gateway Control Protocol  Provide signaling and call control for Media Gateways and Voice over IP (VoIP) terminal devices  A master/slave equipment control protocol  H.248/Megaco is a successor to MGCP and will finally replace it  SoftX3000 act as a MGC  UMG8900.MGCP and H. IAD. MRS: MGW . UA5000.

MGCP and H.248 MGCP H.248 UP MTP UDP SCTP/TCP IP MAC .

. It includes transmission protocol (SCTP) and adaptation protocols (M2UA and M3UA).  SIGTRAN is a protocol stack rather than a protocol.SIGTRAN Protocol M3UA M2UA IUA M2PA V5UA SUA …… SCTP IP MAC  SIGTRAN supports transmission of SCN (Switched Circuit Network) signaling via IP network.

Trunk Gateways and Residential Gateways from external call elements like a Call Agent (SoftX3000). For example.NGN Protocol Classification  Signaling transport protocol:  Signaling transport layer protocol provides SoftX3000 with signaling transport services. In a VoIP domain. ISUP is the call control protocol used for the switched circuit network. H.248 can use SCTP/TCP/UDP.  Bearer control protocol:  A kind of master/slave protocol used for Media Gateway Controller (MGC) to control Media Gateways (MGs).323 serve for call control in multimedia conference. The call control protocols used in SoftX3000 are ISUP of SS7. such as Access Gateways. connection and termination. SIP and H. One application protocol of SoftX3000 can usually use multiple transport protocols.  Call control protocol:  A protocol used to control call setup. . SIP and H.323.

UDP  SCTP: Stream control transport protocol  M2UA: User adaptation layer protocol of SS7 MTP2  M3UA: User adaptation layer protocol of SS7 MTP3  MTP (Message Transport Protocol): SS7 network protocol of TDM  SCCP: Providing INAP with signaling transmission service . TCP.Signaling Transmission Protocols  IP.

Bearer Control Protocols  Bearer control protocol is used to control media gateways.  MGCP and H.248 protocols .

Call Control Protocols  ISUP and INAP: Switched circuit network control protocols  H.323 and SIP: Call control protocols in packet switched network .

ISUP has the call control functions (for example.) in addition to the bearer control functions. namely. In communication between AG and MGC.Attention  Bearer control protocols are non-peer-to-peer protocols.  MGCP and H. that is. etc. hanging off. inter-office signaling. . used between MGC and MGC. used between MGC and MG only. while call control protocols are peer-to-peer protocols.248 protocols accomplish the bearer control functions in the communication between MGW and MGC. and the call control protocol above them is ISUP. identification of hanging on.

. over which the ISUP protocol is borne.323 and SIP protocols are used for interconnection among SoftSwitch devices.248.  SIGTRAN protocol group is used when SoftX3000 is interconnected with PSTN. MGCP.323 can also be used for interworking with H. while SIP can be used for interworking with SIP terminal. H. H. H.323.Summary  NGN protocols include: SIGTRAN. H.248 protocols are used for interconnection with various MGs.323 media terminal. SIP and ISUP. and meanwhile. MGCP and H.

carrier issues and service provider issues all need resolution  “Simple”services such as voice need to be resolved. the complexity increases  User issues. Layering  With each “network generation”. then more complex issues with new services have to be agreed  Operational issues are among the most complex .

QoS. Value Added Service Routing. transmission Infrastructure . Travel. service provider Broadcast….other carriers.) News. Network Service e.g. Messaging. Mobility. Interconnection access. fiber network Access.. Layering (Contd. transit providers. Other Information Service Services… 3rd party application developer and Voice mail.

but reliable service requires a consistently high Quality of Service (QoS)  Voice can be carried over IP networks as another form of data. IP based telephony can work most of the time.  In the public Internet.but must have low latency (low tolerance of delay) — This means that voice packets cannot be lost. IP telephony products are likely .  As broadband access comes into greater use.  The Internet can be used for telephony. Transition to NGN  Two way voice communication requires relatively low data rate. planning can ensure adequate quality. relatively small delays or packets arriving out of order make two way voice difficult. albeit with high demands on the underlying network quality  In private IP-based networks.

with some standards work being done in USA and Japan.)  there is a lot of standards activity to define new voice plus multimedia networks – standards-based NGN. Two views of NGN  Standards-based “NGN” being specified by ETSI and ITU-T. but are now starting to be provided by the market.  Transitional services are growing rapidly. . and many will be in place by 2006 – we can‟t ignore them. as a full-service multimedia successor to the PSTN  “Transitional services” such as Internet telephony (or IP Telephony/VoIP/VoN) which are pre-standardisation.(Based on IETF plus proprietary standards.

ITU-T “NGN Working Definition”  NGN is a packet-based network able to provide Telecommunication services and able to make use of multiple broadband. QoS-enabled transport technologies and in which service-related functions are independent from underlying transport-related technologies  It enables unfettered access for users to networks and to competing service providers and/or services of their choice  It supports generalized mobility which will allow consistent and ubiquitous provision of services to users. .

applications and mechanisms based on service building blocks (including real time/ streaming/ non-real time services and multi-media)  Broadband capabilities with end-to-end QoS and transparency  Interworking with legacy networks via open interfaces . and application/ service  Decoupling of service provision from network. call/session. Characteristics of NGN  Packet-based transfer  Separation of control functions among bearer capabilities. and provision of open interfaces  Support for a wide range of services.

Characteristics of NGN(Contd.)

 Generalized mobility
 Unrestricted access by users to different service providers
 A variety of identification schemes which can be resolved to
IP addresses for the purposes of routing in IP networks
 Unified service characteristics for the same service as
perceived by the user
 Converged services between Fixed/Mobile
 Independence of service-related functions from underlying
transport technologies
 Compliant with all Regulatory requirements, for example
concerning emergency communications and security/privacy,
etc.

NGN Basic Reference Model (Y.2011)
Management Plane
Control Plane
User Plane

NGN Service Stratum

Management Plane
Control Plane
User Plane

NGN Transport Stratum

BRM (Contd.)

ETSI TISPAN NGN architecture Applications Based on 3GPP IMS IP Connectivity Other Multimedia Access Network User And related functionality Profiles Components … Streaming Services (RTSP based) PSTN / ISDN Emulation (SIP-I based) Other Networks IP Multimedia Component (CoreIMS ) Service layer (SIP based) Transport layer Network Attachment Resource and Admission GW Subsystem Control Subsystem Legacy NASS RACS Terminals Customer Networks Access Transport Core transport Network Network NGN Terminals 3GPP IP-CAN 3GPP Terminals .

NGN – Long-Term Network Convergence Perspective 1970 1980 1990 2000 Public Switched Telecommunication Network (PSTN) Intelligent Network Internet (IN) Commercial Mobile Radio Systems NGNs Open Systems Interconnection Internet (OSI) private quasi-public IP Internet (IP) Was never designed as public infrastructure .

NGN – Near-Term Network Convergence Perspective Next Generation Networks Legacy Telecom & IP-Enabled Services Wireless Services Telephony Gateways Transport Access Access SMS/MMS Transport VoIP and Multimedia Services Intelligent Gateways Intelligent Network Infrastructure Intelligent Infrastructure is the key enabler .

The NGN players Legend ATIS NGN FG: Alliance for Telecommunication ITU-T Industry Solutions. ATIS Next Generation Networks Focus ETSI TISPAN Group NGN FG ETSI TISPAN: European Telecommunications Standards Institute. Telecoms & Internet converged Services & Protocols for Advanced Networks 3GPP: Third Generation 3GPP Partnership Project . Next Generation Networks Focus NGN FG Group ITU-T NGN FG: International Telecommunication Union (Telecom).

but different networks that interoperate seamlessly  An enabler for Service Providers to offer  real-time and non real-time communication services  between peers or in a client-server configuration.and inter-Network Domains. ETSI TISPAN  The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is independent.  Multi-access: several access networks. multi-access. multi-protocol. eventually between Fixed and Mobile networks . whose mission is to produce telecommunications standards for today and for the future  The Next Generation Network will provide:  A multi-service. reliable and trusted  Multi-services: delivered by a common QoS enabled core network. IP based network . non-profit organization. fixed and mobile terminals.  Nomadicity and Mobility  of both users and devices  intra.  Not one network.secure.

NGN summary  NGN networks will provide access to services over fixed broadband connections  The architecture is layered: Service layer and Transport layer  The architecture is modular: Different subsystem added on demand  ETSI TISPAN NGN Release 1 will offer two subsystems:  PSTN/ISDN Emulation Subsystem (PSTN/ISDN replacement)  PSTN/ISDN Simulation Subsystem (Core native IMS)  ETSI TISPAN NGN Release 1 standardization is targeted to be finished at the end of 2005. but this is a challenging goal .

Role of the IETF  IETF specifies the protocols used in Internet  Internet Protocol (versions 4. Link  IETF protocols are for the whole Internet  Access/link layer technology independent Physical  Implementation oriented  “Rough consensus and running code…” . and 6)  Transport Control Protocol (TCP) Application  Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Presentation  Internet Relay Chat (IRC) Session  User Datagram Protocol (UDP)  Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) Transport  DHCP Network  Etc.

”  No formal voting – consensus calls  Running code (implementations) are important . etc. presidents and voting. IETF principles  IETF is not a membership organization  One cannot join the IETF  Anyone can participate. no company memberships. We believe in rough consensus and running code.  But company rules behind the scenes…  Most of the work and all decisions are made in the mailing list  Meetings may have consensus calls for guidance  Difficult issues are easier to discuss face-to-face  However. everything has to be discussed on the mailing lists  IETF holds three meetings a year  Individual WGs can additionally have interim meetings  “We reject kings.

IETF Administrative Director (IAD) IETF Secretariat Internet Architecture IANA Board (IAB) Internet Research Task Internet Engineering Force (IRTF) Steering Group Applications Area Internet Area RIPE ARIN Operations & Mgmt Routing Area APNIC LACNIC Transport Area Security Area AfriNIC General Area Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) IETF WGs in these Areas .IETF Administrative Oversight Committee (IAOC) ICANN . IETF: Organization ISOC (Internet Society) IETF Administrative Support Activity (IASA) .

.150 series).  Improvement of facsimile terminals standards (colour fax: T.  Promotion of text conversation standards and development of protocols to support these facilities in and over IP based networks.42) and real-time communication for Group 3 facsimile over IP based networks (T.38). Modems. facsimile terminals and accessibility to MM systems  Support of modems connections over IP-based networks (V.

0 (call signalling) and H.323): development and approval of Version 5 which includes a number additional functions.320): introduction of support for H.239) •MM Systems over IP-based networks (H. . which includes RAS and NAT/Firewall related aspects.460 series (generic extensible framework).248) and development of new packages (41 in total) •MM Systems over ISDN (H. •Security for MM systems (H.235): further development to Version 2 and approval of Version 3.264 and use of additional video channels (H.323 related Recs like H.225. enhancement to H. Summary of the period 2001-2004 MM Platform and Interworking (1/2) •New version of Media Gateway Protocol (H.

H.235.323 terminals and users (H.500) addressing mobility management of H. H. security procedures (H.323 systems: development of a new series of Recs (H.530) and intra/inter domains management related aspects (H. •Reference architecture for controlling the QoS and service priority of MM services in heterogeneous networks: approval of a new Rec H.500 directory services for MM conferencing (7 Recs covering H. SIP and non-standard protocols.501).360.323. •Mobility management for H. call forwarding and preferences). .320. Summary of the period 2001-2004 MM Platform and Interworking (2/2) •Directory services: development of a new series (H.350) allowing the use of LDAP and X.510).

g joint meeting in 2005).264) in cooperation with MPEG for all applications (distributive and interactive communications) on different platforms (fixed and mobile including IP- based networks).2 with 3GPP AMR-WB specifications (Adaptive Multi-Rate Wideband) . Summary of the period 2001-2004 Media Coding:(1/2) Development of a new generation of video coding standards (H. Wideband speech coding around 16 kbit/s: alignment of G. bit rate reduction of more than 50 % for the same level of quality. Still image coding: continuation of the collaborative work with JPEG (maintenance of the T.800 series of Recs). Cooperation to be strengthened in future (e.722.80 and T.

 Variable bit rate coding of speech signals: definition of target performance objectives to support a large number of applications (3G wireless services. very low bit rate PSTN. PCME. No consensus was possible among the proponents.  Maintenance of existing standards and of software tools for audio coding development . Summary of the period 2001-2004 Media coding: (2/2)  4 kbit/s speech coding: considerable efforts spent to identify and assess two possible candidates towards a single standard. the work is suspended since October 2002. VOIP. …). CME. corresponding Recs are planned for 2005/2006.

to the maximum degree possible. .  Efforts over the years to secure packet infrastructures have been somewhat fragmented and reactionary and so far have failed to produce the desired level of protection against threats. NGN Security  The public switched telephone networks (PSTNs) that use circuit based technology are relatively secure.  Recognizing that security is one of the defining features of NGN.  Threats on the evolving telecommunications infrastructure are on the increase -. the security of the telecommunications infrastructure as PSTNs evolve to NGNs. it is essential to put in place a set of standards that will guarantee.both in frequency and in complexity.

NGN Security(Contd.  Allow for highly-distributed intelligence end-to-end.  Allow for co-existence of multiple networking technologies.  Spam has become a widespread problem causing loss of revenue to  Internet service providers.)  Another security aspect is that of spam.  telecommunication operators.  mobile telecommunication operators and  business users.  Provide for end-to-end security mechanisms.  The NGN Security studies must address and develop network architectures that:  Provide for maximal network and end-user resource protection.  Provide for security solutions that apply over multiple administrative domains . as well as  other problems to users in general.

In October 2000. . Cable & Wireless of the UK announced a plan to migrate its existing TDM network to the next generation packet-based network that would cover a total of 140 nodes over the world. choice and flexibility like never before. Migration of customers from PSTN to IP based network will begin in 2006 with the majority due to be completed in 2008. British Telecom (BT) has announced in 2004 a five-year infrastructure transformation plan. BT considers that its 21 CN initiative will drive a radical simplification of its operations including significantly lower costs and the capability to launch new services to market faster than it can today. Current status in the UK 1. 3. giving them control. It will empower all its customers. 2.

In early 2003.  It mainly provided packet-based voice and data services over its NGN in the initial stage.6 million telephone users.  In the first phase.  Verizon in 2001. Sprint would take 4 years to complete packetisation of the voice traffic of 3.  Sprint announced in November 2001 to completely transform its circuit- switched telephone network into a packet-based NGN.  By mid-2002. launched NGN commercial service in Florida and New Jersey. Verizon reported that it had successfully delivered over 1.  In the second phase. Sprint targets to transform all the traditional circuit- switched telephone networks it installed in 18 states to packet-based NGN. In October 2001. Qwest announced that it had commenced migrating its circuit-switched telephone network to NGN in all the 14 states where it had service coverage.8 million calls over its NGN. Sprint started off its plan which would be implemented by 2 phases. .  In early 2004. Verizon declared that it would stop re-investment in TDM technology and would concentrate its effort in migrating to NGN. Status in the USA  Qwest is the first carrier in the US migrating towards the NGN.

all the networks of KT will be migrated to packet-switched ones and all types of traffic will be packetized.  The 3rd or final stage commences in 2005 and scheduled to be completed in 2006. . media gateways and signalling gateways.  The 1st stage was completed in 2002 where the old network terminating equipment were replaced with new packet-based equipment. The plan is being implemented in 3 stages and going to be completed by 2006. By the end of stage 3.  KT provided Voice over Packet (VoP) service to corporate customers during its 2nd stage of NGN development. Korean Scenario  Korea Telecom (KT) scheduled a 5-year plan for the migration of the circuit-switched telephone network to NGN.  The 2nd stage took two years to complete (from 2003 to 2004) during which the core network was replaced with packet-switched network which comprised of soft switches.

 In Japan.  In the Netherlands. . In its 2006 Annual Report KPN anticipated that MDF should be phased out and that by 2010 a wide range of non IP-based services will be discontinued. NTT East and NTT West launched commercial services using ANGN in March 2008 which include a high definition TV.  In the US. Verizon has deployed a fiber to the premise project passing 9. KPN is implementing an all-IP-infrastructure. telephone service and a guaranteed bit rate video service.3 million homes at the end of 2007 in 1600 cities. thus phasing out of traditional PSTN. NGN in Countries  Telecom Italia‟s complete migration to NGN aims to increase efficiency resulting from the reduction in ongoing capital expenditure due to network simplification and operating expenditure due to reduction in the number of central offices. to all areas where fiber access is currently provided. They plan to extend this services by March 2011.  BT‟s 21st century network project should be fully rolled out across the United Kingdom by 2011. BT already developed and international IP-based network reaching 160 countries.