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It is not the inventory control technique. Timeliness 2. Waste reduction In any manufacturing organization the material undergoes processing right from the stage it is at suppliers place to buyers place. . Basically this is a waste control method. 1. Quality 3. It is an organized approach to introduce in manufacturing cycle the following crucial factors. JUST IN TIME This is a technique from TQM process. Flexibility 5. All the stages in between are called as pipelines. Work simplification 6. Productivity 4.

It moves and waits at each place. then getting the product packed in the packing cases. It starts from place such as receiving stores. rejected bin to go back to the supplier. inspection at every stage of assembly stage. again issuing to the assembly shops. accepted item to go to warehouse. remains in the component stores. going back to the finished goods stores. receiving inspection. Then material waits there till it gets customer’s order. where it waits for utilization by customer. After that the material gets shifted to the customer’s site. on shop floor. This is the journey of the material within the organization. PIPELINE In the pipeline there are several stages. issuing to manufacturing shop. gets assembled on the assembly stage. . remains in the assembly shops. binning in the warehouse. on several processing machines inspection on each processing machine then goes back to component stores .

. At all other stages no value is added on the material. These all the stages are called as non-value-added activities and so they are called as WASTE. In the context of Indian industries this pipeline is longer as the organization is more and more sophisticated. The customer is not willing to pay for those activities. The expenses go on increasing. Longer the pipeline longer the time the material waits. All the activities and the documents in the organization related to that non-value added activities should be eliminated. This pipeline is very long indicating the stages at which the material waits. That is exactly done in the process of JIT. The value is added on the material only at stage where it is being processed.

WASTE REDUCTION ELIMINATE/ REDUCE PROBLEMS The waste reduction exposes the problems in the organization. They are hidden under the waste as shown in the diagram below: Work in process inventory level (hides problems) Unreliable Vendors Capacity Scrap Imbalances .

The problems are like : (1) Improper methods (2) waiting/delays (3) Unreliable vendors (4) Machine/ system breakdowns (capacity imbalances) .

Wastes reduced WIP .THESE WASTES CAN BE REDUCED WITH THE HELP OF JUST IN TIME (JIT) Reducing inventory reveals problems so they can be solved.

Regularly suggest for improvement and implement immediately. They are keen to take any training in new subject. Their aim is zero defects ppm.JIT FACTORY ATMOSPHERE : - The attitude of the employee is important. They all act as good team players and team leaders as well. They not only know how to do their job but also know their internal supplier and customer’s job well. They keep flow of material and can stop the line if they find problem. Hard work. . They are keen to co-operate and communicate the issues and keep the flow of the information. Sustaining togetherness and urge to excel collectively is important. They do not look at work as “why should I worry?”. That makes TQM atmosphere. They know the product and process well. are no doubt essential but attitude makes the real difference at work place. They are particular to measure the quantity and quality they produce. Not only that they predict any incoming problem. They assist their co- workers. talent etc. They are keen to know how the skill is to be developed. If any problem erupts solve it at their level only.

training should be done. All the communication is free flow. Total Vendor Involvement Purchase of an item should be done from single source. standard and reusable packing in such a way that damages are avoided. Total Vendor Quality Control : - The selection of vendor must be done properly. tools etc. Vendor should be taken in full confidence and he should feel the part of the company and his shop is an extension to our shop. Smooth Material Flow : - Material must be received as and when required and no inventory should be encouraged. There should be long-term relations and transparency in price fixing. Is the technical matters the vendor’s workmen should be provided training.MATERIAL MANAGEMENT IN JIT : - The vendor plays important role in JIT. The quality control must be maintained just like in-house method. . Following are the points indicating requirements. In general healthy relations have to be maintained. In all aspects help of design knowhow. In any case receiving inspection should be avoided. That should be done by economical transportation system and good.

to improve the productivity . These process are implemented in the manufacturing set ups. TPM. kanban. Single minute exchange of Dies (SMED). However. Push pull method. TECHNIQUES USED IN JIT For this purpose “JIT” gave birth to many ‘common sense’ techniques in the organization such as Pokayoke. etc. Jidoka (low cost automation). they were found extendable in the non-manufacturing set ups also.

when they need it. The word Kan means "visual" in Japanese and the word "ban" means "card". such that workers have what they need. So Kanban refers to "visual cards" . where they need it. parts and supplies. Kanban-An integrated JIT system KANBAN A system of continuous supply of components.

The Kanban System •The Kanban system uses simple cards to strictly control production •The basic idea is that no station is permitted to produce more than is immediately required by the succeeding station •This simple idea prevents the buildup of inventory No computer is required! Kanban Production Control System •Kanban card indicates standard quantity of production •Derived from two-bin inventory system •Kanban maintains discipline of pull production •Production kanban authorizes production .

This can be contrasted to a typical production system. (5) GT concept is involved in giving birth to flexible manufacturing systems and computer aided manufacturing. . parts do not wait nor move to and fro store. Here.Group technology This is modular/cell manufacturing. products flow smoothly from start to finish. (4) variety of processes to be handled by workman giving him job satisfaction. Advantages of group technology: (1) Number of new component parts is less. However number of settings per period do increase. which involves organizing machinery so that related products can be manufactured in a continuous flow. where machines are grouped by function and products move from function to function from one end of a facility to another and back again. (3) Set up time is reduced. (2) Any new part required is designed to suit the manufacturing system.

Bin 6 supplier BICC supplier tel 0208-891-0121 supplier part RT45502 routing process Name/location of next proces Name/location of preceding process container type & capacity number of containers released .HOW DOES THE KANBAN CARD LOOKS LIKE ? Kanban No. reorder/lot qty 20 store location Row 12. Copper Wire units Ft. 5678990 part No: 66789X description 16ga.

. The challenge today is that changeovers are justified by long runs or batches. in a number of minutes expressed in a single digit SMED (Single minute exchange of die) is a methodology developed by Shigeo Shingo. Customers today are more demanding than ever before and have a variety of supplier options both domestically and globally.e.i. One of the ways in which companies are tackling this challenge is through a focused effort in reducing the amount of downtime in the factory. Single minute refers to single digit changeover times of less than 10 minutes. There are many documented examples from companies that have seen reductions from hours to minutes. This is forcing manufacturers to become more and more flexible to their increasing demands.SMED. . stands for single minute exchange of die. is a theory and techniques for performing setup operations in fewer than ten minutes . And changeovers although necessary are full of wasteful activity.SMED (single minute exchange of dies) It has been the experience of the people involved on production departments that when production of higher quantity is done it is economical .

Once changeover times are reduced the organization is then able to deliver smaller batches more frequently satisfying more customers and reducing the amount of expensive real estate required to house the extra inventory. .

It specifically refers to machines or the production line itself being able to stop automatically in abnormal conditions (for example. as they will stop when a problem occurs. they should stop the line rather than let the defective part do.if they cannot. in the production context. when a machine breaks down or when defective parts are produced). not allowing defective parts to go from one work station to the next. This Autonomation (as it is also called) allows machines to run autonomously. They are responsible for correcting the problem . means. The principle was first used by Sakichi Toyoda at the beginning of the 20th century when he invented a loom which stopped when the thread broke. . Ultimately.Jidoka Jidoka. it is about transferring human (or better) intelligence to machines. Jidoka is also used when individual people encounter a problem at their work station.

It can be considered as the medical science of machines. The goal of the TPM program is to markedly increase production while. assists.Total productive maintainence Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) refers to a management system for optimizing the productivity of manufacturing equipment through systematic equipment maintenance involving employees at all levels. increasing employee morale and job satisfaction. . set-ups. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a maintenance program which involves a newly defined concept for maintaining plants and equipment. Under TPM. everyone is involved in keeping the equipment in good working order to minimize production losses from equipment repairs. and the like. at the same time.

3) Idling and minor stoppages. 3) Planned Maintenance.TPM has 8 key strategies: 1) Focused Improvements (Kaizen). 4) Reduced equipment speed. 4) Technical Training. which can result in long. 6) Start-up Losses. 5) Defects and Rework. 6) Quality Maintenance. expensive repairs. 5) Early Equipment Management. . 8) Safety and Environmental Management. 7) Administrative and Support Functions Management. conversions. TPM eliminates 6 big losses: 1) Breakdowns. 2) Set-ups. 2) Autonomous Maintenance. and changeovers.

POKA = ERRORS YOKE = AVOID Poka-yoke is a Japanese improvement strategy for mistake-proofing to prevent defects (or nonconformities) from arising during production processes. .POKAYOKE(MISTAKE PROOFING)_ People are human and cannot be expected to do everything like a machine. exactly the same at each time. A simple distraction can lead to a part of their work being done wrong.

The Poka-yoke concept was created in the mid-1980s by Shigeo Shingo. a Japanese manufacturing engineer. Shingo lists characteristics of poka-yoke devices: 100 percent inspection is possible Devices avoid sampling for monitoring and control Poka-yoke devices are inexpensive .

each step of the machine cycle is wired to an indicator board and a timer. .Examples of pokayoke In this example. the indicator light for that step will be turned on and the machine will stop. If each cycle of the machine is not performed within the required “time” and “sequence”.

The worker must intervene to correct the processes responsible for causing the defect. making it impossible to produce defects and/or to flow a nonconforming product onto the next process. Poka-yoke devices monitor critical process conditions and shut down the process when a parameter moves out of the desirable range. Control. Warning.Poka Yoke Methods Shutdown. indicating that a defective product has either been produced or is about to be produced. Poka-yoke devices signal to a worker that a defect has been produced. since otherwise the processes will output further nonconforming product . Poka-yoke devices are installed on process equipment and/or work pieces.

GM's solution to this problem was to introduce consolidation centers at which full truckloads were consolidated from supplier deliveries. These shipments total about 30 million metric tons per day and GM spends about 1. small. JIT implies frequent. CASE STUDY OF General Motors General Motors (GM) in the USA has (approximately) 1700 suppliers who ship to 31 assembly plants scattered throughout the continental USA. where they should be. shipments. This obviously involved deciding how many consolidation centres to have. As of 1990 some 20% by weight of shipments go through consolidation centres and about 98% of suppliers ship at least one item through a consolidation centre. All this has been achieved with the help of JIT. . When GM moved to JIT there were simply too many (lightly loaded) trucks attempting to deliver to each assembly plant. their size (capacity) and which suppliers should ship to which consolidation centres (suppliers can also still ship direct to assembly plants).000 million dollars a year in transport costs on these shipments (1990 figures).