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SISTEM

PEMELIHARAAN
Bermawi P. Iskandar
KK Sitem Manufaktur, FTI ITB

Products:[Support-CharacteristicsApplication]

BASIC CONCEPTS OF RELIABILITY

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration


(NASA)[Smith (1977)] defines reliability as,
The probability of a device performing adequately
for the period of time intended under the operating
condition encountered.
British standards institution(1986) specifies
reliability as, the probability that an item will
perform a required function under stated conditions
for a stated period of time.

BASIC CONCEPTS OF RELIABILITY

From the above two-definition, it is obvious


that reliability of a device (an item or system)
is the ability of the system to satisfy its
intended function in probabilistic sense.

BASIC CONCEPTS OF RELIABILITY

Suppose that a device is required to operate


satisfactorily under designed condition for a period
given by (0,t).
The device is said to have a high reliability if it
performs its required function without failure during
(0,t) with a sufficiently high probability.
Otherwise, the device is said to have a low reliability
and the device is deemed unreliable.

Simple system & Complex system

The device can be either:

a very simple system consisting of a single


component or
a very complex system involving numerous
components or subsystems. The components of
the complex system may or may not interact with
each other.

Simple system & Complex system

If the system is a single component system, its


reliability depends only on the reliability of
the component.
In contrast, the reliability of a multicomponent system depends not only on each
component reliability but also on the
relationship between components.
In this case the configuration of the system
affects the reliability of the system.

Reliability is:

A characteristic that describes how good a


device is.
Must be planned for, designed in both in
terms of the initial product and in
maintenance of that product.

Failure is:

The degradation of the performance of a device


(process) outside of a specified value AND nonperformance or inability to perform its function for a
given time period within specified conditions.
Defect: imperfection
Deficiency: lack of conformance to specs
Fault: Cause of failure
Malfunction: unsatisfactory performance

Failure Measures

Real life failure: fact of life, define normal


operation, anticipate worst, try to design out.
Failure rate typically = #failures/unit time =
failures/million hours for devices.

Unreliability is:

A measure of the potential for failure of a device (or


process.)
Leads to high cost, wasted time, inconvenience, poor
reputation, unsafe operation,
- 9/9/99 more than 10,000 stepladders recalled by
Home Depot steps too short, improperly attached
(RIDGID ladders, Louisville Ladder Co, Louisville
KY)

Failure Rate

Infant Mortality

Wearout

<-Useful Life ->


Joints,
Welds,
Contamination,
Misuse
Screening,
Design,
Burn-in

Time ->

Corrosion,
Cracking,
Wear,
Crazing,
Shorts
--
Design,
Preventive
Maintenance,
Replacement,
Repair

Failure Rate

Friction,
Fatigue,
Erosion,
Corrosion,
Cracking,
Lack of PM

Misassembly
<- Useful Life ->

Time->

PM,
Replacement

Failure Rate

Debug errors,
Spec. Errors,
Special Cases

Time ->

Failure Rate

QI
PM

QI
Lawsuit

Lawsuit

Time ->

NEED FOR HIGH RELIABILITY

For large complex expensive systems the lack of adequate


reliability can cause severe economic losses and/or social
consequence.
Breakdown of a numerically controlled machine tool, in an
automated production line or cell can result in the loss of
production; increased production time; increased production
cost, customer dissatisfaction to name a few.
In many cases (e.g. aircraft, spacecraft, chemical plant or
nuclear reactor), unreliability affects personnel safety. Failure
in operation can cause a dangerous situations e.g. Ieak of
poisonous gas in a chemical plant can kill people; the effect is
more devastating in the case of a leak in a nuclear reactor.

NEED FOR HIGH RELIABILITY

If an anti-aircraft missile fails to work when required


the nation can suffer serious property and human
loss as well as loss to national prestige.
Considering the consequences of unreliability, the
need to have highly reliable systems is paramount.
For example, U.S. Air Force, through Reliability &
Maintainability 2OOO,has established the reliability
requirement that all new systems have twice the
reliability than the system being replaced.
[Piotrowski ( 1987 )]

Approaches to ensure high reliability

Using redundant components in a system is


one way of achieving it.
An integrated quality control also assures
better reliability by ensuring that systems
meet the design specification.
Maintenance is also an effective way to
control reliability, since it can prevent
excessive deterioration of the system.

Approaches to ensure high reliability

However, all these methods are costly and in


some cases difficult to achieve, especially for
complex systems.
This implies that there is a trade off between
system reliability and the cost of assuring the
reliability.
The optimal trade off involves the use of
quantitative method which is discussed in the
next section.