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ABAQUS Lecture

Part V

Patrick Roberts

gt0398b@prism.gatech.edu

x5-2773

Weber 201

Starting ABAQUS CAE

menu or with a command line by typing

abaqus cae

command line from the directory you want

your results files to end up.

Dynamics

• We have seen how we can compute and

view the results of static loading on 1D, 2D

and 3D models.

• We may also be interested in how a model

moves as a function of time or dynamic

modeling.

• Reason: Stresses and displacements can

be greater in a dynamic model than a

static model.

The Beam

Example: Let’s look at a 3D beam that has dimensions of

1m length, 0.1 m height, and 0.2 m width.

Material Properties

properties which are:

– Density: 174 lbm/ft3 (2800 kg/m3)

– Young’s modulus : 10,400,000. psi (72 GPa)

– Poison’s ratio: 0.33

The Step Module

Under the General procedure type there are

two basic types of dynamic analysis; implicit

and explicit.

– ABAQUS/Standard uses the implicit Hilber-Hughes-

Taylor operator for integration of the equations of

motion. This offers the use of all elements in

ABAQUS but can be slower than Explicit.

– ABAQUS/Explicit uses the central-difference operator.

In an implicit dynamic analysis the integration

operator matrix must be inverted and a set of

nonlinear equilibrium equations must be solved at

each time increment.

ABAQUS Explicit

ABAQUS/Explicit offers fewer element types than

ABAQUS/Standard. For example, only first-order,

displacement method elements (4-node quadrilaterals, 8-

node bricks, etc.) and modified second-order elements are

used, and each degree of freedom in the model must have

mass or rotary inertia associated with it. However, the

method provided in ABAQUS/Explicit has some important

advantages:

1. The analysis cost rises only linearly with problem size, whereas the cost

of solving the nonlinear equations associated with implicit integration

rises more rapidly than linearly with problem size. Therefore,

ABAQUS/Explicit is attractive for very large problems.

2. The explicit integration method is more efficient than the implicit

integration method for solving extremely discontinuous events or

processes.

3. It is possible to solve complicated, very general, three-dimensional

contact problems with deformable bodies in ABAQUS/Explicit.

4. Problems involving stress wave propagation can be far more efficient

computationally in ABAQUS/Explicit than in ABAQUS/Standard.

Dynamics

For our modeling we will use ABAQUS

Standard (implicit).

– Edit Step Dialog

• Basic tab:

– Time period : 5

• Incrementation tab:

– Type : fixed;

– Maximum number of increments : 50000;

– Increment size: 0.0001;

– Check: Suppress half-step residual calculation.

– Monitor the displacement of a node in the transverse

direction.

The loading

We apply a 5 Newton load to the top two corners of the

beam at the free end.

Running the model

The model may take some time to run. You

should monitor the model as it runs. If there

is a problem it’s important you see how the

problem manifests itself.

Results

Results

What we see is an initial transient region

then the oscillation settles to a steady state

with a bias from 0 of about 0.65. Because

there is no damping the energy cannot

dissipate so it will oscillate about this point

at that amplitude forever. Numerical errors

can often appear as “artificial” damping

(usually negative damping which causes

exponential growth)

Dynamic modeling with contact

analysis

• Contact/noncontact analysis is studied

extensively in finite element modeling.

• Any time two or more parts come in

contact the nature of the contact surfaces

must be defined.

Example problem

In our example we consider a block bonded

onto a plate. There is a circular area in the

center that is not bonded. We want to

model how this non-bonded area effects the

dynamic response of the block when there is

a periodic pressure load applied on the

bottom of the plate.

Part module

Block dimensions:

• Length = 6 inches (0.1524 m)

• Width = 6 inches (0.1524 m)

• Height = 3 inches (0.0762 m)

Plate dimensions:

• Length = 12 inches (0.3048 m)

• Width = 12 inches (0.3048 m)

• Height = 0.375 inch (0.009525 m)

Property module

Block material:

• Density = 12 lb/ft3 (192 kg/m3)

• Young’s modulus = 29 x 106 psi (200 GPa)

• Poisons ratio = 0.33

Plate material:

• Density = 174. lb/ft3 (2800 kg/m3)

• Young’s modulus = 10,400,000 psi (72 GPa)

• Poisons ratio = 0.33

Assembly module

• When you create each instance make

sure to auto offset.

• To place the tile correctly use datum

points on the center of the bottom of the

block and the top of the plate.

• Translate the block so it is centered on the

top of the plate.

Assembly Module

Step Module

• Create a dynamic step just like in our

beam example.

• Monitor one corner of the block in the

transverse direction.

Interaction Module

• This is the module you will define the contact

surfaces.

• Two types of contact for this model:

– Tied (for areas that are perfectly bonded) and

– NoFric (for those areas not bonded).

• We will create a circular partition on the center of

the contact surface of the block and plate with a

radius of 0.03 m.

• Under View you will see an option of Assembly

Display Options. Go to the Instance tab. You

can use this to turn on/off views of parts.

Interaction Module

• ABAQUS/Standard defines contact between two bodies in

terms of two surfaces that may interact; these surfaces are

called a “contact pair.” ABAQUS/Standard defines “self-

contact” in terms of a single surface.

• The order in which the two surfaces are specified on the

CONTACT PAIR option is critical because of the manner in

which surface interactions are discretized. For each node on

the first surface (the “slave” surface) ABAQUS/Standard

attempts to find the closest point on the second surface (the

“master” surface) of the contact pair where the master

surface's normal passes through the node on the slave

surface. The interaction is then discretized between the point

on the master surface and the slave node.

• We will use the plate as the Master surface and the block as

the slave surface.

Interaction Module

• Inside the circle on both parts we need to define

the NoFriction contact definition. Go to

Interaction, Manager, Create and give it a name;

Step is Initial, Surface-to-Surface contact, pick

the master and slave surface.

• Outside the circle on both parts we need to

define tied contact. Go to Constraint and pick

Tie from the list. Choose each surface outside

the circle.

Load Module

• Fully constrain the four sides of the plate.

• We want to have a periodic pressure

applied to the bottom of the plate of 10 Hz

(62.8 rad/s) and a magnitude of 5.

Defining Periodic loading

*AMPLITUDE

Defining Periodic loading

Go to Tools, Amplitude, Create, give it a

name and choose Periodic. Add the

values as seen in the next slide.

Load Module

Load Module

• Define a pressure load on the bottom of

the plate with a magnitude of 5. When

you get to Amplitude pick the periodic

amplitude you just defined.

Mesh Module

When choosing which parts mesh controls,

element type, seed and mesh instance

hold down the Shift key and choose both

parts.

Job Module

1. Submit the job and watch for Warnings.

2. We immediately see zero pivot and

overconstraint warnings.

3. Notice that the nodes in question have

been placed in node sets.

4. Kill the job.

5. Go into Results.

Visualization module

ABAQUS helps you locate problems by assigning

nodes or elements to sets so you can view them

in the Visualization module.

Turn on Node labeling

Create a Display group. When you choose Node

Sets you will see a list of sets the system

created when it had problems. Pick one and you

will see they are near the perimeter of the circle

we created.

The problem

All attributes of a node are defined by the

elements that are attached to them. The

nodes along the perimeter of the circle are

connected to elements with two different

contact surface definitions. Therefore,

ABAQUS doesn’t know which rule set to

apply to these nodes.

The Solution

• Go back and delete all the tied contact

surface definitions.

• Add a circle that has a radius of 0.035. It

should look like

The Solution

• The area inside the inner circle is already

defined as NoFriction. Define the area

outside the outer circle as Tied contact.

The area between the two surfaces are

undefined. This way a node has at most

one contact surface definition.

• Now rerun the model.

The Results

This model takes

quite some time

to run. The

important item to

notice is no more

warnings. The

results should be

compared with

theory.

The Conclusion

• Dynamic modeling in ABAQUS is very

easy and can provide very meaningful

results.

• Check results against established theory

to confirm what the software is calculating.

• Take the time to understand all the

dynamic procedures in ABAQUS to

choose the best one for your analysis.

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