You are on page 1of 14

ARTICULATIO

N
BY
I GEDE YOGA PERMANA
I GST. PUTRA JNANA YOGA
GEDE PRADIPTA PUTRA

THE PROCESS OF PRODUCING SPEECH


The air breathed in
Lungs
The air pressed out
Trachea (windpipe)
Larynx
Pharynx
Mouth cavity Nasal cavity

THE MAIN SPEECH


ORGANS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Lips 10. Uvula


Teeth
11. Hard palate
Alveolar ridge
Tongue
Larynx
Vocal cords
Epiglottis
Pharynx
Soft palate

ARTICULATION
The act of moving two articulators toward
each other for the obstruction of the outgoing air is called articulation. The two
articulators may be moved in such a way that
they are touching or almost touching each
other at a certain point which is called point
(place) of articulation.
Besides on the basis of point of articulation,
speech sounds are also classified based on
the ways in which the out-going air is
obstructed (manner of articulation).

central mecanism that responsible to the production of speech.

Respiration
Is the process of modifiying the air from the lungs for use in greating in
speaking. Respiration depends on the nasal, oral and pharyngeal cavities
for air intake, which involve :
1. Pulmonary sytem
2. chest wall
3. major and minor thoracic muscle groups
4. Abdominal muscle
Phonation
Is the modification of the airstream from the lungs by the movement of
the structures in the laryngeal area (an airway to the lungs)
Resonation
Is the modifiction of the airstream from the lungs by the size, shape and
movement of the structure of nasal area, oral area, and pharyngeal areas
(part of throat that connects inner nose to the throat)

POINT (PLACE) OF ARTICULATION


There are eleven possible places are used
in speech. However, only around eight
which are used in English.
1. Bilabial
8.
Retroflex
2. Labio-dental
9. Palatal
3. Dental
10. Uvular
4. Alveolar
11.
Pharyngeal
5. Palato-alveolar (alveo-palatal)

POINT (PLACE) OF ARTICULATION


1. Bilabial: both lips are involved in articulation,
as in [p], [b], [m], [w] pink, beat, milk, walk
2. Labio-dental: the lower lip articulate with the
upper teeth,
as in [ f ], [ v ] fan, van
3. Dental: the tongue tip and rims articulate with
the upper teeth,
as in [ ], [ ] thin, then
4. Alveolar: the blade (and sometimes the tip) of
the tongue articulates with the alveolar ridge,
as in [t], [d], [ s ], [ z ], [n] tap, date, cell, zoom,
nap

5. Velar: the back of the tongue articulates with the


soft palate,
as in [k], [g], [] -- coke, give, sing
6. Palato-alveolar (alveo-palatal): the blade (and
sometimes the tip) of the tongue articulates with
the alveolar ridge, with a simultaneous raising of
the front of the tongue towards the hard palate,
as in [ ], [ ] sheep, treasure
7. Glottal: the vocal cords come together to cause a
closure or friction, as in [h] whose
8. Palatal: the front of the tongue articulates with
the hard palate,
as in [ ], [], [y] chair, judge, young

8. Retroflex: the tip of the tongue is curled


back to articulate with the area between
the rear of the alveolar ridge and the
front of the hard palate. We can hear this
from Indian English accent of [t], [d].
9. Uvular: the back of the tongue
articulates with the uvula, as in French
rue.
10. Pharyngeal: the front wall of the
pharynx (in the region of epiglottis)
articulates with the back wall. This exists

MANNER OF
ARTICULATION
There are four main kinds of
constriction made by the articulators in
producing speech sounds:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Total closure: plosive, nasal, affricate


Intermittent closure: roll (trill), flap
Partial closure: lateral
Narrowing: fricative, approximants

TOTAL CLOSURE

PLOSIVE (STOP): a complete closure is made at


some point in the vocal tract; the soft palate is
raised. Air pressure thus builds up behind the
closure, which is then released explosively, as in
[p], [b], [t], [d], [k], [g].
NASAL: a complete closure is made at some point
in the mouth; the soft palate is lowered, so that
air escapes through the nose, as in [m], [n], [].
AFFRICATE: A complete closure is made at some
point in the mouth; the soft palate is raised. Air
pressure builds up behind the closure, and is then
released relatively slowly (compared to a plosive
sound), as in [], [].

INTERMITTENT CLOSURE

ROLL (TRILL): one articulator taps


rapidly against another typically the
tongue tip against the alveolar ridge or
the tongue back against the uvula, as in
[r] in French, German or some English
accent.
FLAP: a single tap is made by one
articulator against another, as in some
pronunciation of the r in very, or d in
ladder, where the tongue tip taps once
against the alveolar ridge.

PARTIAL CLOSURE

LATERAL: a partial closure is made at


some point in the mouth, in such a way
that the air stream is allowed to escape
around the sides of the closure. Various
kinds of [ l ] sound are the result.

NARROWING

FRICATIVE: two vocal organs come so


close together that the movement of air
between them causes audible friction, as
in [ f ], [ v ], [ s ], [ z ], [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ].
APPROXIMANT:
the
articulation
is
strongly influenced by the following vowel
sound. [w], [y] and [h] (voiceless) are
produced with the tongue moving
(gliding), to or from the position of nearby
vowel.