You are on page 1of 29

#6.

Telecommunications and
Networking Security
AGENDA
 Power Protection
 General Environment Protection
 Equipment Failure Protection
Introduction
 Telecommunications and networking use
various mechanisms, devices, software,
and protocols that are interrelated and
integrated.
 Networking is one of the more complex
topics in the computer field, mainly
because so many technologies and
concepts are involved.
Introduction
 The many different types of devices, protocols,
and security mechanisms within an environment
provide different functionality, but they also provide
a layered approach to security. Layers within
security are important, so that if an attacker is able
to bypass one layer, another layer stands in the
way to protect the internal network.
 Many networks have routers, firewalls, intrusion
detection systems (IDSs), antivirus software, and
more. Each specializes in a certain piece of
security, but they all should work in concert to
provide a layered approach to security.
Introduction
 The many different types of devices, protocols,
and security mechanisms within an environment
provide different functionality, but they also provide
a layered approach to security. Layers within
security are important, so that if an attacker is able
to bypass one layer, another layer stands in the
way to protect the internal network.
 Many networks have routers, firewalls, intrusion
detection systems (IDSs), antivirus software, and
more. Each specializes in a certain piece of
security, but they all should work in concert to
provide a layered approach to security.
Introduction
 Telecommunications is the electrical transmission
of data among systems, whether through analog,
digital, or wireless transmission types. The data
can flow across copper wires, coaxial cable, fiber,
or airwaves, the telephone company’s public-
switched telephone network (PSTN), or a service
provider’s fiber cables, switches, and routers.
Definitive lines exist between the media used for
transmission, the technologies, the protocols, and
whose equipment is being used.
 Telecommunications usually refers to telephone
systems, service providers, and carrier services.
Open Systems
Interconnection Reference
Model
 ISO is a worldwide federation that works to
provide international standards. In the early
1980s, ISO worked to develop a protocol set
that would be used by all vendors throughout
the world to allow the interconnection of network
devices.
 This movement was fueled with the hopes of
ensuring that all vendor products and
technologies could communicate and interact
across international and technical boundaries.
Open Systems
Interconnection Reference
Model
 The actual protocol set did not catch on as a
standard, but the model of this protocol set, OSI
model, was adopted and is used as an abstract
framework to which most operating systems and
protocols adhere.
 The OSI model’s goal is to help others develop
products that will work within an open network
architecture.
Open Systems
Interconnection Reference
Model
 Although computers communicate in a physical
sense (electronic signals are passed from one
computer over a wire to the other computer),
they also communicate through logical
channels. Each protocol at a specific OSI layer
on one computer communicates with a
corresponding protocol operating at the same
OSI layer on another computer. This happens
through encapsulation.
Open Systems
Interconnection Reference
Model
 Here’s how encapsulation works: A message is
constructed within a program on one computer
and then passed down through the protocol’s
stack. A protocol at each layer adds its own
information to the message; thus, the message
grows in size as it goes down the protocol stack.
The information stripped off at the destination
computer informs it how to interpret and process
the packet properly.
Open Systems
Interconnection Reference
Model
 The benefit of modularizing these layers, and the
functionality within each layer, is that various
technologies, protocols, and services can interact with
each other and provide the proper interfaces to enable
communications. This means that a computer can use
an application protocol developed by Novell, a transport
protocol developed by Apple, and a data link protocol
developed by IBM to construct and send a message
over the network. The protocols, technologies, and
computers that operate within the OSI model are
considered open systems.
TCP/IP
 Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
is a suite of protocols that governs the way that data
travels from one device to another. Besides its
eponymous two main protocols, TCP/IP includes other
protocols as well.
 IP is a network layer protocol and provides datagram
routing services. IP’s main task is to support
internetwork addressing and packet routing. It is a
connectionless protocol that envelopes data passed to it
from the transport layer.
TCP/IP
 The IP protocol addresses the datagram with
the source and destination IP addresses. The
protocols within the TCP/IP suite work together
to break down the data passed from the
application layer into pieces that can be moved
along a network. They work with other protocols
to transmit the data to the destination computer
and then to reassemble the data back into a
form that the application layer can understand
and process.
 Two main protocols work at the transport layer:
TCP and UDP.
TCP/IP
 TCP is a reliable and connection-oriented protocol,
which means that it ensures that packets are delivered
to the destination computer. If a packet is lost during
transmission, TCP has the ability to identify this issue
and resend the lost or corrupted packet. TCP also
supports packet sequencing (to ensure each and every
packet was received), flow and congestion control, and
error detection and correction.
 UDP, on the other hand, is a best-effort and
connectionless protocol. It has neither packet
sequencing nor flow and congestion control, and the
destination does not acknowledge every packet it
receives.
Identifying TCP/IP Security
Concerns
 As a security professional, one of your biggest
problems is working with TCP/IP. You could say that
the ease of connectivity TCP/IP offers is one of the
most significant difficulties we face. Virtually all large
networks, including the Internet, are built on the
TCP/IP protocol suite. It has become an
international standard.
 TCP/IP was designed to connect disparate
computer systems into a robust and reliable
network. It offers a richness of capabilities and
support for many different protocols. After TCP/IP
has been installed, it will generally operate reliably
for years.
Identifying TCP/IP Security
Concerns
 Working with the TCP/IP Suite
The TCP/IP suite is broken into four architectural layers:
 Application layer
 Host-to-Host or Transport layer
 Internet layer
 Network Interface layer
Computers using TCP/IP use the existing physical
connection between the systems. TCP/IP doesn’t
concern itself with the network topology, or physical
connections. The network controller that resides in a
computer or host deals with the physical protocol, or
topology. TCP/IP communicates with that controller and
lets the controller worry about the network topology and
physical connection.
Identifying TCP/IP Security
Concerns
 The Application Layer
The Application layer is the highest layer of the suite. It
allows applications to access services or protocols to
exchange data. Most programs, such as web browsers,
interface with TCP/IP at this level. The most commonly
used Application layer protocols are as follows:
 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
 File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
 Telnet
 Domain Name Service (DNS)
 Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
 Post Office Protocol (POP)
Identifying TCP/IP Security
Concerns
 Host-to-Host or Transport Layer
The Host-to-Host layer, also called the Transport layer,
provides the Application layer with session and
datagram communications services. The TCP and User
Datagram Protocol (UDP) operate at this layer.
Identifying TCP/IP Security
Concerns
 The Internet Layer
The Internet layer is responsible for routing, IP
addressing, and packaging. The Internet layer protocols
accomplish most of the behind-the-scenes work in
establishing the ability to exchange information between
hosts.
Here are the four standard protocols of the Internet
layer:
 Internet Protocol (IP),
 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) ,
 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
 Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
Identifying TCP/IP Security
Concerns
 The Network Interface Layer
The lowest level of the TCP/IP suite is the Network
Interface layer. This layer is responsible for placing and
removing packets on the physical network through
communications with the network adapters in the host.
This process allows TCP/IP to work with virtually any
type of network topology or technology with little
modification. If a new physical network topology were
installed—say, a 10GB Fiber Ethernet connection—
TCP/IP would only need to know how to communicate
with the network controller in order to function properly.
TCP/IP can also communicate with more than one
network topology simultaneously. This allows the
protocol to be used in virtually any environment.
Identifying TCP/IP Security
Concerns
 Understanding Encapsulation
One of the key points in understanding this layering
process is the concept of encapsulation. Encapsulation
allows a transport protocol to be sent across the network
and utilized by the equivalent service or protocol at the
receiving host. E-mail is encapsulated as it moves from
the application protocols through the transport and
Internet protocols. Each layer adds header information
as the e-mail moves down the layers.
Identifying TCP/IP Security
Concerns
Transmission of the packet between the two hosts
occurs through the physical connection in the network
adapter. What’s shown in the figure isn’t comprehensive
but illustrates the process of message transmission.
After it is encapsulated, the message is sent to the
server. The e-mail client doesn’t know how the
message is delivered, and the server application doesn’t
care how the message got there. This makes designing
and implementing services such as e-mail possible in a
global or Internet environment.