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IEEE 802.

22 Standard for Rural


Broadband
State of Development

Gérald Chouinard
Program Manager
Tel.: (613) 998-2500
gerald.chouinard@crc.ca
www.crc.ca/broadband
Outline Rural and
Remote
1. Broadband Access in Canada Broadband
2. Best frequency range for rural access Access
3. Regulatory steps towards use of the TV bands
4. The IEEE 802.22 WG
5. The WRAN system concept
6. The IEEE 802.22 Draft Standard
a) PHY
b) MAC
c) Cognitive radio capability
i. Coexistence
ii. Geolocation
iii. Sensing
7. Protection of broadcast incumbents
a) Protection of TV broadcasting
b) Protection of wireless microphones (Part 74)
8. Possible research areas
9. Conclusion
Outline Rural and
Remote
1. Broadband Access in Canada Broadband
2. Best frequency range for rural access Access
3. Regulatory steps towards use of the TV bands
4. The IEEE 802.22 WG
5. The WRAN system concept
6. The IEEE 802.22 Draft Standard
a) PHY
b) MAC
c) Cognitive radio capability
i. Coexistence
ii. Geolocation
iii. Sensing
7. Protection of broadcast incumbents
a) Protection of TV broadcasting
b) Protection of wireless microphones (Part 74)
8. Possible research areas
9. Conclusion
Broadband Access Uneven

=> 63%
=> 37%

2004 2007
Telecom Policy Review Panel
Market Analysis of Broadband Service in Rural
and Remote Canada (Annex A of the report)
– by 2007: 89.3% population reached by broadband
• 26.8 millions Canadians served by land-based broadband
• 200,000 Canadians served over satellite (NSI)
• 3 millions unserved
– by 2010: 95% population served economically
• 1.2 million additional served by Wi-MAX type technology
(assuming 5 years payback period)
• 300,000 more served by Ka-band satellite
• 1.5 million people could not be served economically
– areas with fewer than 1200 people living within a 5–10
kilometre radius from the broadband PoP generally were
not economic to serve (i.e., 4 to 15 people/km2)
Household reach by technologies (“last mile”)
100
ADSL
Wireless
90 www.crc.ca
Optical fiber
80
Relative complexity/cost (%)

Cable modem

70 New wireless
Sparsely populated

60

Dense urban
Suburban

Urban
Satellite

Population per density bin (Million)


Rural
50 2.0 M
b
40 1.6 M

30 1.2 M

20 0.8 M

10 0.4 M

0 0.0 M
0.1 1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000
2
Population density (per km )
Satellite Terrestrial ADSL, Cable, ISM and UNII Wireless and Optical Fiber
Wireless
Outline Rural and
Remote
1. Broadband Access in Canada Broadband
Access
2. Best frequency range for rural access
3. Regulatory steps towards use of the TV bands
4. The IEEE 802.22 WG
5. The WRAN system concept
6. The IEEE 802.22 Draft Standard
a) PHY
b) MAC
c) Cognitive radio capability
i. Coexistence
ii. Geolocation
iii. Sensing
7. Protection of broadcast incumbents
a) Protection of TV broadcasting
b) Protection of wireless microphones (Part 74)
8. Possible research areas
9. Conclusion
Optimum frequency range
for large area Non-Line-of-sight Broadband Access
100

Antenna
90 aperture Ground
wave reach

80
Relative complexity/cost (%)

70 %
bandwidth
Foliage
absorption Phase
60 Doppler
noise
Filter spread
Ionospheric Reduced
reflection selectivity
50 refraction

40 Industrial
noise

30 Rain fade

20
Outdoor/indoor Cosmic Noise
10 attenuation noise Figure

0
.03 0.1 0.3 1 3 5
Frequency (GHz)
Optimum frequency range
for large area Non-Line-of-sight Broadband Access
100

90

80
Relative complexity/cost (%)

70

60

50

40

30

20 Mobile

Fixed
Mobile
Mobile

Mobile
Fixed
Fixed

Radionavigation
Fixed sec.

Mobile
TV TV TV
10 Ch. 7-13 Ch. 14-36 Ch. 38-69
Fixed sec.

Fixed sec.
Mobile

Mobile
Fixed

Aero Mobile
Meteo

0
0.15 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
.03 0.1 0.3 1 2 3 5
Frequency (GHz) License-exempt bands
Broadband IP-based communications below 1 GHz
Spectrum Occupancy
(Test conducted with antenna at a height of 22.1 meters above the ground
in the rural sector of Carp)

Low UHF
Outline Rural and
Remote
1. Broadband Access in Canada Broadband
2. Best frequency range for rural access Access
3. Regulatory steps towards use of the TV bands
4. The IEEE 802.22 WG
5. The WRAN system concept
6. The IEEE 802.22 Draft Standard
a) PHY
b) MAC
c) Cognitive radio capability
i. Coexistence
ii. Geolocation
iii. Sensing
7. Protection of broadcast incumbents
a) Protection of TV broadcasting
b) Protection of wireless microphones (Part 74)
8. Possible research areas
9. Conclusion
US Band Plan (Channels 52-69)
Lower 700 MHz Upper 700 MHz
Auctioned in 2002-2003, 734 Licences Public Safety

Auctioned 6 Licences,
MediaFLO (Mobile TV)

52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69

Public Safety Public Safety

B B Commercial A B
A B C D E A B C C * D BB
G
NB C
* Spectrum * D BB
G
NB *
B B

Public/Private Partnership
1 License
176 Licenses

12 Licenses
Open Access
734 Licenses

Commercial: 52 MHz to be auctioned, split into 4 blocks in a mix of geographic area sizes; Lower 700 MHz
Blocks A, B, E; Upper 700 MHz Block C.
Public Safety/Private Partnership: 10 MHz commercial block to be auctioned and licensed on a nationwide
basis; Upper 700 MHz Block D.
Public Safety: 24 MHz (10 MHz Broadband, 12 MHz narrowband, 2x1 MHz internal guard bands)
Commercial blocks already auctioned
U.S. Activity- Channels 2-51

54 MHz 72 76 88 174 216 470 512 MHz

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Low power devices* Low power devices* Low power devices** in areas not used by PLMRS
or CMRS (licensed in 13 metropolitan areas)

512 608 MHz

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
Low power devices*

608 614 668 698 MHz

37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51
Low power devices*
TV bands white space: Regulatory steps
• Fixed Wireless Access technologies for rural areas
– Better propagation at lower frequencies (below 1 GHz)
– Opportunity for using vacant TV broadcast spectrum in scarcely
populated areas

• USA
– FCC NPRM on License-Exempt devices in VHF/UHF TV
bands below 700 MHz in ET Docket 04-186 (May 2004)
– First R&O and Further NPRM (Oct. 2006)
– FCC-OET has carried out lab tests of DTV receivers
– FCC-OET is still carrying out lab tests of DTV sensing
devices
– Final R&O expected for 1Q 2008
Canadian Approach to TV bands use

Remote Rural Broadband Systems (RRBS) on channels 21-51


• To be licensed as per RP-06
• Focus licensing in Channels 25, 34, 35 and 43 initially
– Help manufacturers keep costs down
– Minimize broadcast coordination
– Other channels may be used on a case-by-case basis
• Mobile services not permitted
• Coverage into urban centres not permitted
• RRBS are not allowed closer than 120 km from the US border
• Licensing and technical rules well advanced
Applications for Rural Broadband in Channels 2-59
November 2006

Applications for Rural


Broadband in Channels
2-59, November 2006
Outline Rural and
Remote
1. Broadband Access in Canada Broadband
2. Best frequency range for rural access Access
3. Regulatory steps towards use of the TV bands
4. The IEEE 802.22 WG
5. The WRAN system concept
6. The IEEE 802.22 Draft Standard
a) PHY
b) MAC
c) Cognitive radio capability
i. Coexistence
ii. Geolocation
iii. Sensing
7. Protection of broadcast incumbents
a) Protection of TV broadcasting
b) Protection of wireless microphones (Part 74)
8. Possible research areas
9. Conclusion
IEEE 802 Standards Process
IEEE
802

802.11 802.15 802.16 802.20 802.18 802.22



WLAN WPAN WMAN WMAN Regulatory WRAN
Mobile Matters
802.22.1
Enhanced
802.11b 802.15.1 802.16d Part 74
11 Mbit/s Bluetooth Fixed protection

802.11g 802.15.3 802.16e 802.22.2


54 Mbit/s High rate Mobile Recommended
Practice
802.11n 802.15.4 802.11j
100 Mbit/s Zigbee Relay
Sensing
Tiger Team
… … …
Geolocation
Wi-Fi Wi-MAX Tiger Team
IEEE Standards
“Regional Area
RAN Network”
30 km IEEE 802.22

54 - 862 MHz
IEEE 802.22 Work Plan

Steps Deadline
Formation of the 802.22 WG Jan 05
Functional Requirements definition & Sept 05
Call for proposals
Proposals / Contributions Nov 05 & Jan 06
Consolidation of proposals March 06
Standard drafting process starts January 07
Working Group ballot / Comments March 08
resolution process
IEEE Sponsor Ballot / Comments November 08
resolution process
Standard approved and delivered to March 09
industry
Outline Rural and
Remote
1. Broadband Access in Canada Broadband
2. Best frequency range for rural access Access
3. Regulatory steps towards use of the TV bands
4. The IEEE 802.22 WG
5. The WRAN system concept
6. The IEEE 802.22 Draft Standard
a) PHY
b) MAC
c) Cognitive radio capability
i. Coexistence
ii. Geolocation
iii. Sensing
7. Protection of broadcast incumbents
a) Protection of TV broadcasting
b) Protection of wireless microphones (Part 74)
8. Possible research areas
9. Conclusion
- Cable-modem / ADSL
Rural Broadband: - WiFi hot-spots in ISM bands
- Medium power wireless systems
- Higher power, lower frequency
broadband access system
MAC
5 km Long round-trip
delays
16 km
23 km
30 km
64-QAM
16-QAM

QPSK
PHY
Adaptive
modulation
WRAN System Capacity and Coverage
Typical WRAN service model
RF channel bandwidth 6 MHz
Typical spectrum efficiency 2 bit/(s*Hz) (Max: 3.8 bit/(s*Hz))
Channel capacity 12 Mbit/s
Subscriber capacity (forward) 1.5 Mbit/s
Subscriber capacity (return) 384 kbit/s
Over-subscription ratio 40:1
Subscribers per forward channel 255
Minimum viable operation
Minimum number of subscribers 90
Initial penetration 5%
Potential full penetration
Potential number of subscribers 1,800
Number of person per household 2.5
Population per coverage area 4500
Type of operation Low power High power
WRAN base station EIRP 4 Watts 100 Watts
WRAN user terminal EIRP 163 mWatt 4 Watts
Coverage radius 16.7 km 30.7 km
2
Minimum population density 5.1 person/km 1.5 person/km2
Household reach by technologies (“last mile”)
100
ADSL
Wireless
90 www.crc.ca
Optical fiber
80
Relative complexity/cost (%)

Cable modem

70 WRAN
Sparsely populated

60

Dense urban
Suburban

Urban
Satellite

Population per density bin (Million)


Rural
50 2.0 M
b
40 1.6 M

30 1.2 M

20 0.8 M

10 0.4 M

0 0.0 M
0.1 1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000
2
Population density (per km )
4 W Base Station
Satellite 100 W Base Station ADSL, Cable, ISM and UNII Wireless and Optical Fiber
4 W User terminal

FCC Definition of „Rural‟


Characteristics of
802.22 WRAN:

Base station power: 100 W


Antenna height: 75 m

16 km
23 km
30 km
64-QAM
16-QAM

QPSK

Max throughput per 6 MHz:


23 Mbit/s (net: 19.44 Mbit/s)

User terminal (CPE) power: 4 W


antenna height: 10 m
Max throughput per 6 MHz:
Minimum service availability:
DS: 7.8 Mbit/s (net: 3.89 Mbit/s)
location= 50%
US: 768 kbit/s (net: 384 kbit/s)
time= 99.9%
802.22 WRAN Deployment Scenario
집 집

WRAN
Base Station

집 집

Wireless
MIC
집 집

집 집

TV 집

Transmitter
집 WRAN
Base Station

집 집

Typical ~31km 집

Wireless 집
Max. 100km
MIC 집 집


집 집

: WRAN Base Station



: CPE
WRAN CPE
(Customer Premise Equipment)

DTV WRAN
WRAN CPE RF Architecture
Common RF path for WRAN operation and sensing
Sensing
antenna

Sensing schemes:
- energy detector
-pilot tone detector
-correlated detector
- Part 74 micro detector
-TG1 beacon detector

WRAN
Pre-

LNA
RF Channel synchronization
switch
selective X filter demodulator
filter
decoder

LO
WRAN operating Tuning for WRAN channel and sensing channel
TX/RX antenna
HPA

Selectable WRAN encoding and


output filter X modulation
WRAN CPE RF Architecture
Separate RF path for WRAN operation and sensing
Sensing
antenna

Sensing schemes:
Pre- - energy detector

LNA
Channel -pilot tone detector
selective X filter -correlated detector
filter - Part 74 micro detector
-TG1 beacon detector
LO
Tuning for channel sensing

WRAN
Pre-

LNA
RF Channel synchronization
switch
selective X filter demodulator
filter
decoder

LO
WRAN operating Tuning for WRAN channel
TX/RX antenna
HPA

Selectable WRAN encoding and


output filter X modulation
Outline Rural and
Remote
1. Broadband Access in Canada Broadband
2. Best frequency range for rural access Access
3. Regulatory steps towards use of the TV bands
4. The IEEE 802.22 WG
5. The WRAN system concept
6. The IEEE 802.22 Draft Standard
a) PHY
b) MAC
c) Cognitive radio capability
i. Coexistence
ii. Geolocation
iii. Sensing
7. Protection of broadcast incumbents
a) Protection of TV broadcasting
b) Protection of wireless microphones (Part 74)
8. Possible research areas
9. Conclusion
PHY (Baseband) Architecture for the
OFDM/OFDMA WRAN standard

Preamble Binary
Puncturer
Guard & Subcarrier Data
P/S IFFT S/P Mapper & Encoder Randomizer
Insertion Pilot Allocator
Interleaver
Insertion

Channel

AWGN

De- Recovered
Guard Channel Subcarrier De- interleaver De- Data
S/P FFT P/S Decoder
Removal Estimation Deallocator mapper & randomizer
Depuncturer

Synchronization
PHY: System Parameters

Parameters Specification Remark


Frequency range 54~862 MHz
Bandwidth 6 and/or 7, and/or 8 MHz
Data rate 4.54 – 22.69 Mbit/s
Spectral Efficiency 0.76 – 3.78 bit/(s*Hz)
BPSK used for preambles,
Payload modulation QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM
pilots and CDMA codes
Currently 4 W for BS in the
Transmit EIRP Default 4W for CPEs USA, may vary in other
regulatory domains.
Multiple Access OFDMA
FFT Mode 2048
Cyclic Prefix Modes ¼, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32
Duplex TDD
PHY: System Parameters

TCP TFFT
TSYM

Cyclic prefix modes: TCP/TFFT = 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32

6 MHz based 7 MHz based 8 MHz based


channels channels channels
Inter-carrier spacing, (6x106*8/7)/2048 (7x106*8/7)/2048 (8x106*8/7)/2048
F (Hz)  3348.214  3906. 25  4464.286
FFT/IFFT period,
 298.666 = 256.000 = 224.000
TFFT (s)=1/F
PHY: OFDM Parameters
TV channel bandwidth (MHz) 6 7 8
Total no. of sub-carriers,
2048
NFFT
No. of guard sub-carriers,
368 (184, 1, 183)
NG (L, DC, R)
No. of used sub-carriers,
1680
NT = ND+ NP
No. of data sub-carriers,
1440
ND

No. of pilot sub-carriers, NP 240

Signal bandwidth (MHz) 5.625 6.566 7.504

2K FFT

DC

6 MHz

Data Sub-carrier Pilot Subcarrier Guard/Null Subcarrier


PHY: OFDM Parameters
PHY Mode dependent parameters. Note that the data rates are
derived based on 2K sub-carriers and a TCP to TFFT ratio of 1/16.
Spectral
Data
PHY Coding Efficiency
Modulation rate
Mode Rate (for 6 MHz
(Mb/s)
bandwidth)
1
1 BPSK Uncoded 4.54 0.76
2
2 QPSK ½ 1.51 0.25
3 QPSK ½ 4.54 0.76
4 QPSK 2/3 6.05 1.01
5 QPSK ¾ 6.81 1.13
6 QPSK 5/6 7.56 1.26
7 16-QAM ½ 9.08 1.51
8 16-QAM 2/3 12.10 2.02
9 16-QAM ¾ 13.61 2.27
10 16-QAM 5/6 15.13 2.52
11 64-QAM ½ 13.61 2.27
12 64-QAM 2/3 18.15 3.03
13 64-QAM ¾ 20.42 3.40
14 64-QAM 5/6 22.69 3.78
Note 1: Mode 1 is only used for CDMA opportunistic bursts
Note 2: Mode 2 is only used for CBP burst transmission which uses QPSK, rate:
½ convolutional coding with repetition of 3
PHY: OFDM frame structure
Downstream Upstream
DS Subchannel US Subchannel
Bin (= 4 Bins) Bin (= 4 Bins)
TTG RTG
Frequency bins

Minimum Burst
Pilot carrier
Length for US
Data carrier
FCH, DS-MAP, US-MAP
Frame preamble
Frame
(CP= 1/8)
(US/DS capacity split for maximum downstream capacity)
Note:
240 Bins = 60 DS sub-channels = DS Capacity, i.e. 4 Bins = 1 DS sub-channel
240 Bins = 60 US sub-channels = US Capacity, i.e. 4 Bins = 1 US sub-channel
PHY: OFDM frame structure
Downstream Upstream
DS Subchannel US Subchannel
Bin (= 4 Bins) Bin (= 4 Bins)
TTG RTG
Frequency bins

Minimum Burst
Pilot carrier
Length for US
Data carrier
FCH, DS-MAP, US-MAP
SCH and super-frame payload
Frame preamble
Super-frame preamble First frame of super-frame
(CP= 1/8)
(US/DS capacity split for maximum upstream capacity)
Note:
240 Bins = 60 DS sub-channels = DS Capacity, i.e. 4 Bins = 1 DS sub-channel
240 Bins = 60 US sub-channels = US Capacity, i.e. 4 Bins = 1 US sub-channel
PHY: OFDM Parameters

WRAN frame parameters


Cyclic Number of symbols Transmit-receive Receive-transmit
1
Prefix per frame turnaround gap 2 (TTG) turnaround gap 3 (RTG)
BW 6 MHz 7 MHz 8 MHz 6 MHz 7 MHz 8 MHz 6 MHz 7 MHz 8 MHz
26 83.33 μs
1/4 30 210 μs 190 μs
34 270 μs
29 46 μs
1/8 33 210 μs 286 μs
38 214 μs
1/16 30 270 μs
35 210 μs 270 μs
41 32 μs
31 242 μs
1/32 37 210 μs 22 μs
42 88 μs
Notes: 1. Includes the frame preamble and the FCH, DS/US-MAP and DCD/UCD symbols.
2. Set to absorb the propagation delay for up to a 30 km and a CPE turnaround time of 10
μs. For larger distances, scheduling at the BS will allow for absorption of longer
propagation delay.
3. Portion of symbol left over to arrive at the 10 ms frame period.
PHY: Preambles

CP ST1 ST2 ST3 ST4

TSYM

Superframe preamble format using short training sequences

CP LT1 LT 2

T SYM

Frame preamble format using long training sequences


PHY: Preambles (generation and performance)
• Binary frame preamble set with 114 sequences:
– Based on M-sequences
– Use of a single generator: x10 + x9 + x7 + x5 + x4 + x2 + 1
– Simple shifts for each sequence.
• PAPR range : 4.78 to 5.57 dB (WiMAX: 4.29-4.92 dB)
• Frequency domain auto-correlation:
– 2.6 dB better than WiMAX over all lags
– 4.23 dB better than WiMAX over lags 0 to 200
• Low maximum cross-correlation among proposed
sequences in both time and frequency domain.
– Time domain X-correlation: 3 dB better than WIMAX
– Frequency domain X-correlation: 6 dB better than WiMAX
over 0-11 lags
PHY: Preambles (simulation results)
Coexistence Beacon Protocol
CBP data CBP data
CBP Preamble
(Symbol 1) (Symbol 2, optional)

1 OFDM symbol 1 OFDM symbol 1 OFDM symbol


(4 repetitions) Data + Pilots Data + Pilots

CBP packet format

ST1 ST2 ST3 ST4 ST5

TSYM

CBP preamble format using a different short training sequence


Frequency Bin Number
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

...
Preamble:

...
Pilots:

...
Data:

Sub-carrier definition for CBP preamble and data symbols


FEC => 1) Convolutional coding
Output A

+
Data in
D D D D D D

+ Output B

Rate: ½ convolutional coder with generator polynomials 171o, 133o.


The delay element represents a delay of 1 bit.

Code rate ½ 2/3 ¾ 5/6


Convolutional coder
A1B1 A1B1A2B2 A1B1A2B2A3B3 A1B1A2B2A3B3A4B4A5B5
output
Puncturer output/bit-
A1B1 A1B1B2 A1B1B2A3 A1B1B2A3B4A5
inserter input
Decoder input A1B1 A1B10B2 A1B10B2A30 A1B10B2A300B4A50
Puncturing and bit-insertion for the different coding rates
FEC => 2) CTC -optional
Duobinary Convolutional Turbo Coding

Puncturing patterns for turbo codes (“1”= keep, “0”= puncture)


Code Rate Puncturing vector
½ Y = [1 1 1 1 1 1]
2/3 Y = [1 0 1 0 1 0]
¾ Y = [1 0 0 1 0 0]
5/6 Y = [1 0 0 0 0]
-
FEC => 3) LDPC -optional
Low density parity check codes

ST
p1
Information bits
ST
p2
A ET-1  1 B T-1

H matrix
n  m m  p p

A B
T  I p p

C D E m  p
FEC => 4) SBTC -optional
Shortened block turbo codes

Shortened BTC (SBTC) structure


Compared FEC Performance
Block size = 384 bits, rate: 1/2, QPSK
Packet Error Rate - WRAN-B Channel
1E+00
FT_ChB_CC_2b384
FT_ChB_CTC_6b1728_802.16_CC_interleaver
Moto_ChB_CC_2b384
Moto_ChB_LDPC_2b384
1E-01
Moto_AWGN_LDPC_2b384
I2R_ChB_CC_2b384
I2R_ChB_SBTC_2b384
Packet Error Rate

1E-02

1E-03

1E-04

1E-05
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
SNR, dB
Compared FEC Performance
Block size = 576 bits, rate: 1/2, QPSK
Packet Error Rate - WRAN-B Channel
1E+00
FT_ChB_CC_2b576
FT_ChB_CTC_6b1728_802.16_CC_interleaver
FT_AWGN_CTC_2b576
Moto_ChB_CC_2b576
1E-01
Moto_ChB_LDPC_2b576
Moto_AWGN_LDPC_2b576
Packet Error Rate

1E-02

1E-03

1E-04

1E-05
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
SNR, dB
Compared FEC Performance
Block size = 1728 bits, rate: 3/4, 64-QAM
Packet Error Rate - WRAN-B Channel
1E+00
FT_ChB_CC_6b1728
FT_ChB_CTC_6b1728_802.16_CC_interleaver
FT_ChB_CTC_6b1728_802.16_CTC_interleaver
FT_AWGN_CTC_6b1728
1E-01 Moto_ChB_CC_6b1728
Moto_ChB_LDPC_6b1728
Moto_AWGN_LDPC_6b1728
I2R_ChB_CC_6b1728
Packet Error Rate

I2R_ChB_SBTC_1728
1E-02

1E-03

1E-04

1E-05
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
SNR, dB
PHY: Bit and subcarrier interleaving
NFFT

Kd=a 1440
Kb bits Kd=b 1624 IFFT

Guard sub-carriers
Sub-carrier Modulation
Binary interleaving

Interleaving In(k)

Multipath channel
Pilot insertion
Data scrambing

sn ( t )
X

sub-carrier
FEC coding

WN0m
Puncturing

Tcp Insertion
FFT
S/P
X X +

WNkm k
FFT

X ( 1)m
(N 1 )m
AWGN
WN FFT
FFT
Information
binary Source permutation rules
selection
( j)
I p ,q (k )
I p , q (k ) I p,q (2) (k ) Max I (p ,qj ) ( k  s )  I (p ,qj ) ( k )
k

k I
I I I Interleaving spreading
maximization
Binary interleaving patterns
FEC constraints encountered
PHY: Subcarrier interleaving
• Interleaving parameter sets and interleaving spreading
Size K p q j DL(s=1) DL(s=2) DL(s=3) DL(s=4)

Uplink: 1624 4 2 3 743 138 605 276

Downlink: 1440 40 2 2 559 322 237 644

IEEE 802.16e 92 82 127 207

DL 16QAM 1/2 - BER Error Rate - WRANB Channel UL 16QAM 1/2 - BER Error Rate - WRANB Channel
1E+00 1E+00

1E-01 1E-01

DL_FT_fad_cc_4b576_PUSC UL_FT_fad_cc_4b576_PUSC

1E-02 DL_FT_fad_cc_4b576_New_Interleaver 1E-02 UL_FT_fad_cc_4b576_1624


Bit Error Rate

Bit Error Rate

1E-03 1E-03

1E-04 1E-04

1E-05 1E-05

1E-06 1E-06
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

SNR, dB SNR, dB
PHY: Bit interleaving
• Interleaving parameter sets and interleaving spreading
Coded Interleaver Interleaver Spreading
Block Parameters (informative)
K (bits) p q j ΔL(s=1) ΔL(s=2) ΔL(s=3) ΔL(s=4) ΔL(s=6) ΔL(s=8)
96 3 2 3 25 46 21 4 42 8
192 3 2 3 71 50 21 92 42 8
288 3 2 3 121 46 75 92 138 104
336 16 2 3 95 146 75 100 102 88
384 6 2 3 179 26 153 52 78 104
480 16 2 3 191 98 93 196 186 88
576 36 2 1 217 142 75 284 150 8
768 3 2 3 313 142 171 284 342 200
864 48 2 1 479 98 381 196 294 392
960 6 2 3 589 358 231 716 306 88
1008 36 2 1 361 286 75 436 150 136
1056 48 2 1 769 286 483 572 294 392
1056 16 2 3 671 866 476 831 198 88
1152 36 2 1 359 434 75 75 150 568
1248 3 2 2 409 430 21 388 42 472
1440 40 2 2 559 322 237 644 210 200
1536 6 2 3 589 358 231 716 462 104
1632 3 2 3 793 46 747 92 138 184
1680 40 2 2 559 562 3 556 510 680
1728 36 2 1 793 142 651 284 426 568
1824 48 2 1 769 286 483 572 858 680
1920 48 2 1 863 194 669 388 582 776
2112 16 2 3 671 770 99 572 198 968
2208 3 2 3 743 722 21 764 42 680
2304 16 2 3 1055 194 861 388 582 776
PHY: Bit and subcarrier interleaving
• Use of common algorithm
– Use of the same interleaving algorithm with different
parameters for both bit and subcarrier interleaving
– Same bit interleaving can be used for the basic
convolutional coding and other optional FEC schemes
• Can be implemented as algorithm for binary
interleaving over various block lengths and as
table lookup for DS and US subcarrier
interleaving (fixed lengths: 1440 and1624)
• Gains over the 802.16 interleavers range from
1 – 3 dB
Relative performance of the different portions of the
802.22 WRAN signal in an AWGN channel
6

384
576
2-repeat

2-repeat
4

rate:1/4

rate:1/4

2-repeat
2

4-repeat
SINR (dB)
0 -2
-4
-6

Super-frame Super-frame Frame preamble Frame control DS/US-MAP Payload Payload


preamble control header Binary header and DCD/UCD QPSK rate: 1/2 QPSK rate: 1/2
Binary QPSK rate: 1/2 2-repeat QPSK rate: 1/2 QPSK rate:1/2 CC Advanced
4-repeat CC 4-repeat CC 2-repeat CC coding
Outline Rural and
Remote
1. Broadband Access in Canada Broadband
2. Best frequency range for rural access Access
3. Regulatory steps towards use of the TV bands
4. The IEEE 802.22 WG
5. The WRAN system concept
6. The IEEE 802.22 Draft Standard
a) PHY
b) MAC
c) Cognitive radio capability
i. Coexistence
ii. Geolocation
iii. Sensing
7. Protection of broadcast incumbents
a) Protection of TV broadcasting
b) Protection of wireless microphones (Part 74)
8. Possible research areas
9. Conclusion
MAC: Protocol Reference Model

Higher Layers:IP,ATM,1394,
etc.
SME
Convergence Sub-Layer
Bridge(e.g.,802.1d)
MAC SAP

MAC MLME

SME-MLME SAP
Spectrum
Manager(BS)
/Spectrum
Automaton(CPE)

PHY SAP MLME-PLME SAP

PHY PLME

SME-PLME SAP
SSF

Geo- MAC_SAP: MAC Service Access Point

Location PHY_SAP: PHY Service Access Point


SME-MLME_SAP: Station Management Entity -
MAC Layer Management Entity Service Access Point
SME-PLME_SAP: Station Management Entity -
PHY Layer Management Entity Service Access Point
MLME-PLME_SAP: MAC Layer Management Entity -
PHY Layer Management Entity Service Access Point
MAC: Superframe structure
160 ms

Time
... Superframe n-1 Superframe n Superframe n+1 ...

10 ms

frame 0 frame 1 . . . frame 15

Superframe Frame Frame Frame


Preamble Preamble
SCH Preamble Preamble

DS subframe US subframe
UCS Self- R
Ranging BW request US PHY PDU ... US PHY PDU
DS PHY PDU TTG slots slots
Notification
(CPE m) (CPE p)
coexistence T
Slots window
G

Preamble FCH DS burst 1 DS burst 2 ... DS burst x BCH US burst

U D MAC
DS- US- ... MAC PDU k Pad
MAP MAP
D C Broadcast MAC PDU 1
C D PDU

MAC PDU 1 ... MAC PDU y Pad

MAC Header MAC Payload CRC

MAC Header MAC Payload CRC


MAC: OFDM frame structure
Time
... frame n-1 frame n frame n+1 ...
10 ms

26 to 42 symbols corresponding to bandwidths from 6 MHz to 8 MHz and cyclic prefixes from 1/4 to 1/32

US-MAP
FCH Ranging/BW request/UCS notification

Burst 1
DCD

Burst 1

Burst 2

(4 or 5 symbols when scheduled)


UCD

more than 7 OFDMA symbols


DS-MAP

Burst 3
Frame Preamble

Bursts

60 subchannels
time buffer

time buffer
Self-coexistence window
Burst m
Burst 2

Bursts

Burst Burst

Burst
US-MAP

Burst n

Burst
TTG

RTG
DS sub-frame US sub-frame
(smallest US burst portion on a given subchannel= 7 symbols)
Outline Rural and
Remote
1. Broadband Access in Canada Broadband
2. Best frequency range for rural access Access
3. Regulatory steps towards use of the TV bands
4. The IEEE 802.22 WG
5. The WRAN system concept
6. The IEEE 802.22 Draft Standard
a) PHY
b) MAC
c) Cognitive radio capability
i. Coexistence
ii. Geolocation
iii. Sensing
7. Protection of broadcast incumbents
a) Protection of TV broadcasting
b) Protection of wireless microphones (Part 74)
8. Possible research areas
9. Conclusion
Coexistence among WRAN systems
Interference-
free
scheduling

Preamble
Spectrum
Etiquette

SCH
CBP

Adaptive on
Demand
Channel
Contention
CBP MAC PDU

Dynamic
Resource
Renting/
Offering
Coexistence Beacon Protocol (CBP) burst
Coexistence among WRAN systems
Outline Rural and
Remote
1. Broadband Access in Canada Broadband
2. Best frequency range for rural access Access
3. Regulatory steps towards use of the TV bands
4. The IEEE 802.22 WG
5. The WRAN system concept
6. The IEEE 802.22 Draft Standard
a) PHY
b) MAC
c) Cognitive radio capability
i. Coexistence
ii. Geolocation
iii. Sensing
7. Protection of broadcast incumbents
a) Protection of TV broadcasting
b) Protection of wireless microphones (Part 74)
8. Possible research areas
9. Conclusion
Geolocation of all CPEs

• GPS -based (requested by broadcasters)


• Terrestrial triangulation between BS and at
least two benchmark CPEs using the high
accuracy ranging built-in the 802.22 standard
Outline Rural and
Remote
1. Broadband Access in Canada Broadband
2. Best frequency range for rural access Access
3. Regulatory steps towards use of the TV bands
4. The IEEE 802.22 WG
5. The WRAN system concept
6. The IEEE 802.22 Draft Standard
a) PHY
b) MAC
c) Cognitive radio capability
i. Coexistence
ii. Geolocation
iii. Sensing
7. Protection of broadcast incumbents
a) Protection of TV broadcasting
b) Protection of wireless microphones (Part 74)
8. Possible research areas
9. Conclusion
Broadcast Incumbent Sensing
Energy (Power) Detection Sensing Technique

Noise Power Spectral Density:


-174 + 11 = -163 dBm/Hz
Bandwidth = 6 MHz
M = number of samples

Impact of noise uncertainty


 SNR Wall Power Wall
0 dB -18.2 dB -113.4 dBm
0.5 dB -6.4 dB -101.6 dBm
1.0 dB -3.3 dB -98.5 dBm
Energy (Power) Detection Sensing Technique
RF sensing performance

100.0%

Threshold =
-116 dBm
Probability of misdetection (Pmd)

10.0%

1.0% Energy - 1dB Pfa=10% 5 ms


Energy - 0.5dB Pfa=10% 5 ms
Energy - 0dB Pfa=10% 5ms

0.1%
-26 -24 -22 -20 -18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2
SNR (dB)
Broadcast Incumbent Sensing
Multi-resolution Sensing Technique (Gtech)

Functional block diagram of the MRSS system


Performance of MRSS

N average 1 10 20 40 80 160

Sensing Time (msec) 0.1 1 2 4 8 16

Required SNR PMD = 0.1 -3.19 -11.64 -14.00 -16.55 -19.67 -24.47
(dB)
PMD = 0.01 -0.01 -8.98 -11.43 -13.83 -16.36 -19.88
Broadcast Incumbent Sensing
Covariance-based Sensing Technique (I2R)
Decision: if the
Compute the Compute the maximum eign
Collect Compute maximum eigenvalue >r*minimum eign,
signal the sample covariance MME
and minimum signal exists;
samples matrix using the eigenvalue of the
threshold r Otherwise, signal
collected samples covariance matrix not exists.

Decision: if the
Required SNR for DTV signal detection (single channel) energy
>r*minimum eign,
signal exists; EME
Method 4ms 8ms 16ms 32ms
Otherwise, signal
MME -11.6dB -13.2dB -15dB -16.9dB not exists.
EME -10.5dB -12.1dB -14dB -15.8dB

Required SNR for wireless microphone signal detection


Method 4ms 10ms
MME -21.0dB -23.1dB
MME: Maximum-minimum
EME -16.4dB -18.4dB eigenvalue detection
Required SNR for DTV signal detection (three consecutive channels) EME: Energy with minimum
Method 4ms 16ms eigenvalue detection
MME -17.5dB -20.9dB
EME -15.6dB -19.1dB
Broadcast Incumbent Sensing
Spectrum Correlation Sensing Technique
(Huawei)
Sense
antenna
LPF ADC FFT detector

LNA
cos2fpt
where fp: left edge freq. of
the channel
Sensing receiver structure

Required SNRs vs Sensing Time/Number of


components for correlation calculation

Sensing time, number of Required SNR(dB), Required SNR(dB),


components for Prob. of detection of Prob. of detection
calculation 0.9 of 0.99
1/3 ms, 50 components -7 - 3.5
2 ms, 100 components - 12 -8
10 ms, 200 components - 29 - 15.5
Broadcast Incumbent Sensing
ATSC PLL-based Pilot Sensing Technique
(Philips)
F
ini_1

IF FTB1
F1

- ABS<THRESH
DECISION
TV
ADC
TUNER

F2
Convergence behaviour of the two DECISION BLOCK
FTB2
frequency tracking blocks (FTBs) each set to
a different initial frequency in the presence f pilot
of a very low SNR ATSC DTV signal F
ini_2
SENSOR

f
FIG 1

Required SNR for DTV signal detection


(Averaged over 12 signals)
Sensing Time 50 ms 75 ms
Required SNR -12.42 dB -14.88 dB
Broadcast Incumbent Sensing
ATSC FFT-based Pilot Sensing Technique
(Philips)
x(t)

… …
-21.52 MHz 0 21.52 MHz
y(t)

… … FFT applied around the pilot carrier


1 ms sensing window will allow a
32-point FFT while a 5 ms
-53.8 kHz 0 53.8 kHz window will allow a 256-point FFT

Required SNR for DTV signal detection (Average over 12 signals)


Method 5 ms (N = 1) 10 ms (N = 2) 30 ms (N = 6) 50 ms (N = 10)
Pilot-Energy -18 dB -20.5 dB -23.5 dB -24.5 dB
Pilot-Location (NT = 2) - -18.5 dB -22.0 dB -24.0 dB
Broadcast Incumbent Sensing
Segment synch autocorrelation Sensing Technique
(Thomson)

Accumulator
Compare with
y[n] 8-Sample Select Maximum threshold
Compute
Sliding Window over 832×2
Magnitude
Addition Sampling Instances

832×2
Sample Delay

832×2
Conjugate
Sample Delay

Required SNR for the Segment-Sync based detector.


Sensing Time Δ=0dB Δ=0.5dB Δ=1dB
Required SNR (dB)
4.06 ms -7 -6.5 -6
9.25 ms -8 -7.5 -7
92.5 ms -13 -12.5 -12
Sensing techniques performance comparison
RF sensing performance

100.0%
Probability of misdetection (Pmd)

10.0%

Energy - 1dB Pfa=10% 5 ms

1.0% Energy - 0.5dB Pfa=10% 5 ms


Energy - 0dB Pfa=10% 5ms
I2R Pfa=0.1% 4ms
I2R Pfa= 1% 4ms
I2R Pfa=10% 4 ms

0.1%
-26 -24 -22 -20 -18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2
SNR (dB)
Sensing techniques performance comparison
RF sensing performance
100.0%
Probability of misdetection (Pmd)

10.0%

Energy - 1dB Pfa=10% 5 ms


Energy - 0.5dB Pfa=10% 5 ms
Energy - 0dB Pfa=10% 5ms
Thomson-Segment Pfa=10% 4 ms

1.0% I2R Pfa=0.1% 4ms


I2R Pfa= 1% 4ms
I2R Pfa=10% 4 ms
Qualcomm Field Pfa=10% 24 ms
Qualcom Field Pfa=1% 24 ms
Thomson Field Pfa=10% 24 ms
Thomson Field Pfa=1% 24ms
I2R EME Pfa=2.9% 18.6 ms
I2R MME Pfa=7.7% 18.6 ms
0.1%
-26 -24 -22 -20 -18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2
SNR (dB)
Sensing technique performance
(Thomson DTV segment detector)
Sensor RF sensing performance
1

Sampling= 4.06 ms
Probability of misdetection (Pmd)

0.8
Pfa= 10 %
0.6

0.4

0.2

0
-26 -22 -18 -14 -10 -6 -2
SNR (dB)
Sensing technique performance
(Thomson DTV segment detector)
Sensor RF sensing performance
1

Sampling= 4.06 ms
Probability of misdetection (Pmd)

0.8
Pfa= 10 %
0.6

0.4

0.2
6%

0
5%
-26 -22 -18 -14 -10 -6 -2 DTV signal level
SNR (dB)
.

at edge of contour
4%
Log-norma l PDF

3%

2% Log-normal PDF

μ= 8.9 dB
1%
σ= 7.08 dB

0%
-26 -22 -18 -14 -10 -6 -2 2 6 10 14
SNR (dB)
Sensing technique performance
(Thomson DTV segment detector)
Sensor RF sensing performance
1

Sampling= 4.06 ms
Probability of misdetection (Pmd)

0.8
Pfa= 10 %
0.6

0.4

0.2
6%

0
5%
-26 -22 -18 -14 -10 -6 -2 DTV signal level
SNR (dB)
.

at edge of contour
4%
Log-norma l PDF

3%

Log-normal PDF
2%
10 * (Pmd * PDF)

1%

0%
-26 -22 -18 -14 -10 -6 -2 2 6 10 14
SNR (dB)
Sensing technique performance
(Thomson DTV segment detector)
Sensor RF sensing performance
1

Sampling= 4.06 ms
Probability of misdetection (Pmd)

0.8
Pfa= 10 %
0.6
Pdetection= 99.482%
0.4

0.2
6%

0
5%
-26 -22 -18 -14 -10 -6 -2 DTV signal level
SNR (dB)
.

at edge of contour
4%
Log-norma l PDF

3%

Log-normal PDF
2%
10 * (Pmd * PDF)

1%

0%
-26 -22 -18 -14 -10 -6 -2 2 6 10 14
SNR (dB)
Sensing technique performance
(I2R covariance absolute value detector)
Sensor RF sensing performance

1
Probability of misdetection (Pmd)

0.8 Sampling= 4 ms
Pfa= 1 %
0.6
Pdetection= 99.843%
0.4

0.2
6%

0
5%
-26 -22 -18 -14 -10 -6 -2 DTV signal level
.

SNR (dB) at edge of contour


4%
Log-normal PDF

3%

Log-normal PDF
2%
10 * (Pmd * PDF)

1%

0%
-26 -22 -18 -14 -10 -6 -2 2 6 10 14
SNR (dB)
Sensing techniques performance comparison
RF sensing performance

100.0%

Note: at -116 dBm


Pd= 99.9986%
Probability of misdetection (Pmd)

10.0%

1.0% Energy - 1dB Pfa=10% 5 ms Pd=98.535%


Energy - 0.5dB Pfa=10% 5 ms
Energy - 0dB Pfa=10% 5ms

Pd=95.953%

0.1%
-26 -24 -22 -20 -18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2
SNR (dB)
Sensing techniques performance comparison
RF sensing performance

100.0%

Pd=99.843%
Probability of misdetection (Pmd)

10.0%
Pd=99.482%

Energy - 1dB Pfa=10% 5 ms


1.0% Energy - 0.5dB Pfa=10% 5 ms Pd=98.535%
Energy - 0dB Pfa=10% 5ms
Thomson-Segment Pfa=10% 4 ms
I2R Covariance Pfa=1% 4 ms

Pd=95.953%

0.1%
-26 -24 -22 -20 -18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2
SNR (dB)
Co-channel sensing of DTV
incumbent

F(1,1)
612 km

F(10,1)
544 km

F(10,10)
457 km
F(50,1) Sensing threshold:
460 km S/N = -21 dB
at sensing detector

135 km
F(50,10) Sensing
380 km Required DTV sensing CPE
threshold= -116 dBm to
compensate for blockage DTV
Equivalent to 17 dB(uV/m) for
0 dBi omni sensing antenna
TX
Sensing threshold= 24 dB below
protected field strength level
DTV protected
Probability of signal exceeding noise-limited contour
17 dB(uV/m) = 99.9986% 41 dB(uV/m) F(50, 90)
Collaborative sensing
PLFA: Probability of a local false alarm at a CPE
PLMD: Probability of a local misdetection at a CPE
PGFA: Probability of a global false alarm at the BS
PGMD: Probability of global misdetection at the BS
L: number of statistically independent CPEs

• Any local false alarm causes a global false alarm


PLFA  1  (1  PGFA )1 / L

• Any local detection causes a global detection (OR)


PGMD  PLMD
L
Impact of multiple sensors on log-normal curve
Composite log-normal for multiple sensors
18%

1 sensor
16% 2 sensors
3 sensors
4 sensors
14% 6 sensors
10 sensors
16 sensors
12% 30 sensors
Probability

10%

8%

6%

4%

2%

0%
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
SNR (dB)
Sensing technique performance
(I2R covariance absolute value detector)
Sensor RF sensing performance

1
Probability of misdetection (Pmd)

0.8 Sampling= 4 ms
Pfa= 1 %
0.6
Pdetection= 99.843%
0.4

0.2
6%

0
5%
-26 -22 -18 -14 -10 -6 -2
.

SNR (dB)
4%
Log-normal PDF

3%

Log-normal PDF
2%
10 * (Pmd * PDF)

1%

0%
-26 -22 -18 -14 -10 -6 -2 2 6 10 14
SNR (dB)
Collaborative sensing
Special considerations
• With simple OR gating of sensor reports, the Pfa will
tend to increase rapidly with the number of sensors
• Pfa for individual sensors can be controlled by asking for
repeated sensing times before reporting (each sensing
window is independent statistically since it works against
thermal noise)
• Data fusion at the base station should be based on
“majority vote” (e.g., 2 out of 6 sensors) from a small
number of well selected statistically independent CPEs
(e.g., 6 sensors in the same topographic area located at
more than 500 m) to provide a high level of probability
of detection while keeping Pfa low.
Outline Rural and
Remote
1. Broadband Access in Canada Broadband
2. Best frequency range for rural access Access
3. Regulatory steps towards use of the TV bands
4. The IEEE 802.22 WG
5. The WRAN system concept
6. The IEEE 802.22 Draft Standard
a) PHY
b) MAC
c) Cognitive radio capability
i. Coexistence
ii. Geolocation
iii. Sensing
7. Protection of broadcast incumbents
a) Protection of TV broadcasting
b) Protection of wireless microphones (Part 74)
8. Possible research areas
9. Conclusion
Co-channel keep-out distance
between DTV and 32.9 dB(uV/m)

802.22 WRAN 40.2 dB(uV/m)


41 dB(uV/m)

100 W 138.2 km
166.4 km
WRAN
30.76 km
Base 135 km
Station

Assuming
DTV into DTV
co-channel 3.11 km
DTV TX
protection ratio CPE
keep-out
distance

31.33 km

WRAN
base station
keep-out
distance
DTV station
Keep-out distance DTV signal: 30
dB above noise
between DTV and level F(50,1)

802.22 WRAN: BS keep-out distance:


Co-channel: 31 km
Adjacent channel: 1 km

Base station power: 100 W


Antenna height: 75 m
CPE keep-out distance:
Co-channel: 3.1 km
15 km Adjacent channel: 130 m
23 km
30 km
64-QAM DTV signal: 15
dB above noise
16-QAM level F(50,1)

QPSK

Max throughput per 6 MHz:


23 Mbit/s

User terminal (CPE) power: 4 W


antenna height: 10 m
Minimum service availability: Max throughput per 6 MHz:
location= 50% 4.2 Mbit/s downstream
time= 99.9% 384 kbit/s upstream
Alternate channels interference case when
inside the contour

<= DTV <= WRAN

Equivalent distance for 100 Watts base station: 50 m


WRAN TX antenna and TV RX antenna coupling
Winegard PR 4400 Channel Master 3018

10 m

Improvement
through polarization
discrimination
TV: horizontal
WRAN: Vertical
Coupling between WRAN CPE and DTV
receiver
DTV
Off-axis coupling
Receive
Antenna
Sweeping is done in
azimuth and elevation
Elevation

RX azimuth

CM4248 WRAN
Transmit
Antenna

Elevation
TX azimuth

W4400
10 m
WRAN TX antenna and TV RX antenna coupling
(W4400=>CM4248)
Antenna co-polar and cross-polar maximum coupling for 4 W EIRP
0
Co-473
-5 Co-617
-8 dBm RX saturation Co-695
Resulting power at input of TV receiver (dBm)

-10 X-473
X-617

-15 X-695

-20

-25

-30

-35

-40

-45

-50
-180 -150 -120 -90 -60 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150 180
Azimuth (deg.)
DTV Receiver RF front-end Performance
Allowable WRAN transmit power
in the UHF TV band

20 DTV RX
Saturation
- 8 dBm
15
Maximum allowed CPE EIRP (dBW)

10
Max. EIRP
4 Watts
5 31 km

0 24 km

-5

-10 15 km

-15

-20 8.6 km

-25

-30 4.6 km

14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50

UHF TV channels

Because of the limited performance of the DTV receiver RF front-end, the


„White Space‟ available to WRAN is reduced (Assuming 14 dB antenna discrimination).
(Linear extrapolation of the ATSC A-74 D/U values from the ‘weak desired signal level’)
WRAN CPE EIRP Profile
to protect NTSC receivers
EIRP Profile
20

15

10

5
CPE EIRP (dBW)

-5

-10

-15
Allow ed EIRP

-20 Allow ed EIRP up to max.


permitted

-25

-30
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
Channel Spacing

Situation is more difficult with NTSC


Example of a CPE surrounded
by DTV stations

Ch 44 BS

CPE
Ch 34

Ch 16
Ch 26
DTV incumbent environment

Channels on wich TV transmitters 16 26 34 44 …


exist within interference distance

TX Latitude (deg.) 44.2 44.2 45.7 47.1


TX Longitude (deg.) -78.1 -82.2 -80.4 -82.1
TX ERP (dBW) 60 50 55 60
TX Antenna height (m) 300 275 250 280
Distance to closest DTV TX 210 km 140 km 10 km 132 km
Field strength level produced 30 40 137 45
at device dBuV/m dBuV/m dBuV/m dBuV/m
Inside protected contour? No No Yes Yes
Distance to contour if outside 15 km 1 km --- ---
Maximum CPE EIRP in various UHF channels
4 watt EIRP limit and co-channel consideration
50 DTV RX
Saturation
- 8 dBm

40 Max. EIRP
4 Watts
31 km
Maximum allowed CPE EIRP (dBm)

30 24 km

20 15 km

10 8.6 km

0 4.6 km

-10

-20

-30
14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50
UHF TV channels
Maximum CPE EIRP in various UHF channels
Co-channel and taboo channels consideration
50 DTV RX
Saturation
- 8 dBm
40 Max. EIRP
4 Watts
31 km
Maximum allowed CPE EIRP (dBm)

30 24 km

20 15 km

10 8.6 km

0 4.6 km
1st adjacent channel
outside contour
-10

1st adjacent channel


-20
inside contour

-30
14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50
UHF TV channels
Maximum CPE EIRP in various UHF channels
Co-channel, taboo and 3rd intermod consideration
50 DTV RX
Saturation
- 8 dBm
40 Max. EIRP
4 Watts
31 km
Maximum allowed CPE EIRP (dBm)

30 24 km

20 15 km

10 8.6 km

0 4.6 km

3rd order intermod


from Ch 34 into Ch 44
-10

-20

-30
14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50
UHF TV channels
Maximum CPE EIRP in various UHF channels
Co-channel, taboo, 3rd intermod and direct pickup
50 DTV RX
Saturation
- 8 dBm
40 Max. EIRP
4 Watts
31 km
Maximum allowed CPE EIRP (dBm)

30 24 km

20 15 km

10 8.6 km

0 4.6 km

Protection of cable-ready
-10 consumer electronic equipment
(Direct pickup interference)

-20

-30
14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50
UHF TV channels
Maximum EIRP for personal/portable
Co-channel and taboo channels consideration
50

40
Maximum allowed CPE EIRP (dBm)

30
DTV RX
Saturation
20 - 8 dBm

10

0
1st adjacent channel
outside contour
-10

1st adjacent channel


inside contour
-20

-30
14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50
UHF TV channels
(No CPE antenna backlobe and polarization discrimination and shorter reference distance: 3 m instead of 10 m)
Maximum EIRP for personal/portable
Co-channel, taboo and 3rd intermod consideration
50

40
Maximum allowed CPE EIRP (dBm)

30
DTV RX
Saturation
20 - 8 dBm

10

-10

3rd order intermod


-20
from Ch 34 into Ch 44

-30
14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50
UHF TV channels
(No CPE antenna backlobe and polarization discrimination and shorter reference distance: 3 m instead of 10 m)
Maximum EIRP for personal/portable
Co-channel, taboo, 3rd intermod and direct pickup
50

40
Maximum allowed CPE EIRP (dBm)

30
DTV RX
Saturation
20 - 8 dBm

10

Protection of cable-ready
-10 consumer electronic equipment
(Direct pickup interference)

-20

-30
14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50
UHF TV channels
(No CPE antenna backlobe and polarization discrimination and shorter reference distance: 3 m instead of 10 m)
Outline Rural and
Remote
1. Extent of Broadband Access Broadband
in Canada Access
2. Best frequency range for rural areas
3. Regulatory steps towards use of the TV bands
4. The WRAN system concept
5. The IEEE 802.22 WG
6. DTV interference considerations
7. Protection of Part 74 wireless microphones
8. Possible research areas
9. Conclusion
Out-of-Band emission limit for WRAN devices

120
4 Watts
Field Strength at 3 m in 120 kHz (dB uV/m)

100

80

101 dB
60

Part 15.209a 200


46 uV/m
40

20
13.4 4.8
uV/m

0
14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50

UHF TV channels

To limit DTV receiver desensitization to 1 dB at the „noise-limited‟ contour (41 dB uV/m),


the Out-of-Band (OOB) field strength generated at 3 m in a 120 kHz bandwidth has to be
kept below 13.4 dB(uV/m), that is 4.8 uV/m, 32.6 dB lower than the Part 15.209a limit.
Out-of-Band emission limit for WRAN devices

120
4 Watts
Field Strength at 3 m in 120 kHz (dB uV/m)

100

87 dB
80

101 dB
60

Part 15.209a 200


46 uV/m
18.6

40
dB

27.4

20
13.4 4.8
uV/m

0
14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50

UHF TV channels
If 14 dB polarization discrimination can be relied upon because of vertically polarized
WRAN operation, the OOB emission level can be raised at 27.4 dB(uV/m), 18.6 dB lower
than Part 15.209a limit. This corresponds to 87 dB rejection for a 4 Watt EIRP transmitter.
802.22 RF Mask
CPE RF Emission Masks
0
4 Watt EIRP
-10
Level relative to in-band power density (dB)

-20
14 dB relaxation because
-30
of CPE TX antenna back
lobe rejection and main
-40
lobe X-pol discrimination 802.22 Relaxed
802.22 Relaxed Ext.
-50 802.22
802.22 Micro
-60 802.22 Ext.
Part 15.209a
-70 Center line

-80
Rejection if microphones
-90 in 1st adjacent channel

-100 1 dB DTV RX
desensitization
-110
-2.5 -1.5 -0.5 0.5 1.5 2.5
Channel Spacing
802.22 RF Mask
CPE RF Emission Masks
0
4 Watt EIRP
-10
Level relative to in-band power density (dB)

-20

-30
802.22
-40 802.22 Micro
802.22 Ext.
-50
CDN Mask
CDN Relaxed Mask
-60
FCC Mask
Part 15.209a
-70
Center line

-80
Rejection if microphones
-90 in 1st adjacent channel

-100 1 dB DTV RX
desensitization
-110
-2.5 -1.5 -0.5 0.5 1.5 2.5
Channel Spacing
802.22 RF Mask
CPE RF Emission Masks

0
4 Watt EIRP
-10
Level relative to in-band power density (dB)

-20

-30
802.22
-40 802.22 Micro
802.22 Ext.
-50 CDN Mask
CDN Relaxed Mask
-60 802.16
FCC Mask
-70 Part 15.209a
Center line
-80
Rejection if microphones
-90 in 1st adjacent channel

-100
1 dB DTV RX
desensitization
-110
-2.5 -1.5 -0.5 0.5 1.5 2.5
Channel Spacing
Equivalent Personal/Portable RF Mask
Personal/Portable RF Emission Masks

0
0.1 Watt EIRP
-10
Level relative to in-band power density (dB)

-20

-30

-40 Portable
Portable Micro
-50 Portable Ext.
802.16
-60 FCC Mask
Part 15.209a
-70 Center line

-80 Rejection if microphones


in 1st adjacent channel
-90
1 dB DTV RX
-100 desensitization

-110
-2.5 -1.5 -0.5 0.5 1.5 2.5
Channel Spacing
Outline Rural and
Remote
1. Broadband Access in Canada Broadband
2. Best frequency range for rural access Access
3. Regulatory steps towards use of the TV bands
4. The IEEE 802.22 WG
5. The WRAN system concept
6. The IEEE 802.22 Draft Standard
a) PHY
b) MAC
c) Cognitive radio capability
i. Coexistence
ii. Geolocation
iii. Sensing
7. Protection of broadcast incumbents
a) Protection of TV broadcasting
b) Protection of wireless microphones (Part 74)
8. Possible research areas
9. Conclusion
Part 74 wireless microphone protection
• Large variability of the microphone signal power will not offer a
reliable signal to be monitored
• A signal „beacon‟ is being developed and standardized by
802.22.1 Task Group
• Protection of wireless microphones is 12.7 dB less stringent than
the interference level for the 1 dB DTV receiver desensitization
(32.7 uV/m based on -95 dBm and 20 dB PR)
• Sensing repetition time:
– Sensing of operational channel: within 2 seconds
– Sensing of backup channels: within 6 seconds
• Channel availability check time: a candidate channel needs to
have been available for 30 s before becoming a backup channel
• If presence of incumbent is detected by BS or CPEs and
confirmed by the BS, the entire cell moves to the first backup
channel if microphone operation is sufficiently close to the BS,
or the CPEs within given radius of the microphone operation are
dissallowed from the network (TG1 beacon carries Lat. & Long.)
Task Group 1 Beacon Design
TG1 MAC Protocol Data Unit (MPDU)
TG1 Sync Performance illustration
WRAN coverage and co-channel
operation with wireless microphones
Edge of coverage of the F(50, 99.9) Minimum WRAN field
WRAN BS (e.g., 17 km for 4 W strength: 28.8 dB(uV/m)
EIRP, 31 km for 100 W EIRP)
32.7 + Δ att_1.5m/10m
dB(uV/m)
F(50, 10)
Wireless microphone
operation
Area where, if
wireless microphones
Area where CPEs
R2 are present, the BS
need to change
cannot operate on the
frequency
same TV channel
Area where CPEs need R1
to reduce their transmit
power as a function of
their distance to the
wireless microphone
Area where, if wireless
operation
microphones are present,
the nearby CPEs need to
either change frequency or
reduce their transmit power
802.22 RF Mask
CPE RF Emission Masks

0
4 Watt EIRP
-10

33 dB
Level relative to in-band power density (dB)

-20

-30
802.22
-40 802.22 Micro
802.22 Ext.
-50 CDN Mask
CDN Relaxed Mask
-60 802.16
FCC Mask
-70 Part 15.209a
Center line
-80
Rejection if microphones
-90 in 1st adjacent channel

-100 1 dB DTV RX
desensitization
-110
-2.5 -1.5 -0.5 0.5 1.5 2.5
Channel Spacing
WRAN coverage and adjacent-channel
operation with wireless microphones
Assuming
33 dB as for
Edge of coverage edge of the 28.8 the FCC
WRAN BS (e.g., 17 km for 4 W dB(uV/m) Mask
EIRP, 31 km for 100 W EIRP)

32.7 + 33 +
Wireless microphone Δ att _1.5m/10m
operation dB(uV/m)

R4
Area where, if
wireless microphones
are detected, the BS
R3 cannot operate on the
Area where CPEs need
adjacent TV channel
to reduce their transmit
power as a function of
their distance to the
wireless microphone
operation or change Area where, if wireless
frequency microphones are detected,
the nearby CPEs need to
either change frequency or
reduce their transmit power
Outline Rural and
Remote
1. Broadband Access in Canada Broadband
2. Best frequency range for rural access Access
3. Regulatory steps towards use of the TV bands
4. The IEEE 802.22 WG
5. The WRAN system concept
6. The IEEE 802.22 Draft Standard
a) PHY
b) MAC
c) Cognitive radio capability
i. Coexistence
ii. Geolocation
iii. Sensing
7. Protection of broadcast incumbents
a) Protection of TV broadcasting
b) Protection of wireless microphones (Part 74)
8. Possible research areas
9. Conclusion
Possible research areas
1. Antenna and RF front-end:
a. Antenna
i. design of a combo including the TX/RX WRAN antenna,
sensing omni-directional antenna and possibly a GPS
antenna
ii. characterization of their performance (gain, directivity and
impedance) over the UHF spectrum (Ch14 to Ch 51)
(eventually also for the low-VHF and high-VHF bands)
b. RF low-noise amplifier:
i. sensitivity (noise performance),
ii. amplitude and phase variation over the UHF range,
iii. non-linearity performance (IP3 intercept point, see FCC-
OET report FCC/OET 07-TR-1003 on DTV receivers)
c. HPA performance and antenna load adaptation
d. Outdoor/indoor interface and lightning arrestor
1.a UHF Antennas

Channel Master 4248

Winegard PR-4400
70
18 400

68
16
300
CM-4248
14 PR 4400
200
Antenna gain (dBi)

12
Imagin ary impedence (ohms) 16
100 14
10

8 0
70
0 100 200 300 16 400 500 600
6 -100 14

CM-4248
4
PR-4400 -200

2
-300
0
14

18

22

26

30

34

38

42

46

50

54

58

62

66

70

-400
TV channels Real im pedance (ohm s)
Possible research areas (cont‟d)
2. WRAN PHY parameters verification
a. simulation of OFDM parameters and proposed
modulation schemes with WRAN channel models
b. Simulation of the proposed preamble bursts and
their performance
c. FEC schemes performance with different
modulation levels and block sizes
d. performance of proposed interleaving with
various FEC codes
e. performance of proposed geolocation carrier sets
and accuracy in noise and multipath conditions
Possible research areas (cont‟d)
2.a WRAN multipath channel models
PROFILE A Path 1 Path 2 Path 3 Path 4 Path 5 Path 6
Excess delay 0 3 μsec 8 μsec 11 μsec 13 μsec 21 μsec
Relative amplitude 0 -7 dB -15 dB -22 dB -24 dB -19 dB
Doppler frequency 0 0.10 Hz 2.5 Hz 0.13 Hz 0.17 Hz 0.37 Hz
PROFILE B Path 1 Path 2 Path 3 Path 4 Path 5 Path 6
Excess delay -3 μsec 0 2 μsec 4 μsec 7 μsec 11 μsec
Relative amplitude -6 dB 0 -7 dB -22 dB -16 dB -20 dB
Doppler frequency 0.1 Hz 0 0.13 Hz 2.5 Hz 0.17 Hz 0.37 Hz
PROFILE C Path 1 Path 2 Path 3 Path 4 Path 5 Path 6
Excess delay -2 μsec 0 5 μsec 16 μsec 24 μsec 33 μsec
Relative amplitude -9 dB 0 -19 dB -14 dB -24 dB -16 dB
Doppler frequency 0.13 Hz 0 0.17 Hz 2.5 Hz 0.23 Hz 0.10 Hz
PROFILE D Path 1 Path 2 Path 3 Path 4 Path 5 Path 6
Excess delay -2 μsec 0 5 μsec 16 μsec 22 μsec 0 to 60 μsec
Relative amplitude -10 dB 0 -22 dB -18 dB -21 dB -30 to +10 dB
Doppler frequency 0.23 Hz 0 0.1 Hz 2.5 Hz 0.17 Hz 0.13 Hz
Possible research areas (cont‟d)
2.a WRAN PHY parameters verification
Data Spectral Efficiency
PHY Coding Spreading Normalized
Modulation rate (for 6 MHz
Mode Rate Factor SNR
(Mb/s) bandwidth)
01 QPSK ½ 4 1.13 0.19
12 BPSK Uncoded 1 4.54 0.76 3
23 QPSK ½ 3 1.51 0.25
4 QPSK ½ 1 4.54 0.76 6
5 QPSK 2/3 1 6.05 1.01 7.5
7 QPSK ¾ 1 6.81 1.13 9
8 QPSK 5/6 1 7.56 1.26
9 16-QAM ½ 1 9.08 1.51 12
10 16-QAM 2/3 1 12.10 2.02 14.5
11 16-QAM ¾ 1 13.61 2.27 15
12 16-QAM 5/6 1 15.13 2.52 17.5
13 64-QAM ½ 1 13.61 2.27 18
14 64-QAM 2/3 1 18.15 3.03 20
15 64-QAM ¾ 1 20.42 3.40 21
16 64-QAM 5/6 1 22.69 3.78 23
Note 1: Mode 0 is only used for SCH
Note 2: Mode 1 is only used for CDMA opportunistic bursts
Note3: Mode 2 is only used for CBP burst transmission
PHY Mode dependent parameters. Data rates derived based
on 2K sub-carriers and a TCP to TFFT ratio of 1/16
Possible research areas (cont‟d)
2.b WRAN PHY parameters verification
CP ST1 ST2 ST3 ST4 CP LT1 LT 2 CP ST1 ST2 ST3 ST4

TSYM T SYM TSYM

Superframe preamble Frame preamble CBP preamble

• Verification of the PAPR of the proposed sequences


• Verification of frequency autocorrelation and cross-
correlation for various lags
• Verification of time cross-correlation for various lags
Possible research areas (cont‟d)

2.c FEC codecs:


Performance comparison and block size adaptability
1. Convolutional encoding and Viterbi soft decoding
2. Duo-binary convolutional turbo coding
3. Low density parity check codes (LDPC)
4. Shortened block turbo codes (SBTC)
Possible research areas (cont‟d)
2.d Bit and subcarrier interleaving
Study the proposed interleaving scheme
NFFT

Kd=a 1440
Kb bits Kd=b 1624 IFFT

Guard sub-carriers
Sub-carrier Modulation
Binary interleaving

Multipath channel
Interleaving In(k)
Data scrambing

Pilot insertion
sn ( t )
X

sub-carrier
FEC coding
Puncturing

WN0m

Tcp Insertion
FFT
S/P
X  X +
WNkm k
FFT
( 1)m
X AWGN
(N 1 )m
WN FFT
FFT

Information
binary permutation rules
Source
( j)
selection
I p ,q (k )
I p , q (k ) I p,q (2) (k ) Max I (p ,qj ) ( k  s )  I (p ,qj ) ( k )
k

k I
I I I Interleaving spreading
maximization
Binary interleaving patterns
FEC constraints encountered
Possible research areas (cont‟d)
2.e Geolocation:
• Study of the use of the phase of a set of
carriers spread over the 6 MHz channel to
evaluate the distance between a user
terminal and the base station as well as
between user terminals with a few metres
accuracy to carry out triangulation
calculations to geo-locate the user terminals.
Possible research areas (cont‟d)
3. Sensing:
a. Simulate the most promising sensing schemes
and verify their performance.
b. Establish a model for collaborative sensing
among various CPEs and establish the rules of
application (e.g., minimum CPE distance for statistical
independence) (Work from U. of Berkeley)
c. IEEE DySPAN activities (Dynamic Spectrum
Access Networking)
4. Single entry versus aggregate interference:
a. in presence of multiple WRAN base stations
interfering with TV reception
b. in presence of multiple WRAN user terminals
interfering with TV reception
Possible research areas (cont‟d)
5. Co-existence mechanism:
a. Simulate Coexistence Beacon Protocol (CBP)
burst scheme and collision impact and probability
for local CPE to CPE communications to define
coexistence patterns among multiple overlapping
WRAN cells sharing the same channel
b. Simulate CBP burst scheme and collision
probability for large-area WRAN cell coordination
with CBP burst transmitted by BS to define
coexistence patterns among multiple overlapping
WRAN cells sharing the same channel
c. CBP burst coordination between adjacent
channel cells to avoid adjacent channel
interference
Possible research areas (cont‟d)
6. Spectrum Manager
• Study the feasibility of maintaining an up-to-date local
database of possible interference for channels potentially
creating interference to TV reception considering the "EIRP
profile" (or TV taboo channels) and 3rd order
intermodulation caused by RF front-end non-linear
distortion in TV receivers
• Study the feasibility of maintaining an up-to-date local
database of potential interference to wireless microphones
• Study the data fusion and centralized control at the base
station, augmented by geo-location data and incumbent
database
• Study the mechanism for appropriate change in frequency
(e.g., Dynamic Frequency Selection, DFS), (channel
vacation time: 2 s).
Conclusions
• The 802.22 WRAN is a standard in the making: the
process can be influenced
• A number of research studies would be useful to
optimize the standard
• About one year is left in refining the standard
• Main areas of research are:
– Antenna and RF front-end
– PHY modulation, interleaving and FEC
– OFDM and OFDMA structure
– Geolocation as part of the system capabilities
– Sensing techniques and collaborative sensing
– Spectrum manager for optimum protection of incumbents
– Coexistence mechanism such as the coexistence beacon
protocol
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