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The Use of Radio Frequency

Identification in Pharmacy

as presented by
Peter O Omondi
Pharmacy Department
Princess Elizabeth Hospital
(Health & Social Services Dept, The States of Guernsey)

Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM


London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
The Proposed Use of RFID to
Track Patient Medication
Compounded in the Pharmacy
Production Unit at University
College London Hospital
Project Dissertation
By
Peter O Omondi,
MScMBIT

Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM


London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
What is RFID?

• RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) - “the


technology that allows people to identify
items uniquely by using electronic tagging
techniques in which electro-magnetic radio
waves are used to exchange data. This data is
stored in a silicon chip, between movable
tagged objects and fixed readers in specific
locations”. – Landt (2005)
Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM
London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
Types of RFID Systems
(Landt, 2005)

• Uni-directional – “Read Only” (R).

• Bi-directional/Two-way – “Read/Write” (RW).

• Write Once Read Many - WORM

Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM


London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
History of RFID
• RADAR in 1940s – in WWII
• Leon Theremin (1946)
Listening Device  TX incident Radio waves
with sound information – diaphragm
modulated reflected radio frequency.
Not essentially ID tag.
Widely considered to be predecessor of RFID
tech.

Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM


London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
Investors in RFID
• Manufacturing - >USD 6bn by 2010 (US and
Europe = USD 3bn).
• Pharmaceuticals, Consumer Packaged Goods
(CPG) and Automobiles.
(RFID in Manufacturing, 2005)
• Boeing® - Massive savings in 787 Dreamliner®
(Business Week, 2009)
• Retail – Tesco®, Target® - Suppliers adopt and
incorporate RFID tech.
• Walmart® - RFID to reduce o/s by 30% (RFID Journal,’09)
Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM
London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
Healthcare & Pharmaceuticals
(Business Week, 2009)
• Feb 2004 – FDA in US allowed entire p’ceutical
supply chain to implement and use RFID by
2007
• Oct 2004 – ER dept of Washington Hosp
Centre in DC used RFID for tracking status and
exact location pts, staff and essential equip.
• Tagging of pts in hosp – challenges (invasion of
privacy) – Caldicott???
• Data collected – improve medical processes,
decision-making and resource management.
Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM
London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
UCLH at a glance…
• UCL Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust was
formed in 1994.
• Mission - UCLH Committed to:
– patients’ safety.
– Improved patient services.
– Comply with DoH standards and performance
indicators.
• Pharmacy Aseptic Unit.
(uclh.nhs.uk)
Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM
London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
Patient reports to clinic
• Blood screening in outpatient.
• Prescription generated.
• Prescription sent to Pharmacy by hand.
• Prescription received and screened by
pharmacist.
• Worksheets (W/S) and labels generated.

Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM


London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
Workflow inside the unit (Ref: Fig2)
• Worksheets and labels sent to assembly point.
• Raw materials assembled and checked
• W/S and Raw Materials sprayed into Clean
Room.
• Chemo compounded and sent out to checking
and labelling area.
• Checked off by pharmacist and put in
collection box.
Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM
London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
.

Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM


London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
Supply Chain Workflow

Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM


London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
Outside the unit (Ref: Fig3)
• Nurse phones unit to enquire about
prescription.
• If outpatient – nurse collects.
• If inpatient – porter collects at designated
pick-up times.

Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM


London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
.

Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM


London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
Problems & Opportunities
• Difficult to know the progress of the chemo
while production is going on.
• Standards & Guidelines
– Dept of Health (DoH)
– >=20yrs for Prescriptions
– Waiting times
– MHRA  Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)
– Royal Pharmaceutical Society of GB (RPSGB)
guidelines
– Std Operating Procedures (SOPS)
– ISO – Services
– IEEE, BCS
Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM
London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
Findings...
• Unit has a stand-alone PC that records the
entrance and exit of the prescription.
• Porter/nurse collects prescription – tracking
lost.
• Need to improve on the current
documentation process.
• Need to manage waiting times positively.
• RFID has potential.
Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM
London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
Available Technology: Tracking and Tracing
– Tracking  Following products as they move
through the supply chain stage by stage (Barcoding).
– Tracing  Getting information about a specific
product. Mostly done at the end of the supply chain
(downstream). e.g. finding out which
actor/technician has been involved in the
manufacture of a product and then the information
is traced backwards (RFID).
(Symonds and Parry, 2008)

Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM


London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
Barcode Technology
Typical Barcode

Barcode Readers

Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM


London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
RFID Tags and Readers
(RFID Journal, 2009)

.
Tag Tag

Handheld Reader Reader Demo

Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM


London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
Intellitag® Ready-to-Go Evaluation Kit
Courtesy of: Barcoding.com (2009)

Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM


London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
Barcode Vs RFID

Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM


London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
Types of RFID tags

Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM


London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
Project Objectives
• Potential benefits of RFID to the
NHS
• Introduce RFID technology into
NHS
• Working prototype application
• How Viable/Affordable?
• To gain hands-on experience
Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM
London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
High-Level Project Plan
• Literature Review
• Requirement Elicitation
• Requirement Specification
• Choice of methodology – PRINCE2®, Agile
Methods®, Extreme Programming (XP)®.
• Risk Analysis (ID, classify, mgt plan) – Risk Log
• Resource Planning
– Resource Allocation
– Task and Time Allocation
(Nuseibeh and Easterbrook, 2000)

Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM


London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
A typical RFID Architecture

Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM


London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
Proposed UCLH RFID Architecture

Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM


London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
UCLH Production Unit Floor Plan

Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM


London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
Cost consideration - Adapted from the module Managing Mobile Technologies in MScMBIT,
LSBU, coursework in Semester 2, © Omondi, P (May 2009).

Solution Characteristic & Cost

Manual system Existing costs based on salaried existing members of staff.

Barcoding Set-up Costs: Need to have labels printed, purchase scanners, software
and install these onto system, staff training.

Cost: Existing + Barcode set-up costs, scan twice (beginning and end –
dedicated staff member, hence takes up more time and commits staff).

RFID Set-up costs: Slightly higher than Barcoding (but offset by long-term
benefits of the technology).
Cost: Existing + RFID set-up costs.
Recommended The Strategic Orientation at UCLH favours the introduction of RFID
technology, as they would like to have better tracking with much focus on
the tracing elements of RFID applications.

Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM


London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
Implementation
• Prototype
• Test Prototype – function V specs
• Re-evaluation of Prototype
• Implementation of System
• Maintenance of System
• Data Quality, Integrity
• Use of Data Gathered - to improve system,
decision-making process, resource and asset
management.
Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM
London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
References
• Arnott, S. (2007).” Minister prescribes RFID tags for NHS”Computing.co.uk
http://www.computing.co.uk/computing/news/2183863/minister-
prescribes-rfid-tags (accessed 10 May 2009).
• Barcoding.com (2009). “How much does an RFID tag cost?”.
http://www.barcoding.com/faq/rfid-tag-cost.shtml [Accessed 30
September 2009].
• British Journal of Healthcare Computing and Information Management
(2008) “NHS hospitals adopting barcode and RFID technology to improve
patient safety” http://www.bjhcim.co.uk/news/2008/n807018.htm#
[Accessed Jul 2009].
• IEEE Transaction on Microwave Theory and Techniques (2009). "A Chipless
RFID Sensor System for Cyber Centric Monitoring Applications".
• Jones, P., Clarke-Hill, C., Shears, P., Comfort, D., &Hillier, D. (2004). Radio
frequency identification in the UK: Opportunities and challenges.
International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 32(3), 164-171.

Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM
London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
References (Cont)
• Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency
[MHRA] (2009). Good Manufacturing Practice,
http://www.mhra.gov.uk/Howweregulate/Medicines/Inspe
ctionandstandards/GoodManufacturingPractice/index.htm
[Accessed 06 June 2009].
• Roberts, C. M., (2006) “Radio frequency identification
(RFID)” Science Direct. compute r s & s e c u r i t y 2 5 ( 2 0 0
6 ) pg18 – 26.
• The Department of Health (2009) Pharmacy in the Future:
Implementing the NHS plan
http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publica
tions/Publications PolicyAndGuidance/DH_4005917
(Accessed 16 March 2009).

Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM


London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
Thank you for your time

Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM


London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010
Questions ???

Peter O Omondi, MScMBIT Faculty of BCIM


London Southbank University (LSBU)
27 January 2010