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Submitted to:


Submitted by:-
Deepak Kumar Relhan
A sincere thanks to Shalini mam for her sincere
guidance and support throughout the preparation of
this presentation.
Parameters on which a researcher
select the appropriate statistical
 Purpose of using a test
 Measurement scales involved
 Number of samples involved
 Inter-relationship of samples
 Many number of variables involved
Statistical tests to measure group
 They are categorized as:-
 i)tests used to measure differences between groups
 ii)tests used to determine whether groups or variables
are associated.
Conditions to use t-test
 Small sample size(<30)
 When population variance is not known
Conditions to use z-test
 Large samples(>30)
 When population variance is known.
Analysis of variance(ANOVA)
 Useful technique in researches in the field of
economics , biology , education , psychology ,
sociology, buisness/industry etc.
 It is used when multiple sample cases are involved.
 It is important in the context of all those situations
when we want to compare more than 2 populations
e.g. gasoline mileage of 4 automobiles, yield of crop
from several varieties of seeds etc.
 Professor R.A. Fisher was the first man to use the term
variance, and he developed a very elaborate theory
concerning ANOVA , explaining its usefulness in
practical field.
 Later on Professor Snecdecor and many others
contributed to the development of this technique.
 Also known as F-TEST.
 Used in such a problem where a researcher wants to
test for the significance of the differences between
more than two sample means.
 Each sample is drawn in a random manner from
normal population. Also the sample statistics tend to
reflect the chracteristics of the population.
 The population from which the samples are taken have
identical means and variances.
How to apply ANOVA
 There are two methods of using ANOVA
1)One –way ANOVA
2)Two –way ANOVA
One –way ANOVA
 Data are classified according to one criterion.
 HO:u1 =u2=u3= uk i.e. the arithmetic means of the
population from which the k samples are
randomly drawn ,are equal to one another.
STEPS of One –way ANOVA
1)Take the total of the values of individual items in all
the samples and call it T
2) Work out the correction factor
3)Find total SS
4)Obtain SS between
5) Find SS within
6)Find MS Between
7)Find MS within
8) Find F ratio
Two-way ANOVA
 We attempt to study the effect of two factors in the
same experiment.
 In this the data are classified on the basis of two
factors e.g. the agricultural output may be classified on
the basis of different varieties of seeds and also on the
basis of different varieties of fertilizers used, a buisness
firm may have its data classified on the basis of
different salesman and also on the basis of sales in
different regions.
 1) Use coding device
 2)take the total of all values of individual items in all
the samples and call it T
 3) find correction factor
correction factor =TxT/n
 4)find total SS
 5)find SS between columns
 6)find SS between rows
 7) find MS between columns
 8)find MS between rows
 9)find F ratio of between columns
 10)find F ratio of between rows
 11) find residual or error=total SS-(SS between columns
+ SS between rows)