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First Century Judaism

First Century Judaism Introduction to the New Testament New Brunswick Theological Seminary Virginia Wiles 1st Century

Introduction to the New Testament

New Brunswick Theological Seminary

Virginia Wiles

1st Century Judaism

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Quick Overview

Quick Overview  The Jewish People  Jewish Insitutions  Jewish Expectations 1st Century Judaism

The Jewish People Jewish Insitutions Jewish Expectations

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The Jewish People

The Jewish People  A Common Heritage  Diverse Expressions 1st Century Judaism

A Common Heritage Diverse Expressions

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A Common Heritage

A Common Heritage  Common History  Common Scriptures  Common Rituals 1st Century Judaism

Common History Common Scriptures Common Rituals

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Sharing a History

Sharing a History  Exodus  ca. 1300 B.C.E .  Moses & Torah  Monarchy

Exodus

ca. 1300 B.C.E. Moses & Torah

Monarchy

ca. 1000 B.C.E. David Divided Kingdom Prophets

Exile

ca. 587 B.C.E. Monotheism

Return

ca. 540-440 B.C.E. Apocalypticism

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Judaism after the Return

Judaism after the Return  Alexander’s Death -- 323 B.C.E.  The Maccabean Revolt -- 168-167

Alexander’s Death -- 323 B.C.E. The Maccabean Revolt -- 168-167 B.C.E. The Hasmonean Dynasty -- 164-63 B.C.E. Rome Takes Over -- 63 B.C.E. Governance of Palestine in the 1st Century The Destruction of the Temple -- 70 C.E.

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The Maccabean Revolt

The Maccabean Revolt  175 Antiochus IV “Epiphanes”  eccentric despot  sought to enforce Hellenization

175 Antiochus IV “Epiphanes”

  • eccentric despot

  • sought to enforce Hellenization

  • co-opted the High Priest Office (Jason & Menalaus)

167 “Abomination of Desolation”

  • see 1 Macc. 1:54; Dan. 11:31; 12:11

Judas Maccabeus “The Hammer”

  • see 2 Macc. 9ff.

164 Rededication of the Temple

The Maccabean Revolt  175 Antiochus IV “Epiphanes”  eccentric despot  sought to enforce Hellenization
  • Hannakah

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Roman Palestine

Roman Palestine 1st Century Judaism  Herod Antipas  Galilee and Peraea  “that fox” 
Roman Palestine 1st Century Judaism  Herod Antipas  Galilee and Peraea  “that fox” 

1st Century Judaism

Herod Antipas

  • Galilee and Peraea

  • “that fox”

Archelaus

  • Judea, Samaria, and Idumea

  • Removed by Romans in 6 C.E.

  • Thereafter ruled by Procurators (=Pilate)

Philip

  • extreme N and NE

  • built Caesarea Philippi

Roman Palestine 1st Century Judaism  Herod Antipas  Galilee and Peraea  “that fox” 

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The Temple Destroyed

The Temple Destroyed  Ruling Procurator expropriated Temple treasury (66 C.E.)  Jewish rebellion ensued 
  • Ruling Procurator expropriated Temple treasury (66 C.E.)

  • Jewish rebellion ensued

  • Titus marched on Jerusalem in 70 C.E. and Destroyed the Temple

  • Masada, the last Judean fortress, fell in 73

  • Other rebellions

    • 115-117 C.E.

    • 132 C.E.

1st Century Judaism

The Temple Destroyed  Ruling Procurator expropriated Temple treasury (66 C.E.)  Jewish rebellion ensued 

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Common Scriptures

Common Scriptures  Torah  Tanak  Torah -- LAW  Nebi’im -- PROPHETS  Kethubim

Torah

Tanak

Torah -- LAW Nebi’im -- PROPHETS Kethubim -- WRITINGS

The Scriptures in Translation

The Septuagint The Targums

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Other Jewish Writings

Other Jewish Writings  The Apocrypha  Greek “additions” to the Septuagint  Key texts for

The Apocrypha

Greek “additions” to the Septuagint Key texts for study of Second Temple Judaism

The Pseudepigrapha

Many apocalypses

Jewish Midrash

A form of “story telling” among Jewish thinkers. See, for example, 2 Cor 4

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Common Rituals

 
Day Hebrew Name Purpose Time of Year Sabbath Shabut Rest and Worship Sundown Friday to Sundown
Day Hebrew Name Purpose Time of Year Sabbath Shabut Rest and Worship Sundown Friday to Sundown
 

Day

Hebrew Name

Hebrew Name

Purpose

Purpose

Time of Year

Sabbath

Shabut

Rest and Worship

Sundown Friday to

 

Sundown Saturday

 

Israelite Festivals

Passover

Pesach

Exodus from Egypt

Spring

Pentecost (Weeks)

Shavuoth

Fruits of Harvest

50 days after

 

Passover

 

Tabernacles (Booths)

Succoth

Wilderness

Fall

Later Jewish Festivals

New Year

Rosh Hashanah

New Year

Fall

Day of Atonement

Yom Kippur

Forgiveness

Fall

Dedication

Hannukah

Restoration of Temple

December

Lots

Purim

Esther

early Spring

Diverse Expressions

Diverse Expressions 1st Century Judaism  Pharisees  Sadducees  Zealots and Sicarii  Essenes 

1st Century Judaism

Pharisees Sadducees Zealots and Sicarii Essenes The Samaritans The Therapeutae Diaspora Judaism Diversity in Literature

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The Pharisees

The Pharisees  Social Characteristics  pietist movement composed mostly of laity  mostly tradesmen, craftsmen,

Social Characteristics

pietist movement composed mostly of laity mostly tradesmen, craftsmen, merchants, farmers

Views:

Focused on the necessity of adapting Jewish piety to the changed conditions of life in the “modern” world.

Written and Oral Torah

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The Sadducees

The Sadducees  Unclear origins (= Zadokites)  included great majority of chief priests  great

Unclear origins (= Zadokites) included great majority of chief priests great power in Jerusalem during Hasmonean and Herodian periods ?rejected oral law ?collaborated with Rome

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Chief Priests

Chief Priests  Included: captains of the temple, temple treasurers and overseers, directors of weekly courses

Included:

captains of the temple, temple treasurers

and overseers, directors of weekly courses of priests

High Priest: president and convener of Sanhedrin

Factors limiting power and influence

no longer inherited (from Herod the Great on) held office at pleasure of Romans

1st Century Judaism

Chief Priests  Included: captains of the temple, temple treasurers and overseers, directors of weekly courses

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Zealots and Sicarii

Zealots and Sicarii  Origins unclear  Applies (broadly) to anyone who participated in revolutionary struggle

Origins unclear

Applies (broadly) to anyone who participated in revolutionary

struggle against Rome

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The Essenes

The Essenes  Mentioned by Josephus (&Philo?)  ?Perhaps related to Qumran community?  Origins: Group

Mentioned by Josephus (&Philo?)

?Perhaps related to Qumran community?

Origins: Group of priests & levites left temple in Jerusalem to protest abuses

under Hasmonean high priests

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Qumran

Qumran  “Teacher of Righteousness”  Highly structured community with emphasis on purity  Monastic 

“Teacher of Righteousness” Highly structured community with emphasis on purity Monastic Apocalyptic -- Good vs. Evil

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Qumran Discipline

Qumran Discipline If any man has uttered the Venerable Name even though frivolously, or as a

If any man has uttered the Venerable Name even though

frivolously, or as a result of shock, or for any other

reason whatever, while reading the Book or praying, he shall be dismissed and shall return to the Council of the

Community no more. If he has spoken in anger against

one of the Priests…, he shall do penance for one year and shall be excluded for his soul’s sake from the pure

Meal of the Congregation….

1st Century Judaism

Qumran Discipline If any man has uttered the Venerable Name even though frivolously, or as a

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Other Jewish Groups

Other Jewish Groups  The Samaritans  Claimed to be authentic survivors of exiled Israelite nation

The Samaritans

  • Claimed to be authentic survivors of exiled Israelite nation

  • Mt. Gerazim

  • Samaritan Pentateuch

The Therapeutae

  • mentioned by Philo

  • 1st c. Egyptian Jewish

  • Female monastics

Diaspora Judaism

  • Philo and Paul

  • Little information

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Diversity in Jewish Literature

Diversity in Jewish Literature  The Writings of Rabbinic Judaism  Jewish Mysticism  Jewish Apocalyptic

The Writings of Rabbinic Judaism Jewish Mysticism Jewish Apocalyptic Texts

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The Talmud

The Talmud  Oral Law = Mishnah  Gemara (commentary on Mishnah)  Talmud = Mishnah

Oral Law = Mishnah

Gemara (commentary on Mishnah)

Talmud = Mishnah + Gemara

Palestinian

Bablylonian

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Jewish Institutions

Jewish Institutions  The Temple  The Synagogue  The Sanhedrin 1st Century Judaism

The Temple The Synagogue The Sanhedrin

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The Second Temple

The Second Temple  Built upon the return from the Exile  Herod the Great began

Built upon the return from the Exile

Herod the Great began expansion in 20 BCE

Served as the “Center” of Judaism

Stunning work of architecture

Social Arrangement of the Temple

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Model of the Second Temple

1st Century Judaism

Model of the Second Temple 1st Century Judaism

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Social Arrangement of Temple

Social Arrangement of Temple 1st Century Judaism  Holy of Holies  Holy Place  Court
Social Arrangement of Temple 1st Century Judaism  Holy of Holies  Holy Place  Court

1st Century Judaism

Holy of Holies Holy Place Court of Israel Women’s Court Court of the Gentiles

Social Arrangement of Temple 1st Century Judaism  Holy of Holies  Holy Place  Court

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Jewish Synagogues

Jewish Synagogues  Origins uncertain: Egypt? Babylon? Judea?  Council house and place of assembly 
  • Origins uncertain: Egypt? Babylon? Judea?

  • Council house and place of assembly

  • Place of prayer -- proseuche

Jewish Synagogues  Origins uncertain: Egypt? Babylon? Judea?  Council house and place of assembly 
  • Central Purpose: The Proclamation and Exposition of the Law

  • Oriented toward the laity

  • Rectangular building facing toward Jerusalem

  • Board of Directors (3); Archisynagogus; 10 minimum

  • Service: Shema, prayer, and Torah

  • Meeting on Monday and Thursday as well as Sabbath

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Synagogue at Capernaum

Synagogue at Capernaum 1st Century Judaism
Synagogue at Capernaum 1st Century Judaism

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Synagogue at Gamla

Synagogue at Gamla 32 1st Century Judaism
32 1st Century Judaism
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1st Century Judaism

The Sanhedrin

The Sanhedrin  “sunedrion” = “seated together”  first mentioned ca. 55 BCE; lasts until 70

“sunedrion” = “seated together” first mentioned ca. 55 BCE; lasts until 70 CE Chief priests, elders, and scribes 71 Jewish elders, presided over by high priest (=72) Both legislative and judicial authority = “city council” In Palestine, both civil and religious authority; in Diaspora, only religious

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Jewish Eschatology

Jewish Eschatology  Simple Eschatology P F  Prophetic Eschatology P “Repent” F 1st Century Judaism

Simple Eschatology

P

P F

F

Prophetic Eschatology

P

“Repent”
“Repent”

F

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Apocalyptic Eschatology

Apocalyptic Eschatology P Crisis F “ The Age to Come” 1st Century Judaism

P

Crisis

P Crisis F “ The Age to Come”

This evil age

P Crisis F “ The Age to Come”

F

The Age to Come”

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The Language of Apocalyptic

The Language of Apocalyptic  The Kingdom of God  The Messiah (The Son of God)

The Kingdom of God The Messiah (The Son of God) The Son of Man This World -- The World to Come “Life of the Ages” (=Eternal Life) The Messianic Banquet Resurrection and the People of God

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Summary

Summary  Jewish People: Common Heritage -- Diverse Expressions  Jewish Insitutions: Temple -- Synagogue --

Jewish People:

Common Heritage -- Diverse Expressions

Jewish Insitutions:

Temple -- Synagogue -- Home

Jewish Expectation: Apocalyptic

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