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environmental factors on

growth
Temperature : psychrophiles, mesophiles,
thermophiles
pH: acidophiles, alkalinophiles
oxygen:
 aerobes : organism able to grow in the presence of atm.
oxygen
 anaerobes : grow in the absence of atm. oxygen
 anaerobes aerotolerant : ignore oxygen and grow equally
well wheather it is present or not.
 Obligate anaerobes : do not tolerate oxygen at all and die in
its presence.
 Both the above cannot generate energy through respiration
and must employ fermentation or anaerobic respiration
pathways.

 Capnophiles : A microorganism that grows best at relatively high carbon dioxide concentration (5- 10%).10 % for growth.  Facultative anerobes : able to grow in either the presence or the absence of oxygen. . Microaerophilic : damaged by the normal atm. Switch between fermentative metabolism and aerobic respiration depending on availability of oxygen. level of oxygen (20%) and require oxygen levels below the range of 2 .

palladium pellets. xerophiles Use of anaerobic jar : anaerobic container for cultivation of anaerobic bacteria on petri plates  Gas generator envelope.Osmotic pressure : halophiles. osmophiles. anaerobic indicator strip .

K.a. Mn.Ca.Mo. Includes vitamins. Growth factors : organism is unable to synthesize.Fe Micronutrients (trace elements) : Co. . Organic compound needed only in small amount and only by some cells.S.Na. must be obtained directly from environment. C. Ni.N.Mg.P. Zn. Se. a.Providing the optimal nutritional (chemical requirements) environment Major macronutrients. Cu. Tu.

yeast extract. Selective media: suppress the growth of unwanted bacteria and encourage the growth of the desired microbes .Culture media Types of culture media 1. meat extract. chemically defined media : exact composition is known 2. Eg : peptones. complex media : contain some ingredients of unknown chemical composition. 3. nutritional requirements of a particular microorganism are unknown therefore defined medium cannot be constructed.

.4. also a selective medium. soil).. to cultivate. but design to increase very small # of the desired type of organism to detectable levels (fortified media). mimic many natural situation (eg. enrichment media : to isolate. Differential media : make it easier to distinguish colonies of the desired organism from other colonies growing on the same plate. usually in liquid and provides nutrients and environmental conditions that favours growth of a particular microbe but not others. 5.

reducing media : for cultivation of anaerobes. .6. contain sodium thioglycolate that chemically combine with dissolved oxygen and deplete the oxygen in the culture medium.