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11.

Microbial metabolism
Metabolism - all chemical reactions
occur in the cell. Flow of energy and
the participation of enzymes make
metabolism possible.
- divided into two:
a) anabolism - synthesis of complex
molecules from simpler ones with the
input of energy.
b) catabolism - larger and more
complex molecules are broken down
into smaller/simple molecules with the
release of energy.
- some of this energy can be used in
anabolism
Nutritional patterns among organisms
phototrophs - use light as their primary
energy source.
autotrophs - self feeders, use C source
from CO2
Chemotrophs - use oxidation-reduction
of inorganic/organic compounds for
energy
Heterotrophs - feeders on others, use C
source from organic compounds.
Photoautotrophs - use light as a source
of energy and CO2 as their chief source
of C.
Photoheterotrophs - use light as a
source of energy , use organic
compounds eg: alcohols, fatty acids,
other organic acids and CHO as source
of C.
Chemoautotrophs - used electron from
reduced inorganic compounds as a
source of energy and they use CO2 as
they principal source of C. Eg, inorganic
source of energy: H S, S, H , NO -
Chemoheterotrophs - use electrons
from hydrogen atoms in organic
compounds as their energy source.
Biochemical pathways of energy
production:
1. Carbohydrate metabolism
a)glycolysis(Embden-Meyerhof
pathway)
b)Entner-Duodoroff(EDP) pathway
c)Pentose phosphate pathway (hexose
monophosphate shunt)
2. Fermentation of carbohydrates
3. Respiration:
aerobic respiration : Krebs cycle and the
electron transport chain (ETC)
anaerobic respiration
4. Lipid catabolism
5. Protein catabolism
Biochemical pathways of energy
utilization (anabolism)
biosynthesis of polysaccharide:
The C atoms required to synthesize
glucose are devised from the
intermediate produced during processes
such as glycolysis.
From glucose to glycogen, the glucose
must be phosphorylated to glucose -6-
phosphate. A molecule of ATP is then
added to form ADPG (adenosine
diphosphoglucose).
Using UTP as a source of E and G6P,
animals synthesize glycogen from UDPG
UDPNAc is a key starting material in the
biosynthesis of peptidoglycan which is
formed from fructose -6- phosphate
and uses UTP.
biosynthesis of lipids - eg: cholesterol,
waxes, carotenoids, energy storage,
structural components of biological
membranes
Cells synthesize fats by joining glycerol
and fatty acids
The glycerol portion is deviced from
dihydroxyacetone phosphate ( an
intermediate formed during glycolysis)
Fatty acids are built up when 2C
fragments of acetlyCoA are successively
added to each other.
biosynthesis of amino acids - aa are
building blocks for protein synthesis
proteins play major roles in the cell as
enzyme, structural components, toxins.
The joining of aa requires energy and
involves dehydration synthesis.
Integration of metabolism