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Medically important groups

of bacteria
Spirochaetes: Treponema, Borrelia,
Spiral and curved bacteria
Gram negative aerobic rods and cocci
 Pseudomonas, Brucella, Bordetella,
Gram negative facultatively anaerobic
 Enterobacteriaceae : Escherichia,
Salmonella, Shigella, Klebsiella, Proteus,
Serratia, Yersinia, Erwinia, Enterobacter.
 Vibrionaceae : Vibrio, Aeromonas
 Haemophilus
Gram negative anaerobic
Gram negative cocci and coccobacilli
 Neisseria , Moraxella
Gram negative anaerobic cocci:
Gram positive cocci :Staphylococcus,
Endospore-forming rods: Bacillus,
Gram positive non-spore forming rod
shaped bacteria : Lactobacilli
Actinomycetes and related organism :
Mycobacterium, Actinomyces,
Streptomyces, Nocardia,
Rickettsiaes, Chlamydias, Mycoplasmas
General properties of fungi : eucaryotic,
filamentous/unicellular, vegetative growth by
apical elongation of filament or by budding.
Reproduction by asexual /sexual spores. Cell
walls composed of chitin/polysaccharides.
Unicellular – yeast; multicellular – molds.
Vegetative structures of fungi
 hyphae : long filament of cells join together.
a. Coenocytic: protoplasm streams through hypae,
uninterrupted by cell walls with many nuclei
b. Septate: cross walls with either single/multiple pores.
 mycelium : hyphae that has grown and form
filamentous mass
a. vegetative : the portion of hyphae that obtain nutrient
b. reproductive/ aerial : portion that concern with
reproduction, bear reproductive spores, projects above
the surface of medium on which the fungus is growing.
 Dimorphism: the property having 2 forms of growth. YM
shift – change from mold to yeast vice versa.
reproductive structure of fungi (spore formation)
 asexual spores : occurs in an individual fungus

through mitosis and subsequent cell division.

 arthrospore
 chlamydospore
 sporangiopore
 conidiospore
 blastophore
 sexual spore : haploid nucleus of a donor cell (+)
penetrates the cytoplasm of a recipient cell (-).
(+) and (-) nuclei fuse to form a diploid zygote
nucleus. By meiosis, the diploid nucleus gives rise
to haploid nuclei (sexual spores).
 zygospore
 ascospore
 basidiospore
medically important phyla of fungi
 Zygomycota : rhinocerebral zygomycosis (nose –brain);
extensive cellulitis with rapid tissue destruction
 Ascomycota : causes ergotism- toxic condition in
human/animal after eating infected grain with fungus
 Basidiomycota : disease called cryptococosis, a systemic
infection primary involving the lungs and central nervous
 Deuteromycota (Fungi Imperfecti) : lacks of sexual
phase, cause athlete’s foot, ringworm.
Fungal diseases (mycoses) : mycoses are generally chronic
(long-lasting) infections, because they are slow growers.
Note : transmission, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment,
examples of fungus involved.
 superficial mycoses : fungal infection on the skin,
confined to the outmost layer, seldom invade deeper
tissue, Eg. Athlete’s foot
treatment:topical application of antifungal (Nizoral)
 cutaneous mycoses (dermatomycoses) : fungus that
infect only the epidermis, hair and nails. They secret
keratinase, an enzyme that degrades keratin ( protein
found in hair, skin, nails);transmission:human to
human,animal to human. Treatment &eg similar to the
 subcutaneous mycoses : fungal infection beneath the
skin. Eg: Norcadia, Streptomyces;direct implantation of
spores/mycelial into wounds in the skin;fungi that live in
soil and on vegetation;wear shoes (workers);localised
swollen lesions;collect pus /biopsy;surgery of
 systemic (deep) mycoses : fungal infection deep within
the body. Eg. Histoplasmosis,
coccidioidomycosis;examine sputum, pus, inoculate on
culture and identify the colony morphology;found in
soil,birds’droppings, inhalation of spores;Ketoconazole
opportunistics fungal infections : harmless in its normal habit
but become pathogenic in a host who is seriously
debilitated/traumatized, under treatment with broad spectrum
antibiotic/suppressed by drug.
 candidiasis : found in vaginal, oral thrush, skin infection,
produce yeast like fungus, rarely spread throughout the
 aspergillosis : grow in preexisting lesions in the lungs
and bronchioles
 mucormycosis : affecting external ear, skin nose/brain
 mycotic diseases in AIDS patients : candidiasis,
coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis
General properties and structure of viruses: infectious agents(
non-cellular). Conatin a single type of nucleic acid either DNA/
RNA. Contain protein coat (lipid/ CHO), multiply inside living
 Virion : complete virus particle (consist DNA/RNA
enclosed in a coat of protein)
 Nucleocapsid : composed of a nucleic acid, held within a
protein coat
 Capsid : A protein coat which protects viral genetic
material and aids in its transfer between host cells
 Capsomers: each capsid is composed of protein
 4 general morphological types of capsid:
 icosahedral - regular polyhedron
 helical – cylinders
 envelope – outer layer surrounding the capsid,
roughly spherical
 complex – possess tails, multilayer walls.
General features of virus replication
 Attachment/adsorption
 Penetration
 ‘uncoating’
 synthesis of viral protein/nucleic acid
 assembly
 release
T phage replication
Multiplication of animal viruses
 difference between animal virus
multiplication vs bacteriophage
 multiplication of DNA viruses vs RNA
cultivation of viruses
 cell cultures - need:suitable living host tissue;
suitable nutrient fluid; tissue is inoculated and
agitated; virus is inoculated into tissue;further
incubation;virus harvest from fluid.
 Cell culture are prepared:
 1. Digest tissue with trypsin
 2. Cells allow to grow as single sheet on the
surface of flask
 3. Virus inoculated into monolayer culture
produces plagues of lysed cells, similar to
phage plagues / local cytopathogenic (infected
cells with various abnormalities)effects which
are of diagnostic value.
 Types of tissue culture:
 1. Roller culture
 2. Rocker culture
 embryonated egg:
 whole host cultivation used for animal
viruses;uses a fertile hen’s egg after 7 to 12
days’ incubation;viruses being inoculated onto
or into a suitable embryonic tissue or fluid (eg:
chorio-allantois, vaccinia; allantoic fluid,
influenza etc. After further incubation, the virus
is harvested from the appropriate tissue and
purified by differential centrifugation
Fluid from amniotic cavity of the infected embryo is
titrated for its hemagglutinating activity
Influenza virus replication is detected by the particles
to cause RBC to clump.
Small pox virus is recognized by the formation of
characterictics pock marks.
cultivation of bacteriophages
assay of viruses
 ID50 / LD50
 Plague assay
 heamagglutination
 eg:influenza-have surface heamaglutinins by
which they can attach themselves to RBC to form
 If the test is performed in a tube, adhere
irregularly to the glass. Absence of virus, the cells
settle to a button on the base of the tube.
 Plague* assay:

 counting the # of plagues produced;seen as clear

 * lysis of host destruction of bacteria growth on a

surface of a bacterium, areas of clearings

ID50/LD50 - The virulence of a microbe or potency of
its toxin is often expressed as the LD50 (lethal dose
for 50% of hosts)
- The # of microbes in a dose that will kill 50% of
inoculated test animals under normal conditions
- ID50 : infectious dose for 50% of hosts. The dose
required to produce a demonstrable infection in 50%
of the test animal.
effects of chemical and physical agents
on viruses
 chemical agents
 lipids solvents
 phenol
 formadehyde
 ethly alcohol, iodophors, sodium hypochlorite,
2% glutaraldehyde
physical agents
 temperature
 radiation (uv, X-ray)