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Overview to

Subsea System
Sandeep S Rangapure
R 160206025
M.Tech – Pipeline


Subsea Pipelines are used for the
transportation of offshore Hydrocarbons
from one Platform to another and or
Platform to Shore


g.:  Export (transportation) pipelines  Pipeline bundles. .Pipelines are used for a number of purposes in the development of offshore hydrocarbon resources These include e.  Flowlines to transfer product from a platform to export lines  Water injection or chemical injection Flowlines  Flowlines to transfer product between platforms  Subsea manifolds and satellite wells.

the sea bottom  PIPELINE COMPONENTS  Any items which are integral part of pipeline system such as flanges. or buried below. their risers. bends. isolation valves. associated piping system and the corrosion protection system . all integrated piping components. SUBMARINE PIPELINE SYSTEMS  PIPELINE  Pipeline is defined as the part of a pipeline system which is located below the water surface at maximum tide (except for pipeline risers)  Pipeline may be resting wholly or intermittently on. supports. reducers and valves  PIPELINE SYSTEM  An inter connected system of submarine pipelines. tees.

Types of riser Rigid riser .for deep and shallow water Riser clamp Riser are supported/guided from the jacket members through clamps Types of Clamp Hanger clamp Fixed clamp Adjustable clamp .for deep water Flexible riser . templates or pipelines to equipment located on a buoyant or fixed offshore structure.for shallow water Catenary steel riser .Risers A Riser is a conducting pipe connecting sub-sea wellheads.


Riser Clamp (Welding to Jacket member) .

Platform FL 1 . estrained lines Pipelines which cannot expand or contract in the longitudinal irection due to fixed supports or friction between the pipe and soil nrestrained lines Pipelines without substantial axial restraint. (Maximum one fixed upport and no substantial friction).

SUBSEA PIPELINE DESIGN ACTIVITIES  Pipeline Sizing  Pipeline Material Selection  Pipeline Mechanical Design  Pipeline Stability Analysis  Pipeline Span Analysis  Pipeline Crossing Design  Pipeline Cathodic Protection System Design .

single/multi phase flow) # Temperature profile # Erosion velocity . ⇒ MAXIMUM FLOW RATE CONDITION ⇒ CHECK FOR THE FLOW CONDITION (pressure drop & flow velocity) ⇒ CHECK FOR SECONDARY CRITERIA like …... PIPELINE SIZING  In general it means fixing up the pipeline nominal diameter (6”. # Flow regime (mix of hydro carbon.10” etc..) which deals with the important aspects like.

D D tt .

→ API . C.5L X.52 .60 & 65 Grades are commonly used.PIPELINE MATERIAL SELECTION The governing parameters for the particular type of material to be used are ⇒ Temperature ⇒ Pressure ⇒ Surrounding Environment.Manganese Steel) C. .5L of Grade Ranges From X . ⇒ Corrosive elements (CO2 and H2 S) Carbon steel (Carbon .Toughness and Weldability are limitations → API .Nace.80 → > X-80 .R.42 to X .A.S.

PIPELINE MECHANICAL DESIGN The mechanical design of the pipeline is carried to with stand factors like Internal pressure External Pressure Hydrostatic Collapse Buckle initiation Buckle Propagation .


PIPELINE SPAN ANALYSIS Causes of the Pipeline Spans are  Uneven Seabed on Selected route  Pipeline Crossing seabed rock outcrop  Sand Waves  Scour All these result in spanning and cause  Excessive yielding (Results in High Bending Moments)  Buckle Initiation and there by Propagation Longitudinal Longitudinal loads loads Unsupported length .


PIPELINE STABILITY Pipeline once installed at the sea bed should be sufficiently stable to avoid any overstressing.. deterioration of coating etc. due to wave and current generated movements PIPELINE STABILITY Vertical Vertical stability stability Lateral Lateral stability stability .

qu = CNC +1/2Bγ N γ qu = Ultimate bearing capacity of soil P = Pipe submerged weight including pipe coatings and in water filled condition per unit length. . Vertical stability  Sinking in to the sea bed during maximum fluid density given by: δ = D/2-[(D/2)2 – (B/2)2]1/2 Where.  The Pipe sinkage is determined as the depth at which the applied pipe pressure equals the soil bearing resistance. D = Overall pipe outside diameter including pipe coatings B = Projected contact area between pipe and soil =P/qu Where.  Soil deformation(pipe sinkage)δ .  Floating of Buried Pipeline during Empty condition & Soil Liquefaction.

 Forces to be considered for Lateral stability analysis  Submerged weight WS  Lateral resistance R  Friction µ  Drag force FD  Lift force FL . Lateral stability  It is the capacity to resist the lateral forces due to Environmental loads.

1) W s= submerged weight of pipeline/unit length. The stability criterion is expressed as (Ws .FL) µ ≥ (FD + FI) S Where. . for nominal wall thickness (t). N/m FL = hydrodynamic lift force. N/m FD = hydrodynamic drag force. N/m FI = hydrodynamic inertia force. N/m µ = lateral coefficient of friction between pipe and seabed. S = safety factor (1.

Methods of Pipeline stabilization  Increase Pipeline wall thickness  Provide Concrete Weight Coating  Lay the Pipeline in Open trench  Trench and bury the Pipeline  Provide Concrete Mattress over Pipeline  Stabilize Pipeline by Rock dumping .

Increase Increase in in Pipewall Pipewall thickness thickness Providing Providing Concrete Concrete coating coating .

Sea bed Trench wall Natural fill Buried pipe.Armor Cover Buried pipe.Concrete Cover Stabilization Methods for buried Submarine pipeline .Natural Fill Jetted in pipe Armor rock Tremie concrete Back fill Bedding Bedding Buried pipe.

Trenching Concrete Mattress .

Rock dumping .

. PIPELINE CROSSING ANALYSIS  Crossings are designed to Give a Physical separation Between The Proposed Line & Existing Line.  To Avoid Interfacing Of Cathodic Protection Between The Two Lines A min of 300mm gap is Provided b/w the lines as per the DNV-Code.

Crossing analysis methodology » Pipeline Crossing Span Calculation. > Bearing capacity > Over turning > Sliding > Settlement . » Pipeline Crossing Flexibility analysis » Pipeline Crossing Support design against. » Pipeline Dynamic Span Calculation » Number of Supports to be Provided.

PIPELINE CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM DESIGN The Subsea pipelines are provided with sacrificial anodes made of Aluminum or Zinc to protect against marine corrosion Important parameters for Anode Design ** Surface Surface area area of of the the Pipeline Pipeline ** Fluid Fluid and and Anode Anode temperature temperature ** Break Break down down ** Design Design service service life life of of Anodes Anodes .



Submarine pipeline system  API 5L .Rules for submarine pipeline system  DNV 2000 .  ASME B 31.  OISD 141 . MAJOR DESIGN CODES AND STANDARDS  DNV 1981 .Pipeline transportation systems for liquid hydrocarbon and other liquids .control of external corrosion on underground or submerged metallic piping.4 .Code of practice for pipeline  NACE RP 0169 .Specification for line pipe  BS 8010 .8 -Gas transmission and distribution piping system.  ASME B 31.Design and construction requirements for cross country hydrocarbon pipeline.Recommended practice.