COATING

Coating is the process to use a external agent on the parent material to protect it from the external environment and increase the life of the material.

COATING IN THE PIPELINE SECTOR
 Pipe

that carry the oil and gas is generally buried or exposed in to external environment may lead to corrosion, metal loss or third party damage.  To prevent all these the pipes are coated at the time of construction and then lower in to the trench.

IF CP is then WHY?
 CP system is in the pipeline to protect the

corrosion of the pipe. It does not help to reduce the metal loss ,Erosion etc.  CP itself is not 100% efficient to control the corrosion .It needs continuous observation to be effective. Because soil resistivity changes time to time.

Property of coating material
         

Low permeability to water & salts. Low permeability to Oxygen Good Adhesion to pipe steel Adequate Temp. stability Ease of Application. Flexibility to strain Resistance to Biodegradation Resistance to Cathodic disbondment Easy to repair. Non Toxic, Environment Friendly

TYPE OF COATING
 Three layer polyethylene coating  Fusion bonded Epoxy powder coating  Three layer polypropylene coating  Asphalt Enamel coating  Neoprene rubber coating  High Performance Composite Coating  polyurethane coating

OFFSHORE PIPE COATING
 Concrete coating  polyurethane foam coating  Polypropylene Insulation coating

INTERNAL COATING
 Centrifugally Applied Cement Mortar Lining  Internal FBE Lining  Thin Film Internal Epoxy Coating

THREE LAYER POLYETHYLENE COATING
 This

consists of a high performance fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) followed by a copolymer adhesive and an outer layer of polyethylene which provides tough, durable protection.  3LPE Systems provide excellent pipeline protection for small and large diameter pipelines with moderate operating temperatures.

Advantage
 The

tough outer layer of polyethylene protects pipelines during transportation and installation thereby reducing costly repairs  Also providing added in-ground protection against shear forces, chemicals and abrasive soil conditions.  Increasing the thickness of the polyethylene outer layer, the 3LPE system can provide a high level of mechanical protection

TYPICAL PROPERTIES PROPERTY
     

3LPE

Minimum Pipe Diameter 90 mm (3.5”) Maximum Pipe Diameter 1220 mm +(48”+) Minimum Pipe Length 5.5 m (18’) Maximum Pipe Length 24.4 m (80’) Min. Recommended Operating Temp. -40°C (-40°F) Max. Recommended Operating Temp. 85°C (185°F)

Multi-Layer PE Coating
It is a two layer corrosion protection system that combines the proven protective qualities of a polyethylene outer coating with a special butyl rubber adhesive.

Advantage
 Resistance to mechanical damage.

• Resistance to soil contaminants and cathodic disbondment. • Temperature range from -32°C to 80°C. • Long term corrosion protection on pipelines up to 145” in diameter.

TYPICAL PROPERTIES PROPERTY
     

Multi Layer PE

Minimum Pipe Diameter 100 mm (4”) Maximum Pipe Diameter 3680 mm (145") Minimum Pipe Length 5.5 m (18’) Maximum Pipe Length 24.4 m (80’) Min. Recommended Operating Temp. -40°C Max. Recommended Operating Temp. 80°C

3LPE COATING FOR HIGHER TEMPERATURE PIPELINE
It is a multilayer coating consisting of a layer of fusion bonded epoxy, a copolymer adhesive and an outer layer of high density polyethylene which offers a tough, durable pipe coating solution.

BENEFITS
 Excellent

corrosion, moisture and soil stress resistance  Outer thickness can be varied to offer greater mechanical protection  Excellent bend-ability and impact resistance  It is seamless and lamination free

TYPICAL PRODUCT PROPERTIES
     

PROPERTY 3LPE for high Temp. Minimum Pipe Diameter 90 mm (3.5”) Maximum Pipe Diameter 300 mm (12”) Minimum Pipe Length 5.5 m (18’) Maximum Pipe Length 24.4 m (80’) Min. Recommended Operating Temp. -40°C Max. Recommended Operating Temp. 85°C

FUSION BONDED EPOXY POWDER COATING
 FBE

is a high performance anti-corrosion coating that provides excellent protection for small and large diameter pipelines with moderate operating temperatures.  FBE’s excellent adhesion to steel  FBE also provides excellent resistance to cathodic disbondment which reduces the total cost of cathodic protection during the operation of the pipeline.

Advantage
 Provides

tough physical properties that minimize damage during handling, transportation, installation and operation  FBE has also been designed for good chemical resistance under most soil conditions.

TYPICAL PROPERTIES
      

PROPERTY FBE Minimum Pipe Diameter 90 mm (3.5”) Maximum Pipe Diameter 1220 mm + (48”+) Minimum Pipe Length 5.5 m (18’) Maximum Pipe Length 24.4 m (80’) Min. Recommended Operating Temp. -40°C Max. Recommended Operating Temp. 85°C

THREE LAYER POLYPROPYLENE COATING
3LPP System is a multilayer coating composed of three functional components. This anti-corrosion system consists of a high performance fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) followed by a copolymer adhesive and an outer layer of polypropylene which provides the toughest, most durable pipe coating solution available. 3LPP Systems provide excellent pipeline protection for small and large diameter pipelines with moderate operating temperatures.

BENEFITS
  

The FBE component of the 3LPP System provides excellent adhesion to steel . providing superior long term corrosion resistance and protection of pipelines operating at high temperatures. superior adhesion properties of the FBE also results in excellent resistance to cathodic disbondment which reduces the total cost of cathodic protection during the operation of the pipeline. tough outer layer of polypropylene protects pipelines during transportation and installation thereby reducing costly repairs.

TYPICAL PROPERTIES
PROPERTY 3LPP Minimum Pipe Diameter 90 mm (3.5”) Maximum Pipe Diameter 1220 mm + (48”+) Minimum Pipe Length 5.5 m (18’) Maximum Pipe Length 24.4 m (80’) Min. Recommended Operating Temp. -40°C (-40°F) Max. Recommended Operating Temp. 110°C (230°F)

     

ASPHALT ENAMEL COATING
Asphalt Enamel is a durable coating by modified bitumen (asphalt) that has been successfully used for corrosion protection of steel pipes.

Benefits

Asphalt Enamel's excellent adhesion to steel provides a track record of long term corrosion resistance. pipelines convey fluid when the continuous temperature of the fluid being transported does not exceed 90°C (194°F). As opposed to coal tar enamel, which contains carcinogens, AE is a much safer and more environmentally friendly system.

TYPICAL PROPERTIES
     

PROPERTY Asphalt Enamel Minimum Pipe Diameter 90 mm (3.5”) Maximum Pipe Diameter 1200 mm + (48" +) Minimum Pipe Length 5.5 m (18’) Maximum Pipe Length 18 m (59’) Min. Recommended Operating Temp. -40°C Max. Recommended Operating Temp. 90°C

NEOPRENE RUBBER COATING

system consists of a multi-layer coating consisting on a primer, bonding agent and an outer layer of polychloroprene Polychloroprene is normally hot-bonded to the steel using a vulcanization process in a steam autoclave. This process both cures the rubber and bonds it to the steel. Polychloroprene provides tough, durable protection for pipelines and risers with excellent resistance to water take-up, hydrocarbons and ozone. Polychloroprene can also be applied as a field joint coating on site being cured using heated electrical tapes.

Benefits
   

Polychloroprene system provides excellent adhesion to steel thereby giving long term corrosion resistance. Impact protection to risers and pipelines operating at 95°c (203°f). The superior adhesion properties of the polychloroprene also results in excellent resistance to cathodic disbondment. The tough outer layer of polychloroprene protects pipelines and risers during transportation and installation thereby reducing costly repairs while providing added protection against shear forces, impact, chemicals and abrasion. .

TYPICAL PROPERTIES
     

PROPERTY PCP (Neoprene) Minimum Pipe Diameter 90 mm (3.5”) Maximum Pipe Diameter 1220 mm + (48”+) Minimum Pipe Length 2 m (6.5’) Maximum Pipe Length 17 m (56’) Min. Recommended Operating Temp. -40°C Max. Recommended Operating Temp. 95°C

HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPOSITE COATING

High Performance Composite Coating (HPCC) is an advanced composite system that represents the latest development in anti-corrosion systems. The product consists of fusion bonded epoxy, polyolefin adhesive and tough polyethylene. HPCC is designed to protect buried oil and gas pipelines in environments where superior mechanical protection, moisture and corrosion resistance and high operating performance characteristics are required.

BENEFITS

 

The FBE component of HPCC provides excellent adhesion to steel, thereby providing superior long term corrosion resistance. protection of pipelines operating up to 85°C. The superior adhesion properties of the FBE also provides excellent resistance to cathodic disbondment which reduces the cost of cathodic protection during the operation of the pipeline.

The unique application process of HPCC provides a fused, monolithic profile that prevents de-lamination and loss of adhesion. During construction, the system demonstrates excellent field handling and flexibility characteristics, thus minimizing construction installation costs. HPCC provides excellent uniform coverage of the weld bead profile, thus preventing “tenting” and weaknesses in the coating cross-section. The polyethylene component protects the pipeline during transportation, thereby, reducing costly repairs while also providing added inground protection against shear forces, chemicals and abrasive soil conditions.

TYPICAL PROPERTIES
      

PROPERTY HPCC Minimum Pipe Diameter 400 mm (16”) Maximum Pipe Diameter 1220 mm + (48”+) Minimum Pipe Length 18.3 m (60’) Maximum Pipe Length 24.4 m (80’) Min. Recommended Operating Temp. -40°C (-40°F) Max. Recommended Operating Temp. 85°C (185°F)

Concrete Weight Coating
It is designed to provide negative buoyancy and mechanical protection for pipelines in subsea and wet environments. It uses an impinged application method making it ideal for large diameter pipelines. It is available in various thicknesses and densities and can be applied over anti-corrosion and insulation coatings.

BENEFITS
 

 

It can be applied over anti-corrosion and insulation coating systems. It is most appropriate weight coating system without compromising the long term corrosion protection or flow assurance requirements of the pipeline. It have wide range of densities and thicknesses to meet project requirements. This feature can improve installation, optimize negative buoyancy and minimize cost.

TYPICAL PROPERTIES
        

PROPERTY Concrete Weight Coating Minimum Pipe Diameter 100 mm (4”) Maximum Pipe Diameter 1220 mm (48”) Minimum Pipe Length 8.5 m (28’) Maximum Pipe Length 18 m (60’) Minimum Concrete Thickness 25 mm (1”) Maximum Concrete Thickness 230 mm (9”) Compressive Strength 20.7 - 41.4 MPa (3000 - 6000 psi) Density 2243 - 3364 kg/m3 (140 - 210 lbs/ft3)

COMPARISON OF PIPELINE COATINGS
ASPHALT / COAL TAR: 1940 TO 1970
ADVANTAGES
EASY

DISADVANTAGES TO OXIDATION AND

TO APPLY

SUBJECT

CRACKING
MINIMAL LONG

SURFACE PREPARATION REQUIRED TRACK RECORD IN CERTAIN ENVIRONMENTS WITHOUT FAILURE
PERMEABLE

SOIL

STRESS HAS BEEN AN ISSUE

LIMITATIONS

AT LOW APPLICATION TEMPERATURES
ENVIRONMENTAL

TO CATHODIC PROTECTION IN EVENT OF FAILURE  

AND EXPOSURE

CONCERNS
ASSOCIATED

WITH CORROSION AND STRESS CRACK CORROSION FAILURES

Table 1 Comparison of coating candidates
COATING

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

FBE

1. 2. 3.

Excellent corrosion resistance. Does not shield cathodic protection system. High adhesion limits damaged area. Excellent handling Excellent corrosion resistance Excellent low temperature impact resistance and flexibility Excellent moisture resistance Excellent raised weld coverage

1. 2. 3. 4.
1. 2.

Low impact resistance results in considerable field damage. Sensitive to steel surface preparation and condition. High moisture absorption and permeation especially at higher temperatures. Affected by UV during storage.
Thickness constraints- 1.5 mm Sensitive to steel surface preparation and condition

HPCC

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

3LPE

1. 2. 3. 4.

Excellent handling Excellent low temperature flexibility and impact resistance Excellent corrosion resistance Excellent moisture resistance

1. 2. 3. 4.

Prone to thinning across raised weld seams. Side extrusion prone to de-laminations and voids. High cost due to minimum thickness constraints Sensitive to steel surface preparation and condition

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