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Half Wave Dipole

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Half wave dipole

• It’s the simplest and fundamental

antenna, has length of Half

wavelength, ie λ/2.

• Otherwise called “Dipole antenna”

or “λ/2 antenna”.

•

• Two metal rods or wires have

physical length of λ/4 with

opposite polarity will act as

simple dipole.

Radiation Fields

• We already developed the expressions for

“Current element” or “Unit length

element”

• A dipole of length λ/2 can be said as

continuously distributed current element,

in other words, A dipole antenna is sub-

divided into multiple current element.

• E and H fields of a dipole we can derive

from current element itself, however

these multiple current elements will

create a phase shift between them

• Such mechanism is modeled as:

– Total field =(Element Field)×(space factor)

– This spacer factor will give the phase

difference concept, it takes a lengthy

• A dipole antenna is

placed at origin of

3-d space

• At a point p, located a

(r,θ,φ)

• From the origin,

consider a “current

element” is located

a height of z’.

• The field created by

the current

element will create

R = r − z ' cos θ

a phase shift with

respect to origin by

“z’cosθ”

• Over all phase shift created by all “current

element” is referred as “Spacer factor”

kl kl

cos cos θ − cos

2 2

Spacer factor =

sin θ

– Total field =(Element Field) × (space factor)

kl kl

− jkr cos cos θ − cos

Ioe 2 2

E θ ≈ jη

2πr sin θ

These equations are approximated

for “Far-Field conditions”

kl kl

d by single current element cos cos θ − cos

I o e − jkr 2 2

Hφ ≈ j

2πr sin θ

Power density, Radiation

density

Power

density

Radiatio

n

density

For dipole: l=λ/2

π π

cos cos θ cos cos θ

I o e − jkr 2 I o e − jkr 2

E θ ≈ jη Hφ ≈ j

2πr sin θ 2πr sin θ

Radiated power density, Radiation

resistance

Total radiated power

Radiation

resistance Appr. 75Ω will match the 50Ω

Line to air medium, for this reason

λ/2 dipole antenna

become much famous

l>λ/2

“Spacer factor” changes and creating

“construction and destructions”

For l=1.25λ

Constructions

destructions

Side lob

l>>λ/2, for example: 2λ or 5λ

Assignment-1

• Should be in “IEEE format”

• Clear Reference

• Plagiarism

• “Intro + Literature” 3marks

• “Road map”2marks

• “Conclusion”4marks

• Earlier submission(before Feb-5) 1mark.

•

• Two Quizzes 10 marks. First quiz on “28-01-2010”.

“Propagation mechanism + Radiation Mechanism”

•

• Last date: Fab 12, 5.30pm.

• dkannadassan@vit.ac.in

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