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Radiation from

“Half Wave Dipole”


Half wave dipole
• It’s the simplest and fundamental
antenna, has length of Half
wavelength, ie λ/2.
• Otherwise called “Dipole antenna”
or “λ/2 antenna”.

• Two metal rods or wires have
physical length of λ/4 with
opposite polarity will act as
simple dipole.
Radiation Fields
• We already developed the expressions for
“Current element” or “Unit length
element”
• A dipole of length λ/2 can be said as
continuously distributed current element,
in other words, A dipole antenna is sub-
divided into multiple current element.
• E and H fields of a dipole we can derive
from current element itself, however
these multiple current elements will
create a phase shift between them
• Such mechanism is modeled as:
– Total field =(Element Field)×(space factor)
– This spacer factor will give the phase
difference concept, it takes a lengthy
• A dipole antenna is
placed at origin of
3-d space
• At a point p, located a
(r,θ,φ)
• From the origin,
consider a “current
element” is located
a height of z’.
• The field created by
the current
element will create
R = r − z ' cos θ
a phase shift with
respect to origin by
“z’cosθ”
• Over all phase shift created by all “current
element” is referred as “Spacer factor”
   kl   kl  
 cos cos θ  − cos 
 2   2 
 Spacer factor = 
 sin θ 
 
  

• So the total field can be expressed as


– Total field =(Element Field) × (space factor)

   kl   kl  
− jkr  cos cos θ  − cos 
Ioe  2   2 
E θ ≈ jη 
2πr  sin θ 
  These equations are approximated
  for “Far-Field conditions”

  kl   kl  
d by single current element  cos cos θ  − cos 
I o e − jkr  2   2 
Hφ ≈ j 
2πr  sin θ 
 
 
Power density, Radiation
density

Power
density

Radiatio
n
density
For dipole: l=λ/2
 π   π 
 cos cos θ   cos cos θ 
I o e − jkr  2  I o e − jkr  2 
E θ ≈ jη  Hφ ≈ j 
2πr  sin θ  2πr  sin θ 
   
   
Radiated power density, Radiation
resistance
Total radiated power

Cin (2π ) ≈ 2.435

Radiation
resistance Appr. 75Ω will match the 50Ω
Line to air medium, for this reason
λ/2 dipole antenna
become much famous
l>λ/2

• While antenna length is greater than λ/2, the


“Spacer factor” changes and creating
“construction and destructions”

For l=1.25λ
Constructions
destructions

Side lob
l>>λ/2, for example: 2λ or 5λ
Assignment-1
• Should be in “IEEE format”
• Clear Reference
• Plagiarism
• “Intro + Literature” 3marks
• “Road map”2marks
• “Conclusion”4marks
• Earlier submission(before Feb-5) 1mark.

• Two Quizzes 10 marks. First quiz on “28-01-2010”.
“Propagation mechanism + Radiation Mechanism”

• Last date: Fab 12, 5.30pm.
• dkannadassan@vit.ac.in