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Antenna

Terminologies & Measurements

Radiation pattern
• A trace or a Graphical representation of power, gain, intensity, field
strength in a particular space co-ordinates
• By keeping two co-ordinates constant, and varying the third, the
patterns can be drawn.
• For example:
• r and φ are kept constant, for various θ, the power at a far-field
distance can be…

Polar plot
• Most convenient plot is “Polar plot” for radiation graphs.
• Θ will be called as “Elevation” angle (o to 180)
• Φ as “Azimuthal” angle (0 to 360)

θ

φ

Practical antennas are Directional  • Directional: The maximum power or gain will be in particular direction of φ or θ  • Omni-directional: It’s special type in Directional. . like circular radiation pattern • Isotropic antenna is an ideal. – In azimuthal or Elevation angles the antenna is isotropic and directional in either. unrealizable antenna. Isotropic and Directional • Isotropic: a lossless antenna having equal radiation in all direction.

Radiation pattern .Lobes • A quantitative portions of radiation pattern are Lobes • Major radiated energy bounded by “Major- Lobe”. the zero radiation points are Major lobes called “Null points” Major lobe Back lobe . • Minor lobes are still classified into “Side lobes” and “Back lobes” • Between two lobe. and others are “Minor Lobes”.

Null ponits • Each Radiation pattern will have many number of lobes.. . they are refered as 1st . • With symmetry.Null ponits . 2nd . so many number of Null points will be there.

and maximum power direction also within Major lob. • Our aim also. that much directional . Beam Level • Maximum power is taken by Major lob. obviously. called “Side lobe level” or “Side lobe ratio” As much as bigger the ratio. to get maximum power within Major lobe • To define the side lobes: How smaller the side lobes are or which level they are with respect to major lobe.

over how much angle at least half of the power is radiated?. • For example. that much directive. The angle difference or range the arc occupies over the major lobe is “HPBW”. make a arc. Half Power Beam width • In Major lobe itself. it maximum power radiated is 12dB. called “Half power Beam width” (HPBW). place the 9dB point (ie 12dB-3dB). 3dB point Simply as minimum HPBW. φHPWB Max .

• This is useful measure to define the Major Lobe . the angle between first null points is called FNBW. First Null Beam width • On both side of symmetry. • FNBW will be always bigger than HPBW.

Compare! For same Yagi-Uda antenna. different radiation pattern got. which is high directive??! .

over φ . For a λ/2 antenna  π  cos cos θ  I o e − jkr   2  Where. now find the θHPBW 2  π   π   π   cos θ cos  cos θ  cos  cos θ cos  2  = sin θ 2  = 1  2  =1  (1 / 2)   1   sin θ  2  sin θ              θ = 60 o or − 60 o Am I correct?!! θ HPBW = 120 o θ FNBW = 180 o .radiation is constant E θ ≈ jη   2πr  sin θ      Consider the Magnitude is unity.

e. FNBW HPBW . i.

Take a problem • A normalized radiation power intensity is described for an antenna as: U = sin 2 θ sin 2 φ ind the Half power beam width for Azimuthal and Elevation ang .

so we can say “2π rad” for full circle • One steradian: A solid angle for which the R2 circumference area created by radius R (3-D). . – So a solid sphere will have “4π sr” for full. Radian and Steradian • One Radian: the angle for which the vertex is equal to radius (2-D) – For example: A circle of radius R will have circumference of C=2πR.

Radiation Power Density • If the Electric and Magnetic Field created by an antenna are E and H. then the average power can be calculated using poynting vector • • 1 [ Wavg ( x.ds ] • 2 s •   Prad  Wrad =   aˆ r • Then the power radiated: 2  4πr  . y. z ) = Re E × H ∗ 2 ] • • Prad 1 [  ∗  = ∫ ∫Re E × H .

dφ . dΩ isΩcalled Unit 0 0 solid angle = sinθ. Radiation Intensity • Power radiated from an antenna per solid angle – Mostly it’s considered in Far-Field condition – U = r 2Wrad – Here U=radiation intensity (W/unit solid angle Ω) – Wrad = radiation density (W/m2) • From this total power can be obtained.  2π π  Prad = ∫ ∫Ud Ω = ∫ ∫U sin θ.dθ.dθ.dφ – Where.

dθ.dθ. Problem-A • Find the total power radiated for U=A0sinθ 2π π Prad = ∫ ∫Ud Ω = ∫ ∫U sin θ.dφ 0 0 = π 2 A0 .dφ Ω 0 0 2π π Prad = ∫ ∫ sin 2 θ.

• Defined as “the ratio of the radiation intensity in a given direction from the antenna to the radiation intensity averaged over all direction” U U D= = U 0  Prad   4π   U max U max Umax is the maximum radiation D0 = Dmax = = U0  Prad  intensity. specifies the measure of directionality of an antenna. found maximum power  4π  direction  . Directivity • Also called “directive gain”.

Problem-B • Calculate the directivity and maximum directivity for the Problem-A .

Problem-C • If the average power calculated over θ is defined as  A0 sin 2 θ  Wavg = aˆ r  r 2    .

• The Maximum directivity can be approximated as  4π 4π D0 = =  Ω A θ HPBW φ HPBW – ΩA is called Beam Solid angle(Sr) – To convert to degrees. divide ΩA by (180/π)  • It’s further approximated to 4π (180 / π ) 2 41.253 D0 = = θ HPBW φ HPBW θ HPBW φ HPBW .

U=A0cosθ – The radiation exits in upper half alone (0≤θ≤π/2. 0≤φ≤2π) . Problem-D • Calculate the maximum directivity for the radiation intensity.

“the ratio in the radiation intensity. • The Absolute gain is defined as. = 4π . in the text book. in the given direction. • Prad = ecd .Pin • • ecd is “radiation efficiency”. Radiation intensity U (θ . to the accepted power of isotropic radiation intensity”. φ ) • Gain = 4π . • In other words. Gain • Measure of efficiency and directivity can explicitly seen in Antenna gain. a dimensionless quantity. Total input power Pin • • Here input power can be related to radiated power by. .

Relation between Gain and directivity • While replacing the Input power in-terms of radiated power. φ ) = ecd .D0 (θ . we can say the Maximum gain as • • G0 (θ .   Prad  • • From this relation.000 G0 = θ HPBW φ HPBW . •  U (θ . φ )  G (θ .(for complicated radiation patterns) 30. φ ) = ecd .D(θ . φ ) • Gain = e  cd  4π . φ ) • Approximated to.

For lossless antenna. which highly depending in the area. since the practical antennas are lossy and not matched properly – they will have efficiency of less than one. • The total radiation efficiency is  e0 = e r ec e d  (Zin −Z0 ) – er = reflection efficiency=(1-Г2) Γ = Z + Z in 0 – ec = conduction efficiency – ed = dielectric efficiency • For simplicity.ec=ecd ”. the “er. shape and material of antenna. Radiation efficiency • Describes the how much of input power is utilized for radiation. ecd =1 .

and calculate the reflection efficiency using impedance • Since Lossless. is to be connected to a transmission line whose characteristics impedance is 50Ω. e0=0.14dB . If the radiation intensity of that antenna is U=B0sin3θ. Problem-A • A lossless resonant half-wave dipole antenna. ecd =1 • Finally calculate in-terms of dB • Answers: D0=1. with input impedance of 73Ω.697. – Soultion • Find D0. find the Maximum gain of the antenna.636=2.965. G0=1.

which can be represent as • Z A = R A + jX A • • Amount of energy stored Amount of energy left • • For a good antenna. The resistance is further classified by “Radiation resistance” and “Loss resistance”. called Input Impedance. Input Impedance • The radiation of Electric and Magnetic field components are defined by ratio of voltage to current at the input of antenna. the resistance part should be greater than reactance. as • R A = Rr + R L .

Xg VT Rr XA . Equivalent circuit Generator 2 VT  RL  PL =   8  ( Rr + R L ) 2  RL 2 VT  Rr  Pr =   8  ( Rr + R L ) 2  Rg.

– Pr+PL=Induced power by antenna. • Then. the antenna efficiency and gain will be very high However. PC – 2 VT  Rr  VT 2  RL  – PC = 8  +    ( Rr + R L )  8  ( Rr + R L )  2 2 – – VT  2  1 – =   8  ( Rr + R L )  – – – Radiated power Pr Rr ecd = Total power = = • Here the radiation efficiency can ( Rr + RL )as PC be defined Clears that When Rr>>RL. the RL is depending on conductance of antenna. respectively. defined as l ω µo RL = 2 P 2σ l and P are length and perimeter of the antenna. P=2πb. the total power from resistance. where b is radius of wire .

Determine the radiation efficiency of antenna if antenna operates at f=100MHz and radius of wire is b=3×10-4 λ.7×107S/m) wire. Problem-B • A resonant λ/2 half-wave dipole antenna is made of copper(σ =5. .