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EC 2253

ELECTROMAGNETIC
FIELDS
Overview of
Electrostatics: Electrostatic
Potential; Charge Dipole;
Visualization of Electric Fields;
Potentials; Gauss’s Law and
Applications;

February 7, 2010 3

Electrostatic Potential of
a Point Charge at the
r Origin r
Q
V ( r ) = − ∫ E ⋅ d l = − ∫ aˆ r ⋅ aˆ r dr ′
4π ε0 ( r ′)
2
∞ ∞

Q dr ′ Q
= ∫
4π ε0 r ( r ′) 2
=
4π ε0 r
P

r
spherically symmetric

Q
February 7, 2010 3

Electrostatic Potential
Resulting from Multiple
Point Charges
R2
Q2 P(R,θ ,φ )

r′2 r R1
Q1
n
r ′1 Qk
V (r) = ∑
k =1 4π ε
0 Rk
O

No longer spherically symmetric!

February 7, 2010 3

Electrostatic Potential
Resulting from Continuous
Charge Distributions

1 qel ( r ′) dl ′
V (r) =
4π ε0 L∫′
⇐ line charge
R
1 qes ( r ′) ds′
V (r) = ∫ ⇐ surface charge
4π ε0 S ′ R
1 qev ( r ′) dv′
V (r) = ∫ ⇐ volume charge
4π ε0 V ′ R
February 7, 2010 3

Charge Dipole
 An electric charge dipole consists of a pair of equal and opposite point
charges separated by a small distance (i.e., much smaller than the
distance at which we observe the resulting field).

+Q -Q

d

February 7, 2010 3

2010 3 . Dipole Moment • Dipole moment p is a measure of the strength of the dipole and indicates its direction +Q p = Qd d p is in the direction from the negative point charge to the positive point -Q charge February 7.

Electrostatic Potential Due to Charge Dipole P observation z point R+ +Q r R− d/2 p = aˆ z Qd d/2 θ -Q February 7. 2010 3 .

Electrostatic Potential Due to Charge Dipole (Cont’d) Q Q V ( r ) = V ( r . 2010 3 .θ ) = − 4π ε0 R+ 4π ε0 R− cylindrical symmetry February 7.

2010 3 . Electrostatic Potential Due to Charge Dipole (Cont’d) P R+ r d/2 θ R− d/2 R+ = r + (d / 2) − rd cos θ 2 2 R− = r + (d / 2) + rd cos θ 2 2 February 7.

Electrostatic Potential Due to Charge Dipole in the Far-Field • assume R>>d • zeroth order approximation: not good R+ ≈ R enough! V ≈0 R− ≈ R February 7. 2010 3 .

2010 3 . Electrostatic Potential Due to Charge Dipole in the Far- Field (Cont’d) • first order approximation from geometry: R+ d R+ ≈ r − cos θ 2 θ r d d/2 R− ≈ r + cos θ R− 2 d/2 lines approximately parallel February 7.

2010 3 . x << 1 1 1 d  ≈ 1 − cos θ  R− r  2r  February 7. Electrostatic Potential Due to Charge Dipole in the Far- Field (Cont’d) • Taylor series approximation: −1 −1 1  d  1 d  = r − cos θ  = 1 − cos θ  R+  2  r  2r  1 d  ≈ 1 + cos θ  r  2r  Recall : (1 + x ) n ≈ 1 + nx.

Electrostatic Potential Due to Charge Dipole in the Far-Field (Cont’d) Q  d cos θ   d cos θ  V ( r . 2010 3 .θ ) ≈ 1 +  − 1 −  4π ε0 r  2r   2r   Qd cos θ = 4π ε0 r 2 February 7.

Electrostatic Potential Due to Charge Dipole in the Far-Field (Cont’d) • In terms of the dipole moment: 1 p ⋅ aˆ r V≈ 4π ε0 r 2 February 7. 2010 3 .

Electric Field of Charge Dipole in the Far-Field  ∂V 1 ∂V  E = −∇ V = − aˆ r + aˆθ   ∂r r ∂θ  Qd ≈ [ ˆ a r 2 cos θ + ˆ a θ sin θ ] 4π ε0 r 3 February 7. 2010 3 .

Faraday’s Experiment charged sphere (+Q) + + + metal + insulator February 7. 2010 3 .

Faraday’s Experiment (Cont’d)  Two concentric conducting spheres are separated by an insulating material.  The inner sphere is charged to +Q. 2010 3 . February 7.  The outer sphere is grounded momentarily.  The charge on the outer sphere is found to be -Q. The outer sphere is initially uncharged.

2010 3 . February 7. Faraday’s Experiment (Cont’d)  Faraday concluded there was a “displacement” from the charge on the inner sphere through the inner sphere through the insulator to the outer sphere. independent of the insulating material and the size of the spheres.  The electric displacement (or electric flux) is equal in magnitude to the charge that produces it.

Electric Displacement (Electric Flux) +Q -Q February 7. 2010 3 .

2010 3 . D.  In free space the relationship between flux density and electric field is D = ε0 E February 7. Electric (Displacement) Flux Density  The density of electric displacement is the electric (displacement) flux density.

Electric (Displacement) Flux Density (Cont’d)  The electric (displacement) flux density for a point charge centered at the origin is Q D = aˆ r 4π r 2 February 7. 2010 3 .

” ∫ S D ⋅ d s = Qencl February 7. 2010 3 . Gauss’s Law  Gauss’s law states that “the net electric flux emanating from a close surface S is equal to the total charge contained within the volume V bounded by that surface.

Gauss’s Law (Cont’d) S By convention. February 7. Since volume charge density is the most Qencl = ∫ qev dv general. we can always write V Qencl in this way. 2010 3 . ds ds is taken to be outward V from the volume V.

2010 3 . Applications of Gauss’s Law  Gauss’s law is an integral equation for the unknown electric flux density resulting from a given charge distribution. known ∫ S D ⋅ d s = Qencl unknown February 7.

for certain symmetric charge distributions closed form solutions to Gauss’s law can be obtained. solutions to integral equations must be obtained using numerical techniques. Applications of Gauss’s Law (Cont’d)  In general.  However. February 7. 2010 3 .

2010 3 . February 7. Applications of Gauss’s Law (Cont’d)  Closed form solution to Gauss’s law relies on our ability to construct a suitable family of Gaussian surfaces.  A Gaussian surface is a surface to which the electric flux density is normal and over which equal to a constant value.

2010 3 . Electric Flux Density of a Point Charge Using Gauss’s Law Consider a point charge at the origin: Q February 7.

Electric Flux Density of a Point Charge Using Gauss’s Law (Cont’d) (1) Assume from symmetry the form of the field D = aˆ r Dr ( r ) spherical symmetry (2) Construct a family of Gaussian spheres of radius r where surfaces 0≤r ≤∞ February 7. 2010 3 .

Electric Flux Density of a Point Charge Using Gauss’s Law (Cont’d) (3) Evaluate the total charge within the volume enclosed by each Gaussian surface Qencl = ∫ qev dv V February 7. 2010 3 .

2010 3 . Electric Flux Density of a Point Charge Using Gauss’s Law (Cont’d) Gaussian surface R Q Qencl = Q February 7.

evaluate the integral ∫ D ⋅ d s = DS S surface area of Gaussian surface. magnitude of D on Gaussian surface. Electric Flux Density of a Point Charge Using Gauss’s Law (Cont’d) (4) For each Gaussian surface. ∫ D ⋅ d s = D (r) 4π r 2 r S February 7. 2010 3 .

Electric Flux Density of a Point Charge Using Gauss’s Law (Cont’d) (5) Solve for D on each Gaussian surface Qencl D= S Q D Q D = aˆ r ⇒ E= = aˆ r 4π r 2 ε0 4π ε0 r 2 February 7. 2010 3 .

2010 3 . otherwise b February 7. Electric Flux Density of a Spherical Shell of Charge Using Gauss’s Law Consider a spherical shell of uniform charge density:  q0 . a ≤ r ≤ b qev =  a 0.

2010 3 . Electric Flux Density of a Spherical Shell of Charge Using Gauss’s Law (Cont’d) (1) Assume from symmetry the form of the field D = aˆ r Dr ( R ) (2) Construct a family of Gaussian spheres of radius r where surfaces 0≤r ≤∞ February 7.

Electric Flux Density of a Spherical Shell of Charge Using Gauss’s Law (Cont’d)  Here. we shall need to treat separately 3 sub-families of Gaussian surfaces: 1) 0≤r ≤a 2) a<r ≤b a 3) r >b b February 7. 2010 3 .

Electric Flux Density of a Spherical Shell of Charge Using Gauss’s Law (Cont’d) Gaussian surfaces for which 0≤r ≤a Gaussian surfaces for which a<r ≤b Gaussian surfaces for which r >b February 7. 2010 3 .

2010 3 . Electric Flux Density of a Spherical Shell of Charge Using Gauss’s Law (Cont’d) (3) Evaluate the total charge within the volume enclosed by each Gaussian surface Qencl = ∫ qev dv V February 7.

Electric Flux Density of a Spherical Shell of Charge Using Gauss’s Law (Cont’d)  For 0≤r ≤a Qencl = 0  For a < r ≤ b r 4 3 4 Qencl = ∫ q0 dv = q0 π r − q0 π a 3 a 3 3 4 ( = q0 π r 3 − a 3 3 ) February 7. 2010 3 .

2010 3 . Electric Flux Density of a Spherical Shell of Charge Using Gauss’s Law (Cont’d)  For r >b b 4 3 4 Qencl = ∫ qev dv = q0 π b − q0 π a 3 a 3 3 4 ( = q0 π b 3 − a 3 3 ) February 7.

∫ D ⋅ d s = D ( r ) 4π r 2 r S February 7. Electric Flux Density of a Spherical Shell of Charge Using Gauss’s Law (Cont’d) (4) For each Gaussian surface. magnitude of D on Gaussian surface. 2010 3 . evaluate the integral ∫ D ⋅ d s = DS S surface area of Gaussian surface.

Electric Flux Density of a Spherical Shell of Charge Using Gauss’s Law (Cont’d) (5) Solve for D on each Gaussian surface Qencl D= S February 7. 2010 3 .

0≤r ≤a   q 0 4 π ( r 3 − a 3 ) q0  a  3 D = aˆ r 3 = aˆ r  r − 2 . 2010 3 . a<r ≤b  4π r 2 3 r    q0 π ( b − a ) 4 q0 ( b 3 − a 3 ) 3 3 aˆ r 3 = aˆ r . Electric Flux Density of a Spherical Shell of Charge Using Gauss’s Law (Cont’d)   0. r >b  4π r 2 3 r 2 February 7.

2010 3 . Electric Flux Density of a Spherical Shell of Charge Using Gauss’s Law (Cont’d)  Notice that for r > b Total charge contained in spherical shell Qtot D = aˆ r 4π r 2 4 ( Qtot = q0 π b 3 − a 3 3 ) February 7.

Electric Flux Density of a Spherical Shell of Charge Using Gauss’s Law (Cont’d) 0.2 0. 2010 3 .5 q0 = 1 C/m 3 a =1m Dr (C/m) 0.4 0.1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 R February 7.7 0.3 b=2m 0.6 0.

Electric Flux Density of an Infinite Line Charge Using Gauss’s Law Consider a infinite line charge carrying charge per unit length of qel : qel z February 7. 2010 3 .

2010 3 . Electric Flux Density of an Infinite Line Charge Using Gauss’s Law (Cont’d) (1) Assume from symmetry the form of the field D = aˆ ρ Dρ ( ρ ) (2) Construct a family of Gaussian cylinders of radius ρ where surfaces 0≤ ρ ≤∞ February 7.

Electric Flux Density of an Infinite Line Charge Using Gauss’s Law (Cont’d) (3) Evaluate the total charge within the volume enclosed by each Gaussian surface Qencl = ∫ qel dl L cylinder is Qencl = qel l infinitely long! February 7. 2010 3 .

∫ D ⋅ d s = Dρ ( ρ ) 2π ρ l S February 7. 2010 3 . evaluate the integral ∫ D ⋅ d s = DS S surface area of Gaussian surface. Electric Flux Density of an Infinite Line Charge Using Gauss’s Law (Cont’d) (4) For each Gaussian surface. magnitude of D on Gaussian surface.

2010 3 . Electric Flux Density of an Infinite Line Charge Using Gauss’s Law (Cont’d) (5) Solve for D on each Gaussian surface Qencl D= S qel D = aˆ ρ 2π ρ February 7.

2010 3 . Gauss’s Law in Integral Form ∫ D⋅ds = Q S encl = ∫ qev dv V ds V S February 7.

2010 3 . S V  Holds for any ds volume and corresponding V closed surface. Recall the Divergence Theorem  Also called Gauss’s theorem or ∫ D ⋅ d s = ∫ ∇ ⋅ D dv Green’s theorem. S February 7.

we must have ∇ ⋅ D = qev Differential form of Gauss’s Law February 7. 2010 3 . Applying Divergence Theorem to Gauss’s Law ∫ D ⋅ d s = ∫ ∇ ⋅ D dv = ∫ q S V V ev dv ⇒ Because the above must hold for any volume V.

Fields in Materials  Materials contain charged particles that respond to applied electric and magnetic fields. 2010 3 .  Materials are classified according to the nature of their response to the applied fields. February 7.