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Unit 3 OCR Nationals – LEVEL 3

Kick Start
Getting Started
 Now there IS a Model Assignment for this
beastie, and you’re welcome to follow that
word-for-word. Some previous students
have done that. Others have chosen a
different context, and, as long as you stick
to the tasks, that’s cool.
 Guidance for this is taken from the MA,
available on the Exam Board website as
well.
Scenario – Model Assignment
 Is the cost of dental treatment giving us toothache?
 In August 2007 the Department of Health announced that 28.1
million people went to an NHS dentist in England in the year to
March. This figure was 50,000 fewer than in the previous year.
Initial studies suggest that in the UK approximately 50% of adults
and 30% of children* fail to visit a dentist.
 You have been employed by your local Primary Care Trust (PCT)
to undertake a study which will investigate this issue in your
local area. The results of your findings will be used to make
informed decisions on spending and on strategies to encourage
particular groups of people to take better care of their teeth.

*Children are defined as under 18 years of age.


Scenario – Model Assignment
 Questions that need to be answered
include:
 What is the biggest reason for people failing to
visit NHS dentists? Is the reason the same for
different groups, eg gender, age, social group?
 Do young people care more/less about their
teeth than older people?
 How does the local population compare with the
national picture? Are local people more or less
concerned about their teeth than the rest of the
country?
Scenario - options
 Are children more likely to be fatter if they
play more than x hours per day on a
console?
 Are children better at ICT if they have a PC
or Mac at home?
 Is it more cost effective to take a bus than
drive a car in a city like Sheffield?
 Do students with EMA forms attend classes
more regularly than those without?
Scenario - options
 Now these are just questions to get you
thinking – you would need to think about a
proper scenario if you want to use any of
them: chat if you do and we’ll work
something out.
AO1: define the problem
 You need to come up with a preliminary
report:
 The background to the problem
 The hypothesis you will be testing
 The data you will collect
 The way in which you will collect the data
 The processing of the data that you plan
AO1: define the problem
 So, for the dentist one:
 what has changed in the NHS recently with
regards to dental treatment
 how much it costs for dental treatment on the
NHS and how these costs have changed over
time
 how often people of different ages are advised
to visit the dentist for a check-up
 the costs/problems that may be caused if
people don’t go to the dentist
 AND THEN...
AO1: define the problem
 Having completed your background research you should
now set your hypothesis – a preliminary explanation that
could account for some of the facts that you have
discovered. This hypothesis should be supported or
disproved after you have completed your study.
 You must make a list of the data you will need to collect in
order to find out whether or not the hypothesis is true.
 You must also consider how you will process the data, once
you have collected it, eg:
 what calculations will you need – max, min, average, median etc
 how can your data be summarised in tables and how this can be
achieved – pivot tables, formulas etc
 what graphs/charts would be useful – pie charts, bar charts, line
graphs, scatter charts, trend lines etc.
AO1: define the problem
 Consider what you will need to do to ensure
you do not infringe current data protection
legislation.
 You may need to carry out some research
into the requirements. You need to
consider, for example:
 any restrictions this places on the data you can
collect and store
 any requirements you need to meet about the
way you collect and store the data.
AO1: define the problem
 Produce a project proposal, which should be in the form of a
report. This should include:
 an explanation of the background to the problem
 the hypothesis you will be testing
 the criteria that will be used to test your hypothesis
 the data you will need to collect
 the methods you will use to process the data
 what you will do to comply with data protection legislation.
 To achieve the higher levels, your hypothesis needs to be
complex, suggesting ways factors such as age, gender, social
class etc might affect the result. The level of detail you include
in your report, and the explanations you give for your decisions,
will also be determining factors in the level you are awarded for
this Assessment Objective.
AO1: Grade Guide
 For Pass:
 Describe the background
 Set a simple hypothesis (one question) and list
some criteria you will use
 Identify some of the data and explain what you
will do with it
 Demonstrate understanding of the DPA and
explain how you will follow the law.
AO1: Grade Guide
 For Merit:
 Clearly describe the problem
 Set a complex hypothesis (2 or more questions)
 Clearly describe the criteria you will use to test
it
 Identify the data you will collect and explain
how you will work with it
 Clearly explain how you will follow the
requirements of the DPA
AO1: Grade Guide
 For Distinction:
 Thoroughly describe the problem
 Set a complex hypothesis (2 or more questions)
 Clearly describe and justify the criteria you will
use to test it
 Identify the data you will collect and explain in
detail how you will work with it
 Clearly and fully explain how you will follow the
requirements of the DPA
AO2: design & carry out a data
collection activity
 Devise a study that will ensure that you collect
a wide range of suitable data from a
statistically significant sample. (In other words,
not just Mom, and Auntie Fred, and Sam-from-
down-the-road: make it REAL)
 You will need to explain:
 which data collection method(s) you are going to
use (questionnaires? Interviews? Online surveys?)
 the sampling method and size (something around
30 is gonna be a minuimum – where are you going
to find 30 – 50 ‘willing’ victims???)
AO2: Grade guide
 For Pass
 Come up with a clear plan!
 Show how you decided the group you would
ask
 List some of the potential problems with your
results
 E.g.
 what could affect how people answer you?
 what could be the inbuilt issues with your survey?
 Collect the results
AO2: Grade guide
 For Merit
 Come up with a good plan
 Use suitable sampling method and size
 Describe most of the constraints of your study
 Collect the results as planned
AO2: Grade guide
 For Distinction
 Come up with a watertight plan
 Use appropriate research and data collection
methods – and justify them
 Describe ALL the potential constraints on the
reliability of your study
 Explain the steps you have taken to cut out bias
from the study and identify potential glitches in
your sampling method
 Collect the data as planned
AO3: Collect data and store it using
a spreadsheet
 In this task you will create a spreadsheet to
store the data you have collected and enter
the data.
 To achieve Pass level in this Assessment
Objective you need to complete parts A, C
and D of this task. To achieve the higher
levels you also need to complete parts B
and E.
 Ready???
AO3: Collect data and store it using
a spreadsheet (ALL Grades)
 A Set up one or more sheets in spreadsheet software,
suitable for storing the data you have collected. Think
carefully about the most suitable data types for each item of
data.

 C Add suitable validation method(s) to minimise the


possibility of data entry errors. You should also consider any
methods you could use to make data entry as quick and easy as
possible.

 D Enter the data you have collected into your


spreadsheet. If you find any errors in your form and/or
validation, as you enter the data, you should make any
improvements that are necessary.
AO3: Collect data and store it using
a spreadsheet (M & D Grades)
 B Create a form that will allow you to enter data
into your sheet. You may need to create macro(s)
to enter each record into the sheet from the form, and
to reset the form after each record.
 Ensure the form is as clearly laid-out and easy to use as
possible.

 E Consider what steps you can take to ensure


your data is protected from both accidental and
deliberate change and loss. Carry out any further
security measures that are necessary to protect your
data. Explain the steps you have taken and the reasons
for them.
AO3 Grade Guide
 For Pass:
 Set up a simple spreadsheet
 At least ONE validation routine to limit entry
errors
 Store something useful!
AO3 Grade Guide
 For Merit:
 Create an effective interface for entering
relevant data.
 Include suitable validation routines to limit data
entry errors for most items of data where this is
appropriate.
 Store the data collected and take at least one
measure to ensure its security.
 Demonstrate an understanding of the need for
security measures
AO3 Grade Guide
 For Distinction:
 Create an effective and easy-to-use interface
for entering relevant data
 Use a range of effective validation methods to
minimise data entry errors wherever possible.
 Store the data collected and protect it from
unauthorised access and from accidental and
deliberate change and loss.
 Demonstrate a thorough understanding of the
need for security and the range of measures
that are needed.
AO4: Create a suitable spreadsheet
to analyse the data
 Having collected your data and entered it
into your spreadsheet you must now use
spreadsheet software to analyse it, in order
to provide information that you can use to
prove or disprove your hypothesis.

 Now we’re on to the interesting bit!!!


AO4: Create a suitable spreadsheet
to analyse the data
 Consider how your data can be summarised
and analysed.
 Add any necessary formulas to your
spreadsheet, making sure you use the most
effective and efficient formulas.
 If you have planned to add any pivot tables
you should create these now.
 The thoroughness of your analysis will be a
determining factor in the grade you are
awarded in this Assessment Objective.
AO4: Create a suitable spreadsheet
to analyse the data
 Organise and format your data and results to
present the information as clearly as possible.
 You might also add automated facilities
(macros and buttons, folks) to speed up
routine tasks like printing, or moving between
sheets, in order to make your spreadsheet as
efficient as possible.
 The effectiveness and efficiency of the way
your data is presented will be a determining
factor in the grade you are awarded in this
Assessment Objective.
AO4: Create a suitable spreadsheet
to analyse the data
 Create a test plan and use this to test your spreadsheet
as thoroughly as possible. Make sure that any
improvements that prove to be necessary are made, to
make sure your final spreadsheet is as effective and
efficient as possible, producing useful and accurate data
to help you prove or disprove your hypothesis.
 To achieve Pass level you must carry out at least one
test and make any necessary changes.
 To achieve Merit level you must devise a test plan and
use it to ensure your spreadsheet works effectively.
 To achieve Distinction level your test plan must be
comprehensive, covering all aspects of your solution.
AO4: Grade Guide
 For Pass:
 Actually complete the spreadsheet
 Put in appropriate labels, formatting, titles, to
display most information clearly
 Use appropriate functions to analyse some of
the data, providing some useful data about your
hypothesis
 Carry out at least ONE test of the operation of
the spreadsheet, and make any appropriate
changes.
AO4: Grade Guide
 For Merit the extras are:
 Create an effective spreadsheet to analyse and
present the results of your research
 Use appropriate functions to analyse ALL the
data, providing a range of data about your
hypothesis
 Create and use a proper test plan
AO4: Grade Guide
 For Distinction the extras are:
 Create and use a comprehensive test plan
AO4 Testing a spreadsheet
reminders
 OK – thought you’d better have this reminder
now..
 Testing a spreadsheet involves clear types of
data:
 Invalid data (date as words)
 Out-of-range data (01/04/50)
 Valid data (01/04/01)
 Extreme data (01/04/11)
 Testing the formatting – is 01/04 April 1st or
January 4th?
 Testing the error messages – clear? Timely?
 Testing the validation
AO5: Creating Graphs & Charts
(ALL)
 Create any charts/graphs that will display useful results in a helpful
way. For each chart you should consider:
 what sort of chart/graph will display the data in the most helpful way.
 any labelling that will be necessary to ensure the chart/graph displays the
data as clearly as possible.

 To achieve Pass level you must create at least one relevant and
appropriate chart/graph.
 To achieve Merit level you must create at least two relevant and
appropriate charts/graphs.
 To achieve Distinction level you must create at least three relevant and
appropriate charts/graphs.
 The effectiveness of the charts/graphs and the contribution they make
to your data analysis will also be determining factors in the level
awarded for this Assessment Objective.
AO5: Creating Graphs & Charts
(M & D)
 Explain why you chose the charts/graphs
you have produced and why you chose each
particular chart type.
 The clarity and detail of your explanations
will also be determining factors in the level
awarded for this Assessment Objective.
AO5: Grade Guide
 For Pass:
 Create at least one graph/chart that is relevant
to the hypothesis and appropriate for the data
being presented.
 Use some formatting and labelling features to
improve the presentation of your chart(s).
AO5: Grade Guide
 For Merit:
 Create at least two different types of
graphs/charts that are relevant to the
hypothesis and appropriate for the data being
presented.
 Briefly explain the choice of chart types and
use appropriate formatting and labelling
features to improve the presentation of your
charts.
AO5: Grade Guide
 For Distinction:
 Create at least three different types of
graphs/charts that are significant to the
hypothesis.
 Choice of chart types will be appropriate and
fully explained.
 Use appropriate formatting and labelling
features to display the data effectively.
AO6: Present your findings (ALL)
 In this task you will prepare a presentation
to present your findings to the Primary Care
Trust.
 To achieve Pass or Merit level you need to
complete parts A, and B of this task.
 To achieve Distinction level you also need to
complete part C.
AO6: Present your findings (ALL)
 A Prepare the outline of the
information you need to present.
You should include:
 the initial problem
 your hypothesis
 a summary of your results
 your conclusion – the extent to which your
analysis has supported or disproved your
hypothesis, with reasons
AO6: Present your findings (ALL)
 B Prepare your presentation.
 This might be a talk, illustrated using presentation
software, or you might decide to produce a written
report.
 If you are going to use presentation software you will need to
add details of the talk using either the speakers notes feature of
your presentation software or as a separate word-processed
document.
 You should include appropriate tables and
charts/graphs to show the key findings from your
study.
 You should aim to present the information as
effectively and professionally as possible.
AO6: Present your findings (ALL)
 To achieve Pass level your presentation should cover all points
from part A and include at least one table of data and at least
one graph/chart.
 To achieve Merit level your presentation needs to be detailed
and include a range of tables and graphs/charts, formatted and
 presented effectively. You must explain clearly whether your
analysis has supported or disproved your hypothesis.
 To achieve Distinction level your presentation must give
comprehensive details of your study and results and you must
explain clearly the extent to which your analysis has supported
AO6: Present your findings
(M & D)
 C Evaluate the effectiveness of the
spreadsheet model you created and used.
AO6: Grade Guide
 For Pass:
 Create a straightforward presentation about the
findings of your data analysis. This will address
your hypothesis and include at least one table
of data and at least one graph/chart.
 State, with at least one reason, whether the
analysis has supported or disproved the
hypothesis.
AO6: Grade Guide
 For Merit:
 Create a detailed presentation about the
findings of your data analysis. This will address
your hypothesis and include a range of tables
and graphs/charts, formatted and presented
effectively.
 Explain whether the analysis has supported or
disproved the hypothesis.
 The presentation will be mostly appropriate for
the audience and purpose
AO6: Grade Guide
 For Distinction:
 Create a comprehensive presentation about the findings
of your data analysis. This will address your hypothesis
and include a range of tables and graphs/charts,
formatted and presented effectively.
 The presentation will be of near professional standard.
 Explain the extent to which the analysis has supported
or disproved the hypothesis.
 The presentation will be appropriate for the audience
and purpose.
 Evaluate the effectiveness of the spreadsheet model.