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Inventories can be managed, but people must be led – Ross Perot

I suppose leadership at one time meant muscles; but today it

means getting along with people – Gandhi

The quality of a leader is reflected in the standards they set for
themselves – Ray Kroc (Founder of Mcdonalds)
Leadership Style

•Clear about what he is doing and why

•Instill the same to followers

•Retain all authority and decision making power

•No suggestions and no considerations

•Keeps followers (employees) happy

•Builds relationship

•Help employees to indentify their strengths and weaknesses

•Encourages long term developments

•Involves employees in decision making process

•Creates trust and sets realistic goals

•Perform or leave (the organization) attitude

•Sets high standards and adheres to it
Theories of Leadership
Trait • Personality, Social, Physical or Intellectual

Transformational • Widespread changes to a business or organization

Behavioural • Specific behavior differentiate leaders

Contingency • Different style based on circumstances

Invitational • Review Internal Processes

Transactional • Procedures & Efficiency

Training Leaders
• Ohio State Studies/U. of Michigan
– Initiating Structure/Production Orientation
– Consideration/Employee Orientation
• Assumption: Leaders can be trained
• Goal: Develop leaders
• Problem: Effective behaviors do not generalize
across situations
Managerial Grid

Country Club (1,9) Team Leader (9,9)

Middle of the
road (5,5)

Impoverished (1,1) Produce or Perish (9,1)


Low Concern for production High

Managerial Grid I give clear production
quotas. I watch closely and
criticize as required.
Produce or Perish Style (9,1)
• Authority and obedience
• Error in the person and disciplinary action
• Individual goals ignored
• Suppressing conflicts
• Prove through production figures
• Best performance where organization
believes only in numbers
• Commitment from subordinates
– Compliance OR
– Strong anti-organizational direction
– Slowdowns and work hindrances

– Unionization
– Long term labor turnover thought short
term productivity increases
Managerial Grid (contd.)
Country Club Style (1,9)
• Gentle persuasion and trust subordinates
• Forgive and forget errors (Every cloud has a silver lining)
• Individual goals important and organization goals that can be embraced
• One big family
• Smoothing over conflicts
• Subordinates loyal to boss and proud of company
Productivity suffers
I do what my job describes. I
Managerial Grid care about my pay and

Impoverished Style (1,1)

• Do your job as you see fit
• Ignore errors
• No focus on goals (only pay
and retirement benefits)
• Avoid conflicts
• Main concern is not to be
held responsible for any

• Can not survive for too long
• Disharmony and dissatisfaction
Managerial Grid I give a general plan to
subordinates and see that
they are agreeable with the
Middle of the road (5,5)
• Balance between personal goals and organization goals
• Mistakes: forgive the first time with the message that it can not be
overlooked next time
• Goals are targets towards which
people should set their sights
• Conflict management
– Split & find middle ground
– Split & physical separate
– Split & redraw organization chart
• Commitment from subordinates

– Neither production nor personal
goals fully met
Managerial Grid (contd.)
Team Leader (9,9)
• Correlates organization goals with personal goals
• Mistakes: study & learn
• Goals are clear & realistic
• Conflict management
– Direct confrontation
– Correcting causes
• Strong Commitment,
respect and trust
• High productivity
Hands On Hands Off


Coach has Control Learner has Control

Hands On Supporter Qualifier Hands Off

0% % of Control 100%
• Informal transmission of knowledge
• Relating to work/career/personal development
• Usually face to face
• Over a long period of time
• Mentor to Protégé

Some famous Mentor Protégé Relationships

• Mary Angelou & Oprah Winfrey
• Professor Henslow & Charles Darwin
• Obi Wan Kenobi & Luke Skywalker
Difference between Coaching/Mentoring
Mentoring Coaching

Focus Individual Performance

Role Facilitator with no agenda Specific agenda

Relationship Self selecting Comes with the job

Source of Influence Perceived value Position

Personal Returns Affirmation/learning Teamwork/performance

Arena Life Task related