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Introduction to
PDH & SDH
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Communication Basics
• Transmitter, Medium, Receiver

• Network

• Communication Rules – Protocol


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Medium
• Copper - Electrical

• Wireless - Microwave / Radio

• Fiber - Optical

• Satellite
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Transmission Types
• Asynchronous

• Plesiochronous

• Synchronous
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PDH
Plesiochronous
Digital Hierarchy
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Plesiochoronous Signal
If two digital signals are plesiochoronous then their
transitions occur at “ almost” the same rate, with any
variation being constrained within tight limits. Although this
clocks are extremely accurate, there is a difference between
one clock and the other.
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The PDH Multiplexing


140 Mbit/s 565
565
Mbit/s
Mbit/s
MUX & LTE

MUX & LTE


140-565

140-565
34 Mbit/s
34-140 MUX

34-140 MUX
8 Mbit/s
8-34 MUX

8-34 MUX
2 Mbit/s
2-8 MUX

2-8 MUX

Drop & Add


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Limitation of the PDH


Network
• Inability to identify individual channels in a higher
order bit stream.
• Insufficient capacity for network management.
• Most PDH network management is proprietary.
• There is no definition of bit rates greater than 140
Mbit/s
• There are different hierarchies in use around the
world.
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Synchronous
Digital
Hierarchy
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The Synchronous Digital


Hierarchy (SDH)
• Need for extensive network management capability
within the hierarchy.
• Standard interfaces between equipment.
• Need for inter-working between north American and
European systems.
• Facilities to add or drop tributaries directly from a high
speed signal.
• Standardization of equipment management process.
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History
PDH Transmission Rates
Hierarchica American European Inter-
Japanese
l Level DS-x CEPT-x national

0 64 64 64 64

1 1544 2048 1544 2048

2 6312 8448 6312 6312

3 44736 34368 32064 44736

4 139264 139264 97728 139264


COMPARISION OF SDH / PDH GTL Limited
PDH SDH
The reference clock is not synchronized The reference clock is synchronized
throughout the network throughout the network.
Multiplexing / Demultiplexing The synchronous multiplexing results in
operations have to be performed from simple access to SDH system has
one level to the next level step by step. consistent frame structures throughout
the hierarchy.
The payload is not transparent. The payload is transparent
PDH system has different frame SDH system has consistent frame
structures at different hierarchy levels. structures throughout the hierarchy.

Physical cross-connections on the same Digital cross- connections are provided


level on DDF are forced if any at different signal levels and in different
ways on NMS
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PDH SDH
G.702 specifies maximum 45Mpbs & G.707 specified the first level of
140Mpbs & no higher order (faster) SDH.That is, STM-1, Synchronous
signal structure is not specified Transport Module 1st Order & higher.
(STM-1,STM-4,STM-16, STM-64)
PDH system does not bear capacity to SDH network is designed to be a
transport B-ISDN signals. transport medium for B-ISDN, namely
ATM structured signal.
Few services are available It will transport variety of services.
Limited amount of extra capacity for It will transport service bandwidths
user / management Sufficient number of OHBs is available
Bit - by - bit stuff multiplexing Byte interleaved synchronous
multiplexing.
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STM-N Frame Format


• STM - "Synchronous Transport / Transmission
Module"
• STM-N general format
• Basic frame STM-1 consists of
• 270 x 9 = 2430 octets
• 9 x 9 = 81 octets section overhead
• 2349 octets payload
• Higher rate frames are derived from multiples of
STM-1 according to value of N
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Elements of SDH
 Container (C)

 Virtual Container (VC)

 Tributary Unit (TU)

 Tributary Unit Group (TUG)

 Administrative Unit (AU)

 Administrative Unit Group (AUG)

 Synchronous Transport Module - N (STM – N)


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SDH Generalised Multiplexing


Structure
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Container
• Input signals are placed into the containers

• It adds stuffing bytes for PDH signals,which compensates for the


permitted frequency deviation between the SDH system and the PDH
signal

• C12 (2 Mbps – G.703)


• C11 (1.5 Mbps)
• C2 (6 Mbps)
• C3 (34 / 45 Mbps)
• C4 (140 Mbps)
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Container
ALIGNMENT : It is a process of adopting the incoming
PDH signals into containers i.e. PCM 30 or 2Mbps to
C12.
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Mapping (Asynchronous)
Mapping is a process used when tributaries are adapted into
VCs by adding justification bits and Path overhead
information
The 2 Mbps signals are not synchronized to the SDH
signal.It imposes no signal structure requirements, so 2
Mbps signals using this mapping do not need to be
framed.This allows easy interface with existing PDH
systems as variable bit justification occurs as part of this type
of 2Mbps mapping.
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Virtual Container
• It adds overheads to a container or groups of tributary units, that
provides facilities for supervision and maintenance of the end to end
paths
• VCs carry information end to end between two path access points
through the SDH system
• VCs are designed for transport and switching sub-SDH payloads
• VC12 (C12 + POH)
• VC11 (C11 + POH)
• VC2 (C2 + POH)
• VC3 (C3 + POH)
• VC4 (C4 + POH)
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Virtual Container
• The AU pointer locates a higher-order VC, and the TU
pointer locates a lower-order VC. For example, an AU–3
contains a VC–3 plus a pointer, and a TU–2 contains a VC–
2 plus a pointer.
• A VC is the payload entity that travels across the network,
being created and dismantled at or near the service
termination point.
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Tributary Unit
• It adds pointers to the VCs

• This pointer permits the SDH system to compensate for phase


differences within the SDH network and also for the frequency
deviations between the SDH networks

• TUs acts as a bridge between the lower order path layer and
higher order path layer
• TU12 (VC12 + pointer)
• TU2 (VC2 + pointer)
• TU3 (VC3 + pointer)
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Tributary Unit Group


• It defines a group of tributary units that are multiplexed
together

• As a result, a TU group could contain one of the following


combinations

• Three TU-12s (TUG – 2)

• Seven TUG-2s (TUG – 3)


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Administrative Unit
It adds pointer to the HO Virtual containers (similar to the
tributary unit)
• AU - 3 (VC-3 + pointer)
• AU - 4 (VC-4 + pointer)

Administrative Unit Group


• It defines a group of administrative units that are
multiplexed together to form higher order STM signal
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Synchronous Transport
Module – n
• It adds section overhead (RSOH & MSOH) to a number
of AUGs that adds facilities for supervision &
maintenance of the multiplexer & regenerator sections

• This is the signal that is transmitted on the SDH line

• The digit “n” defines the order of the STM signal


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STM-1 Frame Structure


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STM-1 Frame Structure


• As indicated, the STM – n signal is multiples of frames
consisting of 9 rows with 270 bytes in each row
• The order of transmission of information is first from
left to right and then from top to bottom
• The first 9 bytes in each row are for information and
used by the SDH system itself.This area is divided into 3
parts
o Regenerator Section Overhead(RSOH)
o Multiplex Section Overhead(MSOH)
o Pointers
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Mapping of 2Mbps into


STM – N signal
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Mapping of 2Mbps into


STM – N signal
• Stuffing bytes are added in the container one at the head
and the other at the tail of each frame
• The lower order POHs are added at the head of each
frame in the VC12
• Adding of pointers takes place at the head of each frame
in the TU12
• Three parallel TU12s are multiplexed to form a TUG-2
• Seven TUG-2s are multiplexed to form a TUG-3
• Multiplexing of three TUG3s with stuffing bytes at the
header forms the input to VC4
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Mapping of 2Mbps into


STM – N signal
• Higher order path over heads are added at this level,
which is the input to AU4
• The location of the starting byte J1(VC-4) is written in
pointer bytes H1 and H2. This process is defined as pointer
processing
• AUG, performs the function of concatenation in case of
higher order STMs
• In STM-1,virtually there is no difference between AUG
and AU-4
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Mapping of 2Mbps into


STM – N signal
2.048 Mbps 1 2 3 32

(E1) 32 Bytes

Stuffing Bytes

C-12 1 23 32

34 Bytes

POH (Lower Order)

VC-12 1 23 32

35 Bytes
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Mapping of 2Mbps into


STM – N signal
Pointer

TU-12
36 Bytes

TU 12 is arranged 9 Rows
Into Matrix of 9 X 4

4 Columns
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TU-12 TU-12 TU-12

9 Rows

4 Columns 4 Columns 4 Columns

Multiplexing

TUG-2 9 Rows

12 Columns
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7 TUG-2s

Stuffing Bytes X 7 TUG-2 TUG-3(Multiplexing)

TUG 3

84 Columns
86 Columns
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TUG - 3 TUG - 3 TUG - 3

86 Columns

X 3 TUG–3
VC - 4
HOPOH Stuffing Bytes

258 Columns
261 Columns
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Mapping of 2Mbps into


STM – N signal
VC - 4

9 rows Pay Load

261 Columns
AU – 4 (Adding Pointer)

AU Pointer
4 th Row
Pay Load

9 Columns
261 Columns
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STM-1 Frame Structure


1-3 rows RSOH
4th row AU Pointer
PAY LOAD
5-9 rows MSOH

9 Columns 261 Columns

270 Columns
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SDH Over Heads


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STM-1 Section Overhead

Y Y 1 1
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Regenerator Section Overhead

A1 & A2 – Framing Bytes

• These two bytes indicate the beginning of the STM-N frame

J0 – Regenerator Section Trace

• It’s used to transmit a Section Access Point Identifier so


that a section receiver can verify its continued connection to
the intended transmitter
• Identifies by a number in the individual STM – 1s of a higher
order STM - n
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B1- Bit Interleaved parity (BIP-8)


• This is a parity code (even parity), used to check for transmission
errors over a regenerator section
• Its value is calculated over all bits of the previous STM-N frame
after scrambling, then placed in the B1 byte of STM-1 before
scrambling
E1 – Engineering Order wire
• This byte is allocated to be used as a local order wire channel for
voice communication between regenerators
• This byte functionality is available at both multiplexers and
Regenerators
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Bit Interleaved parity (BIP)


• Each bit in BIP will indicate the parity of all respective
bits in the previous frame.
•Regenerator section BIP is calculated over the entire signal
including all RSOH,MSOH,VC-4 POH and payload of the
previous frame..The result is placed in B1 for a STM-1.
• MS BIPs are calculated over the previous STM-1
frame,minus RSOH, and placed in the B2 bytes.
• Path BIP’ are calculated over the previous frame, minus
RSOH and MSOH and are found in the B3 byte of every
STM-1.
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F1 – User Channel

• This byte is set aside for the user’s purposes

D1 to D3 – Data Communication Channel


• These three bytes form a 192 kbps DCC for Operation &
management of the SDH System
• Network management system sends / receives provisioning,
security, status / control alarm and performance monitoring command /
response by way of DCC
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Multiplex Section
Overhead
B2 – Bit Interleaved parity (BIP – 24)

• This is used to determine if a transmission error has occurred


over a multiplex section. It is even parity, and is calculated over all
bits of the MS Overhead and the STM-N frame (except the
regenerator section) of the previous STM-N frame before scrambling
• The value is placed in the three B2 bytes of the MS Overhead
before scrambling. These bytes are provided for all STM-1 signals in
an STM-N signal
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K1 & K2 – Multiplex Section


Protection
• These two bytes are used for MSP signaling between multiplex
level entities for bi-directional automatic protection switching and for
communicating Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) and Remote Defect
Indication (RDI) conditions
D4 to D12 – Data Communication Channel
• These nine bytes form a 576 kbps DCC for Operation &
management of the multiplexers on a SDH line
• Network management system sends / receives provisioning,
security, status / control alarm and performance monitoring command
/ response by way of DCC
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Automatic Protection Switching


•APS is the capability of a transmission system to detect a
failure on a working facility and to switch to a standby
facility to recover the traffic.
•Only the Multiplex Section in SDH is protected in this
automatic fashion.
•MS protection mechanism is coordinated by K1 and K2
bytes.
•Path protection is managed at a higher level by network
management functions
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Automatic Protection Switching


Protection Switching is initiated due to :
• Signal failure
• Signal degradation
• In response to commands from a local craft terminal or a
remote network manager.
Two modes of APS are provided
• 1+1 Protection
• 1:N protection
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E2 – Engineering Order wire

• This byte is allocated to be used as a local order wire


channel for voice communication between multiplexers
• This byte is not accessible at the regenerators
M1 - Remote Error indication
• It is used to indicate the MS layer remote error indication (MS-
REI)
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S1 Synchronization status message
byte (SSMB)
• Bits 5 to 8 of this S1 byte are used to carry
the synchronization messages
0000 Quality unknown (existing sync. network)
0010 G.811 PRC (Primary Reference Clock)
0100 G.812 transit SSU-A (Synchronisation Supply Unit - A)
1000 G.812 local SSU-B (Synchronisation Supply Unit – B)
1011 G.813 Option 1 SEC (Synchronous Equipment Timing Clock)
1111 Do not use for synchronization. This message may be
emulated by equipment failures and will be emulated by
Multiplex Section AIS signal.
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SDH Pointers
Use of Pointers H1 Y Y H2 1 1 H3 H3 H3

• It indicates the starting position of VC H1 & H2 = VC payload pointer


H3 = Negative Justification
• It is also used for justification
1 = All 1’s
• AU pointer is also used for concatenation Y = 1001SS11 (S bits unspecified)

• SDH provides payload pointers to permit differences in the phase


and frequency of the Virtual Containers (VC-n) with respect to the
STM-N frame

• Lower-order pointers are also provided to permit phase differences


between VC-12/VC-2 and the higher-order VC-3/VC-4
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Path OverHead
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Path Overhead
J1- Path trace

• Starting point of VC
• It is used to transmit repetitively a path access point identifier,
similar to J0

B3 – Path Bit Interleaved Parity – BIP- 8

• Error Monitoring over the previous VC-4 frame.


• Even parity is used to monitor path errors
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C2 – Signal Label
• It is defined to indicate the composition or the maintenance
of the VC-4
G1- Path status
• It is defined to send back the path status and performance to
where the path is generated

F2,F3 – Path User Channels


• It is assigned for user communication purposes between path
elements by the network operator

H4 – Multi frame Indicator


• H4 byte provides the multiframe information
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K3 – Automatic protection switching(APS) channel

• (b1-b4) are assigned for APS signaling for protection at the


VC-4/3 path labels

N1 – Network operator Byte

• The tandem connection monitoring function is currently not used


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SDH Network
Elements
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SDH Network Elements


• Terminal multiplexer
• Regenerator
• Add / Drop Multiplexer
• Cross – connect
Wide-band Digital cross connect
Broad band Digital cross connect
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Synchronization
Related CCITT
Clock type
recommendation
Primary Reference Clock (PRC) G.811

Slave clock (transit node) G.812

Slave clock (local node) G.812

SDH network-element clock Under definition (G.81s)


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SDH Network
Management
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SDH Management
SDH management includes :
•ECC management
•Fault (maintenance) management :
Alarm surveillance
Testing
•Performance monitoring
•Configuration management
•Security management
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Error Performance :- G.82X


Parameters
• Errored second
• Errored second ratio
• Severely errored second
• Severely errored second ratio
• Background Block error
• Background block error ratio
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Error Performance
• Errored Second(ES) -A one-second period with one or more
Errored Blocks (EB) for transmission speeds below 200 Mbits/s.
Above this speed, the lowest number of errored blocks is to be
defined.

Errored Second Ratio (ESR) - The ratio of ES to the total


seconds in available time during a measurement interval.

Severely Errored Second (SES) - A one-second period with


one Errored Block Overstep (EBO) and/or one Severely Errored
Block Overstep (SEBO).
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Error Performance
• Severely Errored Second Ratio (SESR) - The ratio of SES
to the total seconds in available time during a measurement
interval.

• Background Block Error (BBE) - An errored block,


excluding blocks during SES and unavailable time.

• Background Block Error Ratio (BBER) - The ratio of


errored blocks to the total blocks, excluding blocks during SES
and unavailable time.
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Anomalies and Defects in SDH


Alarms Anomalies / Defects Detection Criteria
Drop in incoming optical power level
LOS Loss of Signal
causes high causes high bit error rate
OOF Out of Frame A1, A2 errored for > 625 υs
If OOF persists for > 3ms (to be
LOF Loss of Frame
defined)
Mismatch of the recovered and
Regenerator Section BIP Error
RS BIP Error computed BIP-8
(B1)
Covers the whole STM-N frame
Regenerator Section Trace Mismatch of the accepted and expected
RS-TIM
Identifier Mismatch Trace Identifier in byte J0
Mismatch of thr recovered and
MS BIP Error Mulitplex Section BIP Error (B2) computed N x BIP-24 Covers the
whole frame except RSOH
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Anomalies and Defects in SDH


Alarms Anomalies / Defects Detection Criteria

HP-UNEQ HO Path Unequipped C2 = 0 for > 5 frames


HO Path Trace Identifier Mismatch of the accepted and expected
HP-TIM
Mismatch Trace identifier in byte J1
Number of detected B3 errors in the
HP-REI HO Path Remote Error Indication sink side enc0ded in byte G1 (bits 1, 2,
3, 4) of the source side
HO Path Remote Defect G1 (bit 5) = 1 for > Z frames
HP-RDI
Indication (Z = 3, 5 or 10)
Mismatch of the accepted and expected
HP-PLM HO Path Payload Label Mismatch
Payload Label in byte C2
H4 (bits 7, 8) multiframe not recovered
TU-LOM Loss of Multiframe
for X ms where X = 1 to 5
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Anomalies and Defects in SDH


Alarms Anomalies / Defects Detection Criteria
Tributary Unit Alarm Indication All ones in the TU pointer bytes V1 and
TU-AIS
Signal V2
8 to 10 NDF enable
TU-LOP Tributary Unit Loss of Pointer
8 to 10 invalid pointers
Mismatch of the recovered and
computed BIP-8 (B3) or BIP-2 (V5 bit
LP BIP Error LO Path BIP Error
1,2)
Covers entire VC-n
VC-3: C2 = 0 for > 5 frames
LP-UNEQ LO Path Unequipped VC-m (m=2, 11, 12) : V5 (bits 5, 6, 7)
= 000 for > 5 multiframes
LO Path Tracr Indentifier Mismatch of the accepted and expected
LP-TIM
Mismatch Trace identifier in byte J1(VC-3) or J2
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Anomalies and Defects in SDH


Alarms Anomalies / Defects Detection Criteria
VC-3: G1 (bit 5) = 1 for > Z frames
LO Path Remote Defect
LP-RDI VC-m (m=2, 11, 12): V5 (bit 8) = 1 for
Indication
> Z multiframes (Z = 3, 5, 10)
Mismatch of the accepted and expected
LP-PLM LO Payload Label Mismatch Payload Label in byte C2 or V5 (bits 5,
6, 7)