58 views

Uploaded by ashish10may

- set3 assighment
- PEAK-TO–AVERAGE POWER RATIO REDUCTION OF OFDM SIGANLS
- Shannon's Capacity
- 178
- 109901643 LTE Planning Telecom Academy
- Small Scale
- InTech-Design of Multi Passband Bandpass Filters With Low Temperature Co Fired Ceramic Technology
- C1906-Hitachi Semiconductor.pdf
- LTE-Planning Sec04 100509 v01
- Paper
- 00789463
- OFDM
- Fading Channel PDF
- Day2
- Simulate Multipath Rayleigh Fading Propagation Channel - Simulink
- Be All Branches
- Agilent Drive Test Guid
- Location Based Network Procedures
- Filter Basics
- design of ridged waveguides by hofer.pdf

You are on page 1of 46

Multipath

CS 515

Mobile and Wireless Networking

Fall 2002

İbrahim Körpeoğlu

Computer Engineering Department

Bilkent University

1

Relationship between Bandwidth and

Receiver Power

What happens when two different signals with

different bandwidths are sent through the channel?

What is the receiver power characteristics for both signals?

We mean the bandwith of the baseband signal

The bandwidth of the baseband is signal is inversely

related with its symbol rate.

One symbol

Bandwidth of Baseband Signals

Highbandwidth

(Wideband)

Signal

Lowbandwidth

(Narrowband)

Signal

Continuous

Wave (CW)

Signal

t

A pulsed probing signal (wideband)

Tbb

Transmitter

p(t) x(t): transmitted signal

TREP

x(t ) = Re{ p (t )e j 2πf ct } = p (t ) cos(2πf c t )

Wireless Channel Wireless Channel

Received Power of Wideband

Sİgnals

p(t) Multipath r(t)

Wireless Channel

The output r(t) will approximate the channel impulse response since

p(t) approximates unit impulses.

1 N −1 jθi

r (t ) = ∑ ai e ⋅ p(t − τ i )

2 i =0

Assume the multipath components have random amplitudes and phases at

time t.

N −1 jθ i 2

N −1

Ea ,θ [ PWB ] = Ea ,θ ∑ ai e ∑ i = E[ PWB ]

2

= a

i =0 i =0

Received Power of Wideband

Sİgnals

This shows that if all the multipath components of a transmitted signal is

resolved at the receiver then:

The average small scale received power is simply the sum of

received powers in each multipath component.

fluctuate widely in a local area (for distance in the order of wavelength or

fraction of wavelength).

do not fluctuate significantly when the receiver is moving in a local area.

Received Power of Narrowband

Sİgnals

A CW Signal x(t): transmitted signal

Transmitter

c(t)

Let comlex envelope will be: c(t ) = 2

N −1

The instantaneous complex envelope r (t ) = ∑ ai e jθ i (t ,τ )

of the received signal will be: i =0

N −1 2

∑ i

2 jθ i ( t ,τ )

The instantaneous power will be: r (t ) = a e

i =0

Received Power of Narrowband

Sİgnals

Over a local area (over small distance – wavelengths), the amplitude a

multipath component may not change signicantly, but the phase may change a lot.

For example:

- if receiver moves λ meters then phase change is 2π .

In this case the component may add up posively to the total sum Σ .

In this case the component may add up negatively to the total sum Σ , hence

the instantaneous receiver power.

movements may cause large fluctuations on the instantenous

receiver power, which typifies small scale fading for CW signals.

Wideband versus Narrowband

Baseband Signals

However, the average received power for a CW signal over a local area

is equivalent to the average received power for a wideband signal on the

local area.

This occurs because the phases of multipath components at

different locations over the small-scale region are independently distributed

(IID uniform) over [0,2π ].

In summary:

1. Received power for CW signals undergoes rapid fades over small distances

2. Received power for wideband signals changes very little of small distances.

3. However, the local area average of both signals are nearly identical.

Small-Scale Multipath Measurements

Several Methods

Direct RF Pulse System

Spread Spectrum Sliding Correlator Channel

Sounding

Frequency Domain Channel Sounding

These techniques are also called channel

sounding techniques

Direct RF Pulse System

Tx

fc

Pulse Generator

RF Link

Rx

Digital

BPF Detector

Oscilloscope

Parameters of Mobile Multipath

Channels

Time Dispersion Parameters

Grossly quantifies the multipath channel

Determined from Power Delay Profile

Parameters include

Mean Access Delay

RMS Delay Spread

Excess Delay Spread (X dB)

Coherence Bandwidth

Doppler Spread and Coherence Time

Measuring PDPs

Are measured by channel sounding techniques

Plots of relative received power as a function of

excess delay

They are found by averaging intantenous power

delay measurements over a local area

Local area: no greater than 6m outdoor

Local area: no greater than 2m indoor

Samples taken at λ /4 meters approximately

For 450MHz – 6 GHz frequency range.

Timer Dispersion Parameters

Determined from a power delay profile.

∑ kτ k

a 2

∑ P(τ )(τ ) k k

Mean excess delay( τ ): τ= k

= k

∑ k

a 2

k

∑ P(τ )

k

k

στ = τ − τ 2

() 2

∑ kτ k

a 2 2

∑ k k)

P (τ )(τ 2

τ2 = k

= k

∑ k

a 2

k

∑ P(τ

k

k )

Timer Dispersion Parameters

Defined as the time delay value after which the multipath energy

falls to X dB below the maximum multipath energy (not necesarily belonging

to the first arriving component).

RMS Delay Spread

PDP Outdoor

PDP Indoor

Noise Threshold

also depend on the noise threshold (the level

of power below which the signal is

considered as noise).

If noise threshold is set too low, then the

noise will be processed as multipath and thus

causing the parameters to be higher.

Coherence Bandwidth (BC)

Range of frequencies over which the channel can be

considered flat (i.e. channel passes all spectral

components with equal gain and linear phase).

It is a definition that depends on RMS Delay Spread.

Two sinusoids with frequency separation greater than Bc

are affected quite differently by the channel.

f1

Receiver

f2

Coherence Bandwidth

Frequency correlation between two sinusoids: 0 <= Cr1,r2 <= 1.

the frequency correlation is above 0.9, then

1

BC = σ is rms delay spread.

50σ

the frequency correlation is above 0.5, then

1

BC =

5σ

This is called 50% coherence bandwidth.

Coherence Bandwidth

Example:

For a multipath channel, σ is given as 1.37µ s.

The 50% coherence bandwidth is given as: 1/5σ =

146kHz.

This means that, for a good transmission from a transmitter

to a receiver, the range of transmission frequency (channel

bandwidth) should not exceed 146kHz, so that all

frequencies in this band experience the same channel

characteristics.

Equalizers are needed in order to use transmission

frequencies that are separated larger than this value.

This coherence bandwidth is enough for an AMPS channel

(30kHz band needed for a channel), but is not enough for a

GSM channel (200kHz needed per channel).

Coherence Time

describe the time dispersive nature of the

channel in a local area.

They don’t offer information about the time varying

nature of the channel caused by relative motion of

transmitter and receiver.

Doppler Spread and Coherence time are

parameters which describe the time varying

nature of the channel in a small-scale region.

Doppler Spread

motion

We know how to compute Doppler shift: fd

Doppler spread, BD, is defined as the

maximum Doppler shift: fm = v/λ

If the baseband signal bandwidth is much

greater than BD then effect of Doppler spread

is negligible at the receiver.

Coherence Time

Coherence time is the time duration over which the channel impulse response

is essentially invariant.

If the symbol period of the baseband signal (reciprocal of the baseband signal

bandwidth) is greater the coherence time, than the signal will distort, since

channel will change during the transmission of the signal .

TC TC ≈ 1

fm

f2

f1

t1 ∆ t=t2 - t1 t2

Coherence Time

0.423

Coherence time is also defined as: TC ≈ 9

16πf m2

=

fm

Coherence time definition implies that two signals arriving with a time

separation greater than TC are affected differently by the channel.

Types of Small-scale Fading

Small-scale Fading

(Based on Multipath Tİme Delay Spread)

2. Delay Spread < Symbol Period 2. Delay Spread > Symbol Period

Small-scale Fading

(Based on Doppler Spread)

Slow Fading

Fast Fading

1. Low Doppler Spread

1. High Doppler Spread

2. Coherence Time > Symbol Period

2. Coherence Time < Symbol Period

3. Channel variations smaller than baseband

3. Channel variations faster than baseband

signal variations

signal variations

Flat Fading

changes with time

For example according to Rayleigh Distribution

Occurs when symbol period of the transmitted

signal is much larger than the Delay Spread of the

channel

Bandwidth of the applied signal is narrow.

May cause deep fades.

Increase the transmit power to combat this situation.

Flat Fading

s(t) r(t)

h(t,τ )

τ << TS

0 TS 0 τ 0 TS+τ

C

BS << BC BS: Signal bandwidth

and TS: Symbol period

TS >> σ τ

σ τ : Delay Spread

Frequency Selective Fading

is greater than the symbol period.

Symbols face time dispersion

Channel induces Intersymbol Interference (ISI)

Bandwidth of the signal s(t) is wider than the

channel impulse response.

Frequency Selective Fading

s(t) r(t)

h(t,τ )

τ >> TS

0 TS 0 τ 0 TS TS+τ

Occurs when:

BS > BC As a rule of thumb: TS <

and στ

TS < σ τ

Fast Fading

Due to Doppler Spread

Rate of change of the channel characteristics

is larger than the

Rate of change of the transmitted signal

The channel changes during a symbol period.

The channel changes because of receiver motion.

Coherence time of the channel is smaller than the symbol

period of the transmitter signal

BS < B D BD: Doppler Spread

and TS: Symbol Period

TS > T C

TC: Coherence Bandwidth

Slow Fading

Due to Doppler Spread

Rate of change of the channel characteristics

is much smaller than the

Rate of change of the transmitted signal

BS >> BD BD: Doppler Spread

and TS: Symbol Period

TS << TC

TC: Coherence Bandwidth

Different Types of Fading

TS

Flat Fast

Flat Slow

Fading

Fading

Symbol Period of

Transmitting Signal

Slow Fading Fast Fading

TC

TS

Transmitted Symbol Period

Different Types of Fading

BS

Frequency Selective Frequency Selective

Fast Fading Slow Fading

Transmitted

Baseband BC

Signal Bandwidth

Fading Fading

BD

BS

Transmitted Baseband Signal Bandwidth

Fading Distributions

Describes how the received signal amplitude

changes with time.

Remember that the received signal is combination of multiple

signals arriving from different directions, phases and

amplitudes.

With the received signal we mean the baseband signal,

namely the envelope of the received signal (i.e. r(t)).

Its is a statistical characterization of the multipath

fading.

Two distributions

Rayleigh Fading

Ricean Fading

Rayleigh and Ricean Distributions

distribution for channels, where all the

components are non-LOS:

i.e. there is no line-of–sight (LOS) component.

Describes the received signal envelope

distribution for channels where one of the

multipath components is LOS component.

i.e. there is one LOS component.

Rayleigh Fading

Rayleigh

Rayleigh distribution has the probability density function (PDF) given by:

r2

−

r

e

2σ 2

p ( r ) = σ 2

(0 ≤ r ≤ ∞ )

0 ( r < 0)

σ 2 is the time average power of the received signal before envelope detection.

σ is the rms value of the received voltage signal before envelope detection

2

(see end of slides 5)

Rayleigh

The probability that the envelope of the received signal does not exceed a

specified value of R is given by the CDF:

R R2

− 2

P( R) = Pr (r ≤ R ) = ∫ p (r )dr = 1 − e 2σ

∞

π

rmean = E[r ] = ∫ rp (r )dr = σ = 1.2533σ

0

2

rmedian

1

rmedian = 1.177σ found by solving =

2 ∫ p(r )dr

0

rrms = 2σ

Rayleigh PDF

0.7

0.6 0.6065/σ

mean = 1.2533σ

0.5 median = 1.177σ

variance = 0.4292σ 2

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0 1 2 3 4 5

σ 2 3 4σ 5σ

σ σ

Ricean Distribution

signal present, then the envelope distribution

is Ricean.

The Ricean distribution degenerates to

Rayleigh when the dominant component

fades away.

Level Crossing Rate (LCR)

Threshold (R)

envelope, normalized to the local rms signal level, crosses a specified

threshold level R in a positive going direction.

direction It is given by:

−ρ2

N R = 2π f m ρe

where

N R : crossings per second

Average Fade Duration

Defined as the average period of time for which the received signal is

below a specified level R.

τ=

1

NR

Pr[ r ≤ R] =

1

NR

1− e −ρ 2

( )

ρ2

e −1 R

τ= , ρ=

ρf m 2π rrms

Fading Model –

Gilbert-Elliot Model

Fade Period

Signal

Amplitude

Threshold

Time t

Good Bad

(Non-fade) (Fade)

Gilbert-Elliot Model

1/AFD

Good Bad

(Non-fade) (Fade)

1/ANFD

Each state duration is memory-less and exponentially distributed.

The rate going from Good to Bad state is: 1/AFD (AFD: Avg Fade Duration)

The rate going from Bad to Good state is: 1/ANFD (ANFD: Avg Non-Fade

Duration)

- set3 assighmentUploaded byram
- PEAK-TO–AVERAGE POWER RATIO REDUCTION OF OFDM SIGANLSUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Shannon's CapacityUploaded byMehedi Hasan
- 178Uploaded byfes cuauti
- 109901643 LTE Planning Telecom AcademyUploaded byevil_dragon
- Small ScaleUploaded bykiwangog
- InTech-Design of Multi Passband Bandpass Filters With Low Temperature Co Fired Ceramic TechnologyUploaded bymahmadib
- C1906-Hitachi Semiconductor.pdfUploaded byVictor David Gomez
- LTE-Planning Sec04 100509 v01Uploaded by4G_optimizer
- PaperUploaded byMustaf Mohamed
- 00789463Uploaded bymykeenzo5658
- OFDMUploaded byMuhammad Azwir
- Fading Channel PDFUploaded byJohn
- Day2Uploaded byEmmanuel N Onuzurike
- Simulate Multipath Rayleigh Fading Propagation Channel - SimulinkUploaded byAngela Fasuyi
- Be All BranchesUploaded byAjay Solate
- Agilent Drive Test GuidUploaded byrafiansari
- Location Based Network ProceduresUploaded byNatasa Begovic
- Filter BasicsUploaded byPreeti Singh
- design of ridged waveguides by hofer.pdfUploaded byవేలుసామి లింగాసామి
- Mobile Computing unit IUploaded bySushmitha Babu
- Chapter_1_Overview_of_MIMO_Communications_(Sections_1.1-1.5.2).pdfUploaded byjotp3567
- ABSTRACT.docxUploaded byTalha Sallu
- Sol Mid Ee480Uploaded byM Usman Riaz
- Wideband Bandpass Filter With Reconfigurable Bandwidth-ZSNUploaded byDenis Medina
- MIMO TechnologyUploaded byKengereVerah
- 0613_001.pdfUploaded byAhmed Shoeeb
- MobileUploaded byHudha Ahmed
- Frequency HoppingUploaded bysyedusama
- 1 BermanUploaded bykisibongdem1412

- How the Router WorksUploaded byashish10may
- UpdatHRIS FormUploaded byashish10may
- Protection PresentationUploaded byashish10may
- IOU Policy Jan09Uploaded byashish10may
- pdh & sdhUploaded byashish10may
- Process Flow ChartUploaded byashish10may
- How Ethernet WorksUploaded byashish10may
- Guidelines MPRUploaded byashish10may
- ATM OverviewUploaded byashish10may
- Fibre Theory 1_2Uploaded byashish10may
- GSM Handover Call FlowUploaded byashish10may
- Compressed e1Uploaded byashish10may
- DaleHatfield_Freq&InterferenceVconfUploaded byashish10may

- lect5Uploaded byMuhammad Owais
- Phenomenon of LightUploaded byPratik Mehta
- Radiography 50 Question QuizUploaded bySukhjinder Rattan
- Diffraction GratingUploaded byTuhinVaria
- Notes for Lecture #16: Electromagnetic Waves and ConductorsUploaded byJoanna Modupeh Hodasi
- Optical Density and Light SpeedUploaded byJonathan Majaw
- Antaneas and Wave Propogation Question Bank (1)Uploaded bySankar Sedulappan
- 4 - Waves WrapupUploaded byKavita Jain
- DiffractionUploaded byD'Anna-Marie Ashley Angelique Edwards
- Seismic WavesUploaded byShaikAzhar
- Audio Precision - Application Note: Headphone Electroacoustic MeasurementsUploaded byAnonymous 3mJfZE
- Pure Tone AudiometryUploaded bySuhaimi Rosti
- Technical Comparison Between 400 and 700 MHzUploaded byRonald Bruce Paccieri Berzain
- Reverberation Effects - NotesUploaded byJennifer Nulsen
- Basic PhysicsUploaded byarun89000
- WavesUploaded byaustinfru7
- TechnicalReview1985-3.pdfUploaded byGabriella Oliveira
- radioactivityUploaded byapi-237070241
- Sky Wave PropagationUploaded byRenjitha Radhakrishnan
- Thin FilmsUploaded byhareesh13h
- PART 1-A (RT 106) - FIRST SEM. 2015-2016.docUploaded byterenz calina
- Coloring ModelsUploaded byachintya0105
- Linear Frequency Transposition_ Extending the Audibility OfHigh-Frequency Information - Hearing ReviewUploaded bySidharthMahotra
- M. Heinrich et al- Observation of two-dimensional superlattice solitonsUploaded byKonnasder
- Back to BasicsUploaded byMartinez Josue
- GATE Electromagnetic Theory BookUploaded byFaniAli
- chapter 6 P2Uploaded byMichael Lopez
- ECE230Uploaded byKRISHNAPRIYA
- Radio Propagation or Radiowave Propagation OverviewUploaded byfiqur1
- AE72-AE120-D16Uploaded bymraavula