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# GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

An easy to use
technology for everyone

## Prepared By : Patel Jay C

ME(EC)-140870705004

What is GPS ?

## Developed and maintained by the US Department of Defense

(DOD)

Satellite Based
* 24 satellites
* 20,200 km high orbit

BUT!

## Although it is a very precise geographic positioning system

It is very easy to get yourself into trouble
Why?
Because you (probably) dont understand how it works
And that leads to garbage
Now First We learn the prerequisite terms

Latitude

What is Latitude?
Lines of Latitude run horizontally
Latitude is measured in degrees.
The Equator is 0 degrees Latitude.
Lines of Latitude locate places North or South of the Equator.
The North Pole is 90 degrees N Latitude, and the South Pole is 90 degrees
S Latitude.

Longitude

## Lines of Longitude run vertically.

They are also called Meridians.
The Prime Meridian is found in Greenwich, England.
The Prime Meridian is 0 degrees Longitude.
Lines of Longitude locate places East or West of the Prime Meridian.
There are 180 degrees of east Longitude, and 180 degrees of west Longitude.

Characteristics of GPS

Free
Precise
Reliable

Almost!

All weather
Anytime & anywhere
Unlimited user capacity

Segments of GPS

1. Space Segment
A constellation of 24 satellites

2. Monitor Station
A network of earth-based facilities

Source:Trimble

Segments of GPS

1. Space Segment
A constellation
of 24 satellites

## Uses measurements from 4+ satellites

Distance = travel time x speed of light

Source:Trimble

Satellite A

+
Satellite B

## Suppose the distance from Satellite A

to our position is 11,000
miles
At this point we could be located
anywhere on the specified sphere

## Next, let us take another measurement

from
a second satellite, Satellite B
Now our position is narrowed down to the
intersection of theses two sphere

Satellite A

Satellite B

+
Satellite C

## Taking another measurement from

a 3rd
satellite narrows our position down even
further, to the two points

## These points are located where the 3rd

sphere cuts through the the intersection of
first two spheres

## So by ranging from 3 satellites we can narrow our

position to just two points in space

location?

Satellite A

+
Satellite B

Satellite C

## We could make a 4th measurement

from another satellite to determine the true
point
OR
We can eliminate one of the two
points that gives a ridiculous answer
The ridiculous point may be too far
from the earth

our position

locate

## Depends on some variables

Time spent on measurement
Postprocessing
Relative positions of satellites,
dilution of precision)

## GeoXT Versus Garmin

Mostly used for GIS data
collection

## Mostly used for

recreational purposes

## Depends on some variables

Time spent on measurement
Postprocessing
Relative positions of satellites,
Precision)

## often known as DOP (Dilution of

WAAS
Wide Area Augmentation System.
It provides FREE GPS differential correction data for visible satellites.
Developed & operated by the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) for
flight

## WAAS-enabled receivers can provide sub-meter level accuracy anywhere in

most locations of the US and southern Canada.

WAAS

## Differential corrections are computed from ground stations and then

WAAS-enabled GPS receiver automatically uses such correction data to
enhance the positional accuracy.

Sources of error

Multipath

PDOP

SNR

Source:Trimble

Multipath

## When GPS signals arrive at the receiver

having traveled different paths

What is a PDOP?

Good PDOP

Poor PDOP

## SNR (signal-to-noise ratio)

SNR determines the signal strength

relative to noise

## GPS position is degraded if the SNR of one or more satellites in the

constellation falls below certain range

Signal Strength
Indicators

C.

Recreation

## GPS for Navigation

GPS in PDA
are getting popular in car
comes with voice guidance.

GPS in Recreation

GPS in Farmland

Future GPS

A. GPS in USA
B. GLONASS program from Russia
C. GALILEO from European countries