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GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

An easy to use
technology for everyone

Prepared By : Patel Jay C


ME(EC)-140870705004

What is GPS ?

A very precise positioning system

Developed and maintained by the US Department of Defense


(DOD)

Satellite Based
* 24 satellites
* 20,200 km high orbit

BUT!

Although it is a very precise geographic positioning system


It is very easy to get yourself into trouble
Why?
Because you (probably) dont understand how it works
And that leads to garbage
Now First We learn the prerequisite terms

Latitude

What is Latitude?
Lines of Latitude run horizontally
Latitude is measured in degrees.
The Equator is 0 degrees Latitude.
Lines of Latitude locate places North or South of the Equator.
The North Pole is 90 degrees N Latitude, and the South Pole is 90 degrees
S Latitude.

Longitude

Lines of Longitude run vertically.


They are also called Meridians.
The Prime Meridian is found in Greenwich, England.
The Prime Meridian is 0 degrees Longitude.
Lines of Longitude locate places East or West of the Prime Meridian.
There are 180 degrees of east Longitude, and 180 degrees of west Longitude.

Characteristics of GPS

Free
Precise
Reliable

Almost!

All weather
Anytime & anywhere
Unlimited user capacity

Segments of GPS

1. Space Segment
A constellation of 24 satellites

2. Monitor Station
A network of earth-based facilities

3. Users & Equipment

Source:Trimble

Segments of GPS

1. Space Segment
A constellation
of 24 satellites

GPS Monitoring Station

How GPS Works

Uses measurements from 4+ satellites


Distance = travel time x speed of light

Source:Trimble

Determining GPS Position

Satellite A

+
Satellite B

Suppose the distance from Satellite A


to our position is 11,000
miles
At this point we could be located
anywhere on the specified sphere

Next, let us take another measurement


from
a second satellite, Satellite B
Now our position is narrowed down to the
intersection of theses two sphere

Determining GPS Position

Satellite A

Satellite B

+
Satellite C

Taking another measurement from


a 3rd
satellite narrows our position down even
further, to the two points

These points are located where the 3rd


sphere cuts through the the intersection of
first two spheres

So by ranging from 3 satellites we can narrow our


position to just two points in space

How do we decide which one is our true


location?

Satellite A

+
Satellite B

Satellite C

We could make a 4th measurement


from another satellite to determine the true
point
OR
We can eliminate one of the two
points that gives a ridiculous answer
The ridiculous point may be too far
from the earth

However, GPS receivers use a 4th satellite to precisely


our position

locate

Determining GPS Position

How accurate is GPS?

Depends on some variables


Time spent on measurement
Design of receiver
Postprocessing
Relative positions of satellites,
dilution of precision)

technically known as PDOP (Position

GPS Receivers

GeoXT Versus Garmin


Mostly used for GIS data
collection

Mostly used for


recreational purposes

How accurate is GPS?

Depends on some variables


Time spent on measurement
Design of receiver
Postprocessing
Relative positions of satellites,
Precision)

often known as DOP (Dilution of

WAAS
Wide Area Augmentation System.
It provides FREE GPS differential correction data for visible satellites.
Developed & operated by the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) for
flight

navigation but its available free to GPS users.

WAAS-enabled receivers can provide sub-meter level accuracy anywhere in


most locations of the US and southern Canada.

WAAS

Differential corrections are computed from ground stations and then


uploaded to geostationary satellites for broadcasting.
WAAS-enabled GPS receiver automatically uses such correction data to
enhance the positional accuracy.

Sources of error

Multipath

PDOP

SNR

Source:Trimble

Multipath

When GPS signals arrive at the receiver


having traveled different paths

What is a PDOP?

Position Dilution of Precision

Good PDOP

Poor PDOP

SNR (signal-to-noise ratio)


SNR determines the signal strength

relative to noise

GPS position is degraded if the SNR of one or more satellites in the


constellation falls below certain range

Signal Strength
Indicators

Common use of GPS

A. GIS data collection & mapping


B. Navigation
C.

Recreation

GPS for Navigation

GPS for Navigation

GPS in PDA
are getting popular in car
comes with voice guidance.

GPS in Recreation

GPS in Farmland

Future GPS

A. GPS in USA
B. GLONASS program from Russia
C. GALILEO from European countries