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Many began to research human anatomy. Their discoveries corrected many of the errors that had gone undetected for centuries and were rapidly disseminated through the new invention of printing. and medicines--like laudanum--were developed to stop or reduce pain. Andreas Vesalius was the premier anatomist of this age and published many illustrations of his discoveries. . • Arabic pharmaceutical practices were studied and improved. In a Nut shell • The Renaissance stimulated medical practice just as it did all other European intellectual pursuits. Physicians and scholars began to scientifically study medicine. Surgeons began to experiment with ways to ease the suffering of their patients. many as the direct result of battlefield experiences. Amboise Pare revolutionized surgery when he began to use ligatures to stop bleeding wounds instead of cauterizing them with boiling oil or red-hot pokers. Some doctors began to investigate the spread of infectious diseases Surgical procedures were also modernized.

• In 1564. Philip II of Spain. the standard authority on anatomy who. then part of the Holy Roman Empire. Upon completion in 1537 he was immediately offered the chair of surgery and anatomy. Belgium. Andreas Vesalius • Andreas Vesalius was born on 31 December 1514 in Brussels. he always performed dissections himself and produced anatomical charts of the blood and nervous systems as a reference aid for his students. for religious reasons. Unusually. • Surgery and anatomy were then considered of little importance in comparison to the other branches of medicine. Vesalius was now able make repeated and comparative dissections of humans. He came from a family of physicians and both his father and grandfather had served the holy Roman emperor. This was in marked contrast to Galen. Vesalius' pamphlet was supported by his knowledge of the blood system and he showed clearly how anatomical dissection could be used to test speculation. and underlined the importance of understanding the structure of the body in medicine. he left for a trip to the Holy Land but died on 15 October 1564 on the Greek island of Zakynthos during the journey home. However. had been restricted to animals. which were widely copied. mainly apes. Vesalius published 'De Humani Corporis Fabrica'. Maintaining the tradition of imperial service. Vesalius studied medicine in Paris but was forced to leave before completing his degree when the Holy Roman Empire declared war on France. He then studied at the University of Louvain. • In 1543. a popular treatment for a variety of illnesses. he became physician to the imperial court of Emperor Charles V and in 1555 took service with Charles' son. . There was debate about where in the body the blood should be taken from. The book was based largely on human dissection. Vesalius realised that Galen's and his own observations differed. • In 1539. • In the same year Vesalius wrote a pamphlet on blood letting. and that humans do not share the same anatomy as apes. Vesalius believed that surgery had to be grounded in anatomy. and then moved to Padua to study for his doctorate. his supply of dissection material increased when a Paduan judge became interested in Vesalius' work. Vesalius now left anatomical research to take up medical practice. and transformed anatomy into a subject that relied on observations taken directly from human dissections. and made bodies of executed criminals available to him.