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MEALS & MENU PLANNING

AIMS & OBJECTIVES

In this lesson we shall discuss about the menu.
After completion of this lesson you will be able to
understand:
Ø Menu and the types of menu
Ø Menu format and basic principles for organizing a
menu
Ø French classical menu
Ø Food and their usual accompaniments

Menu is the statement of food and
beverage items available or
provided by food establishments
primarily based on consumer
demand and designed to achieve
organizational objectives. It
represents the focal point around
which components of food service
systems are based. The menu is
designed carefully what the outlet
wants to cater for, keeping in mind
the type of clientele. The main
advantage of a well-planned menu
is that it leads to consumer
satisfaction. It also helps to motivate
the employees for a responsible and
successful service. A successful
menu depends upon composition-
the right combination of foods,
prepared perfectly, to the entire
satisfaction of the customer. Menu is
a document that controls and directs
an outlet's operations and is
considered the prime selling
instrument of the restaurant.

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Thus we may presume that the provision of a menu developed from some such event. hence it should be carefully planned by the establishment's professionals. so foods chosen from a bill of fare are described as à la carte. the food and beverage manager and the food and beverage controller. like much of the terminology of cuisine. & by reference to it he could see what was coming and reserve his appetite accordingly. depending on the time of day or the event. The word menu. a menu is the list of dishes to be served or available for a diner to select from. It is said that in the year 1541 Duke Henry of Brunswick was seen to refer to a long slip of paper. . The items that are available for the diner to choose from are broken down into various categories. is French in origin.In a restaurant. The menu is a link between the guest and the establishment. in French a carte. something made small. The original menus that offered consumers choices were prepared on a small chalkboard. in French it came to be applied to a detailed list or résumé of any kind. On being asked what he was looking at he said it was a form of Programme of the dishes. namely the executive chef. It ultimately derives from Latin minutus.

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. is a multiple choice menu.An “A La Carte Menu”. an a la carte is offered. Depending on the dish chosen by the guest. If a guest wishes to place an order. from which one can choose the items one wants to eat. the cooking time will vary. In an a la carte menu all items are cooked to order including the sauces that are made with wine. An extensive a la carte menu is impressive but involves a huge amount of mise-en-place. cream or mustard. with each dish priced separately. It is necessary to inform the guests about the time the preparation might take.

Such a menu may also be called prix fixe ("fixed price"). the cutlery on the table may also already be set for all of the courses. Because the menu is set. It usually includes three or five courses meal available at a fixed price. .Table d'hôte is a French phrase which literally means "host's table". It is also referred to as a fixed menu. working in towards the plate as the courses progress. with the first course cutlery on the outside. It is used to indicate a fixed menu where multi-course meals with limited choices are charged at a fixed price.

The colour. Dishes that are heavy and hard to digest should be avoided. conference packages and on special occasions. A banquet style of fixed menu has more elaborate choices ranging from the soup to the dessert. varieties of ingredients used. It is sometimes printed on a menu card or as in the case of banquets. without any similarity in the colour and taste of the courses as well as being palatable. a main course. Table d'hote menus should be well planned and balanced. A table d'hote menu comprises a complete meal at a predetermined price. they started offering an a la carte menu for guests to select the type of food they wanted to eat. Most of the banquet food served in India is normally of Indian food. if possible. when the inns or dining establishments offering a limited choice in the menu was not preferred by the guests. delicious and well presented. Western style fixed menus normally provide the choice of a starter or soup. Fixed menus or table d'hote menus are still used in various forms such as buffet menus. and finally a dessert. a printed format offering a choice of vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes is prepared. For the banquets. and the garnishes should. it is agreed upon by the host of the party. If the main course is heavy. the hosts invariably fixes or selects the menu in consultation with the hotel staff in advance. For this. .In olden days. In each course there could be a choice of dishes to suit the tastes of individual guests. then the first course should be lighter. and act as an appetite stimulant for the courses to follow. be different for each course. As the guest is not given a chance to plan his own meal. the meal should be interesting. from which the guests make their choice.

Food items are individually served and guests pay for what Menu is collectively priced and they order. menu is elaborate. the customer has to pay for the full menu whether he consumes There is a vast choice. A’ La Carte  Table D’Hote Food is kept in fully prepared form Food is kept in fully prepared and can be served immediately. in advance as the menu is known in advance. Silver is laid according to the Silver for the whole menu is laid dishes ordered. The menu is comparatively small. There is limited or no choice. The a certain dish or not. form and can be served immediately. .

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5) If offered. 2) Appetizers. seafood and main courses are listed in separate groups. 4) Salads should be highlighted. this fact should be highlighted to the discriminating customer. soups.1) Cold and warm dishes are listed separately. . 6) If foods are prepared with organically grown ingredients. 3) In every group the lighter dishes are listed before the richer ones. low-calorie foods should be specially indicated. and the number of calories should be stated.

8) House specialties and seasonal items should correspond to the season and should change accordingly. without being too flowery. discourages communication between guests and the service staff and thus does not help promote sales. in an appetizing way. . Use a clip-on menu or special insert to attract attention to them. 10) The numbering of menu items can save time and confusion. The menu should inform the guests that such a card is available. 9) The dessert selection should be listed on a separate attractive card. however.7) Every dish should be described clearly and simply. Numbering.

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French Name English Name Example Hors-d’œuvres Appetizer Melon with port. omelette aux tomates Farineux Pasta & Rice Spaghetti napolitaine. Caviar. cannelloni Poisson Fish Á l’Anglaise Entrée First Meat Dish Fillet of sole Joinville Sorbet Flavored Ice Water Champagne sorbet Relevé Main Meat Dish Saddle of Iamb Rôti Roast Poulet Rôti . ravioli. crème of tomato soup Oeufs Egg Dishes Omlette espagnole. Potage Soup Consomme brunoise.

French Name English Name Example Légumes Vegetables Tomato farcis Salade Salad Russian salad Buffet Froid Cold Buffet Cold Lobster Fromage Cheese Ricotta Entremets Sweets Banana Pudding Savoureux Savoury Tartellets. Boucheés Dessert Fruit Welsh rarebit. Tea / Coffee . Barquetts. Ivanhoe Beverages ----.

& meats. . Being of a highly seasoned and piquant in nature. the words soupe and potage are often used interchangeably. fish. It covers whatever items are served before the soup. this course is used to manipulate the appetite for the dishes that are to follow. Soupe refers to a thick. content and thickness. Potage  The French have three separate words for soup.Well- seasoned meat or vegetable soup.  Traditionally hors-d’œuvres are a selection of salads. The selection was served onto a cold fish plate and the cover was a fish knife & fork. thin broth. usually containing barley or other cereal or a pulse (e.g. hearty mélange with chunks of food. It includes all variety of hot and cold soups. Potage falls somewhere between the two in texture. Today. lentils). A potage is usually puréed and is often thick . Consommé is a clear.

The ingredients. Some examples include Spaghetti Bolognaise. Oeuf en Cocotte a la crime. Oeufs are the dishes made from egg. Some examples are omelette. Espagnole. The omelette is the most popular item. poached or scrambled. . en cocotte. Farineux  This is Italy's contribution to the courses of the menu. Oeuf poche florentine. Lasagne Napolitaine and Macaroni au gratin. shape and colour determine the type of pasta. This course is not included in the dinner menu. It includes different kinds of rice and pasta. There are more than 200 varieties of pasta. Pasta dishes are spaghetti. It can be coloured and flavoured in various ways. size. but there are other styles of cooking and preparation of eggs such as boiled. Pasta is made from durum wheat semolina or milled durum wheat to which water is added to form a dough. lasagne and gnocchi.

Brill. The “entrée” can be devised of almost anything light. Bass. cutlets and chops invariably replace the joints as the roast (roti) course. Deep-fried or grilled fish dishes do not generally occupy a place on the “classical dinner menu. however. Salmon. usually sautéed. Rarely seen on a menu for the evening meal are: Cod. but never grilled. and Plaice. etc. Escallops. Hake. prepares the palate for the heavier meats that follow. Grilled steaks. It is always a complete dish in itself. which normally finds itself on the dinner menu. This course consists of all the small cuts of butcher’s meats.” but are freely offered on the shorter-coursed luncheon menu. and this only because Whitebait are so light and in no way too filling for the comfort of the guest. Entrée  This is the first of the meat courses on a menu. Halibut. is Blanchaille”. . Potatoes & vegetables are not usually served with this course if it is to be followed by the main course. Fish. The “entrée” is always cooked and garnished in an artistic manner and usually served with a rich sauce. It is despatched from the kitchen garnished and sauced in the manner in which it is intended to be served. being soft-fibred. Haddock. Ideal fish for dinner menu compilation are: Sole. Poisson are the dishs made from fish. One deep-fried fish dish.

They are lightly frozen water ices. Traditionally sorbets (granites) were serve to give a pause within the meal. allowing the palate to be refreshed.” It may consist of larger joints of meat which would be served together with potatoes and vegetables. Relevé  This is the main meat course on the menu. and is commonly known as the “piece de resistance. often based on un-sweetened fruit juice and may be served with a spirit. liqueur or even champagne poured over. Following are the examples:  Lamb (Agneau) Chicken (Poulet)  Beef (Boeuf) Duckling (Caneton)  Veal (Veau) Fowl (Poulard)  Ham (Jambon) Tongue (Langue)  Pork (Pore) .

Some examples are Roast chicken. Each dish is accompanied with its own particular sauce and salad. Some examples are cauliflower mornay and grilled tomatoes. relevé or roast courses.with the entrée. Légumes  These are vegetable dishes that can be served separately as an individual course or may be included along . This course normally consists of game or poultry and is often included in the entree. Braised duck. .

This course can also refer to cheese based dishes such as soufflés. Often refers to small plate of salad that is taken after a main course and is quite often simply a green salad and dessing. including biscuits. . grapes and apples. cheese and egg items together with a range of salads and dressings. celery. Fromage  Includes the range of cheeses and various accompaniments. Buffet Froid  This course includes variety of cold meats and fish . breads.

Canape diane are some of the examples. such as anchovies on toast or pickled fruit. cookies. All forms of fresh fruit and nuts may be served in this course. Scotch woodcock. Camembert and Cheddar are some examples of cheese. It is usually served with butter. and served at the end of the meal. fruits. Welsh rarebit. They are seved hot on toast or as savoury soufflé. Dessert  Dessert is a course that typically comes at the end of a meal. Fromage (Cheese) is an alternative to the outdated savoury course. The French word desservir mean "to clear the table. Common desserts include cakes. crackers and occasionally celery. Savoureux  A dish of pungent taste. and may be served before or after the sweet course. Gouda." This is the fruit course usually presented in a basket and placed on the table. pastries and candies. . as part of the table decor.

courses 5. . Traditionally this referred to tea & coffee but nowdays includes much wider range of beverages. Although it is listed here for the sake of sequence for meals but beverages are not counted as a course and should not include when the number of courses of a meal are stated.courses 13 to 16  Beverages .courses 1 to 4  Main Course ---------. 6 & 8 to 12  Afters -------. Courses in Groups  Starters --------.

and then become lighter toward the end of the meal. They always start with something light to stimulate the appetite. a menu of this size is hardly ever offered. The thirteen courses of the Classic Menu for French Cuisine are given below:  1) Hors D'oeuvre  2) Potage  3) Oeufs  4) Farineux  5) Poisson . build up to the main course. Today. But even today's shorter menus follow the structure of the classical French menus as far as succession of courses is concerned.

 6) Entrée  7) Relevé  8) Sorbet  9) Rôti  10)Légumes .

 11)Entremets  12)Savoureux  13)Dessert .

Main course with vegetables and potatoes or salad  3. Sweet or savory . Hors d’oeuvre or soup  2. 1.

Main course with vegetables and potatoes or salad  4. Fish course  3. Hors d’oeuvre or soup  2. 1. Sweet or savory .

Main course with vegetables and potatoes or salad  4. Hors d’oeuvre or soup  2. Sweet  5. Fish course  3. 1. Savory .

Hors d’oeuvre or soup (potage)  2. Main (releve or remove) with (pommes et legumes ou salade)  5. Savory (savoureux ou bonne bouche) . Sweet (entremets)  6. Fish (poisson)  3. 1. Entrée  4.

 1. Roast (roti) . Entrée  5. Poisson  4. Potage  3.Pommes et legumes  6.Salade  7. Hors d’oeuvres or soup  2. Releve / Remove . Entremets or Bonne / Bonne Bouche .

 Accompaniments are highly flavoured seasonings of various kinds offered with certain dishes. In serving. or ladle. They should be served from the guest’s left on to the top right of his plate (not on the rim). carried on the palm of the left hand. The spoon. the boat should be on an underdish or small plate. eg. . apple sauce with roast pork. lip should point towards the guest’s plate. While serving from a sauceboat. Hot adjuncts come with the dish from the kitchen. should be passed over the lip. They should be served directly with a dish to which they belong. the waiter must know them. He should always have specific accompaniments ready for service at the right time. The object of offering accompaniments with certain dishes is to improve the flavor of the food or to counteract its richness. but cold sauces are often to be found at the buffet or sideboard. the sauceboat. Many dishes have separate accompaniments and as they are not always mentioned on the menu. Sauces are not to be poured from a boat.