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Introduction to

Educational Research
RESEARCH 
• Process of gathering data or information to
solve a particular problem in a scientific
manner
• Systematic search for pertinent information
on a specific topic or problem

• ** TO ADD TO THE BODY OF EXISTING


KNOWLEDGE (main purpose)
RESEARCH PURPOSES 
• To discover new facts about known
phenomena
• To find answers to problems which are only
partially solved by existing methods and
information
• Improve existing techniques and develop new
instruments or products
• To discover previously unrecognized
substances or elements
RESEARCH PURPOSES 
• To validate results or findings
• To provide basis for decision-making in
business, industry, education, government and
other undertakings.
• To satisfy the researcher’s curiosity
• To find answers to queries by means of
scientific methods
• To acquire a better and deeper understanding
about one phenomenon
RESEARCH PURPOSES 
• To expand or verify existing knowledge
• To improve educational practices
• To promote health and prolong life
• To provide man with more of his basic needs
• To make work, travel, and communication
faster, easier, and more comfortable
RESEARCH CHARACTERISTICS 
• Systematic – step-by-step
• Controlled
• Based on observable experience or empirical evidence
• Analytical
• Objective, unbiased and logical
• Employs hypothesis
• Employs quantitative or statistical methods
• Original work
• Requires expertise
RESEARCH CHARACTERISTICS 
• Accurate investigation, observation and
description
• Patient and unhurried activity
• Requires an effort-making capacity
• Requires courage
• Emphasizes development of generalizations,
principles or theories
RESEARCH CHARACTERISTICS 
• Involves gathering of new data from primary
or firsthand sources or existing data for new
purpose
• Characterized by carefully designed
procedures that apply rigorous analysis
• Strives to be objective, logical, applying every
possible test to validate procedures employed,
the data collected and the conclusions
reached
• Is carefully recorded and reported
KINDS OF RESEARCH 
• Basic research – carried out to get new
information; no immediate application
• Applied research – is done to improve a
product or a process
• Action research – focused on immediate
application, NOT ON DEVT OF THEORY OR
GENERALIZATION. Findings are evaluated in
terms of local applicability
TYPES OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH 
• Historical research – describes what was
• Descriptive research – describes what is
• Experimental research – describes what will
be when certain variables are carefully
controlled or manipulated

• ** SUBJECT MATTER - VARIABLES


RESEARCH PROBLEM 
• Any significant, perplexing and challenging
situation, real or artificial, the solution of
which requires reflective thinking
• A perplexing situation after it has been
translated into a question or series of
questions that help determine the direction of
subsequent inquiry
ELEMENTS OF A RESEARCH PROBLEM

• Aim or purpose of the problem for
investigation
• The subject matter or topic to be investigated
• The place or locale where the research is to be
conducted
• The period or time of the study during which
the data are to be gathered
• Population or universe from whom the data
are to be collected
EVALUATING THE PROBLEMS 
• Is this the type of problem that can be effectively
solved through the process of research? Can relevant
data be gathered to test the theory or find the
answer to the questions under consideration?
• Is the problem significant? Is an important principle
involved? Would the solution make any difference as
far as educational theory or practice is concerned?
EVALUATING THE PROBLEMS 
• Is the problem a new one? Is the answer
already available?
• Is research on the problem feasible?
– Is it a good problem for me?
– Will I be able to carry it through to a successful
conclusion
– Am I competent to plan and carry out a study of
this type?
EVALUATING THE PROBLEMS 
– Do I know enough about this field to understand
its significant aspects and interpret my findings?
Am I skillful enough to develop, administer and
interpret the necessary data-gathering devices
and procedures? Am I well grounded in the
necessary knowledge of research design and
statistical procedures?
EVALUATING THE PROBLEMS 
– Are the pertinent data accessible? Are valid and
reliable data-gathering devices and procedures
available? Will school authorities permit me to
contact the students, conduct necessary
experiments or administer necessary tests,
interview teachers or have access to important
cumulative records? Will I be able to get the
sponsorship necessary to open doors that
otherwise would be closed to me?
EVALUATING THE PROBLEMS 
– Will I have the necessary financial resources to
carry on this study? What will be the expense
involved in data-gathering equipment, printing,
test materials, travel and clerical help?
– Will I have enough time to complete the project?
– Will I have the determination to pursue the study
despite the difficulty and social hazards that may
be involved?
RESEARCH PROPOSAL 
• Chapter 1: The Problem
• Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature
• Chapter 3: Methods
CHAPTER 1: THE PROBLEM 
• Introduction
• Background of the Study
• Statement of the Problem
– Major
– Minor
• Hypothesis
• Significance of the Study
• Scope and Limitation
• Definition of Terms
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
OF THE STUDY 
• TALKS ABOOUT THE INTRODUCTION
• Provides the reader with the necessary background
and setting (global, national, local) to put the
problem in proper context
• Explains, defends and/or proves that the current
literature are inadequate, outdated and/or
inaccurate
• TALKS ABOUT THE BACKGROUND
• Justifies and convinces the reader that the study is
needed
• States the motive of the researcher
STATEMENT OF THE MAJOR PROBLEM

• A statement addressing the over-all purpose of the
study
• A brief summary of the potential impact the results
of the study may have on the current body of
knowledge in the area
• Typically begins with:
– The purpose of the study is/was...
– The study is/was concerned with...
– The focus of the research is/was...
– The study aims/ed to...
GUIDELINES IN FORMULATING THE SPECIFIC
MINOR PROBLEMS OR RESEARCH QUESTIONS 
• State the sub-problems in the interrogative
form
• Each specific question must be clear and
unequivocal
• Each specific question is researchable apart
from the other questions
• Each specific question must be based upon
known facts and phenomena
GUIDELINES IN FORMULATING THE SPECIFIC
MINOR PROBLEMS OR RESEARCH QUESTIONS 
• Answers to each specific question must
contribute to the development of the whole
research problem or topic
• Summing up all answers to all specific
questions will give a complete development of
the entire study
• The number of specific questions should be
enough to cover the development of the
whole research problem or study
ASSUMPTIONS 
 Statements of what the researcher believes to
be facts but cannot verify
• Self-evident truth which is based upon a
known fact or phenomenon
• Not tested, neither defended nor argued
• Can be explicit (clearly stated) or implicit
(hinted)
HYPOTHESIS 
• Tentative conclusion or answer to a specific
question raised at the beginning of the
investigation
• Educated guess about the answer to a specific
question
HYPOTHESIS 
• Should be:
– Reasonable
– Consistent with known facts or theories
– Stated in such a way that it can be tested and
found to be probably true or probably false
– Stated in the simplest possible terms
FORMS OF HYPOTHESIS 
• Operational
– Stated in the affirmative
– States that there is a difference between two
phenomena

• Null
– Stated in the negative
– States that there is no difference between two
phenomena
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 
• The rationale, timeliness or relevance of the
study
• Who are to be benefitted and how they are
going to be benefitted
 Shows why the research is worth the time,
effort, and expense
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS 
• Establishes the parameters of the study
• Limitations - those conditions beyond the
control of the researcher that may place
restrictions on the conclusions of the study
and their applications to the other situations
• i.e. policy prohibiting the use of more
than one class for experiment, data-
gathering instrument that is not validated
GUIDELINES IN DEFINING TERMS
• Define only words/terms and phrases which
have special or unique meaning in the study.
• Definitions should be operational.
• Definitions may come from the characteristics
of the term defined.
• Definitions should be brief, clear and
unequivocal.
• Acronyms should be spelled out fully if it is
used for the first time.
TYPES OF DEFINITION 
• Operational Definition – also known as
functional definition. Terms are defined based
on the conceptual definition and
operationalized in the context.

• “Conceptual” or “theoretical” definitions –


universal or academic meaning attributed to a
word or group of words. These are definitions
from published materials