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Chapter 10

Bones, Muscles,
and Skin
Chapter 10 Section 1

Organization and
Levels of
—The levels of organization in complex
organisms, including most plants and
animals, consist of cells, tissues,
organs, and organ systems
—Smallest unit of organization is the cell,
and the largest is the organ system
Cells: Structure and
— Cell- the basic unit of structure and
function in a living thing
— Structure- an organism’s body plan, or the
way its parts are arranged
— Function- part of an organism’s job, or the
process it carries out
— Cell membrane- forms outside boundary of
the cell
— Nucleus- control center that directs the
cell’s activities and contains information
that determines the cell’s characteristics
— Cytoplasm- Area between the cell
membrane and the nucleus
— Cytoplasm contains a clear, jellylike
substance in which many important cell
structures, called organelles are found
— Cells contain molecules from digested food
that provide energy and they get rid of
waste products, grow, and reproduce
—Tissue is the next largest unit or
organization in complex organisms
—Tissue- a group of similar cells that
perform the same function
—Animal’s body contains contains four
basic types of tissue: muscle tissue,
nerve tissue, connective tissue, and
epithelial tissue
— Muscle tissue can contract and shorten
functioning to make parts of the body
— Nerve Tissue- directs and controls
— Nerve tissue carries messages back and
forth between the brain and every other
part of the body
— The brain is made up of mostly nerve tissue
— Connective tissue-provides support for the
body and connects all its parts; bone, fat
— Epithelial tissue- covers the surfaces of the
outermost layer of the skin, protects
delicate structures that lie beneath it
Organs and Organ
— Organ- a structure that is composed of different
kinds of tissue
— Stomach, heart, brain, and lungs are organs
— Organs have a specific function
— Each organ is part of an organ system
— Circulatory system
— Digestive system
— Endocrine system
— Excretory system
— Immune system
— Muscular system
— Nervous system
— Reproductive
— Respiratory
— Skeletal System
— Skin
Maintaining Stable
Internal Conditions
—The organ systems in an organism work
together to maintain homeostasis, the
body’s tendency to keep an internal
—Homeostasis- the process by which an
organism’s internal environment is kept
in equilibrium, or stable, in spite of
changes in the external environment
—All organisms have ways of regulating
the amount of water inside them
Maintaining Temperature

Responding to stimuli

— The body maintains a — Stimulus-

constant something inside

whether you are in or outside an
a blizzard or an organism’s body
overheated room that causes the
— The body maintains
an average organism to react
temperature of in some way
98.6°F — Response- action or
— Sickness may cause
the body’s change in
temperature to rise behavior that
— Perspiration is the occurs as the
body’s response to
environmental result of a
conditions to stimulus
maintain a stable — Hunger is an
body temperature
— The sweat cools the internal stimulus
body — Food is an external
— Eating food is the
Physical Responses to

Fight or flight


— Stress- the reaction — Reactions caused by

of your body and adrenaline are
Stress and

mind to sometimes called

threatening, the “fight-or-
challenging, or flight” response,
disturbing events because they
— Stress upsets prepare you to
homeostasis either fight the
— The body releases a stressor or to take
chemical called flight and escape
adrenaline into — Body systems work
your bloodstream together to
— Adrenaline acts as respond to the
an internal stressor
stimulus that
gives the body a
burst of energy
Long-Term Stress
—Afterthe stress is over quickly, the body
regains homeostasis
—When a stressful situation does not go
away, your body cannot restore
— List
the four levels of organization in
organisms. Give an example of each level.

— Name the four types of tissue in animals.

Give an example of where each is located.

— What is homeostasis?

— Describewhat happens during the alarm

stage of stress.

— What systems of your body are involved

when you make a sandwich and then eat

Skeletal, nervous, muscular, circulatory,
and digestive systems