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CATHODIC PROTECTION DESIGN


FOR OFFSHORE PIPELINE AND
SUBSEA STRUCTURE

CONTENTS
1

GENERAL

CRITERIA FOR CATHODIC PROTECTION

FLOWCHART OF CP CALCULATION

REFERENCE OF CP DESIGNED PARAMETERS

ANODE INSTALLATION & DISTRIBUTION


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General

Carbon steel/ stainless steel exposed to seawater corrosive reaction:


Anodic

Cathodic

Cathodic Protection (CP): make protected subject be a cathode of


electrochemical cell.

General
Methods of
Cathodic
Protection
ICCP:
IMPRESSED
CURRENT
SYSTEM

SACP:
GALVANIC
ANODE
Offshore
pipelines
and subsea
structures
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General
Applied standards for offshore cathodic protection design:
1- ISO 15589-2: Petroleum and natural gas industries - Cathodic
protection of pipeline transportation systems- Part 2: Offshore
pipelines
2- DNV-RP-B401: Cathodic Protection Design.
3- DNV RP F103: Cathodic protection of Submarine pipelines by
Galvanic anodes.
4- Norsok Standard M-503: Cathodic Protection
5- NACE-RP-0176: Corrosion Cotrol of Steel Fixed Offshore
Structurea Associated with Petroleum Production.
6- NACE-RP-0492: Metallurgical and Inspection Requirements for
Offshore Pipeline Bracelet Anodes
7- NACE RP 0387: Metallurgical and Inspection Requirements for
Cast Sacrificial Anodes for Offshore Applications
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General
Sacrificial anode (galvanic anode)
Advantage:
No external power required
Relatively easy installation
Little chance of cathodic
interference
Little maintenance
Less inspection and
recordkeeping than with impressed
current systems
Disadvantage: Not suited for
media with low conductivity, e.g. in
soil

General
OFFSHORE CP
DESIGN

INPUT

OUTPUT

1- Pipeline / Structure:
Material,
Length, Outside diameter / Area
Temperature,
Type and thickness of corrosion coating (line
pipe coating, field joint coating) and weight
coating,
Pipe laying condition
2- Deign life:
3- Environment
Resistivity,
Temperature,
Water depth
Salinity
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1-Quantity of anodes
2-Weight
anodes

and

dimensions

of

3-Distribution of anode (anode


spacing)

General
The most commonly used sacrifical anode materials for offshore are:
Al
Zn

Aluminium:
high eletrochemical capacity
reduce total mass of anode (saves weight)
long operating time (low consumption rate)
high driving voltage
Al-Zn-In anodes most commonly used for offshore

General

Zinc:
low driving voltage
low capacity (results in high weight of anodes)
temperature limits < 40 Co
Often used on constructions buried in mangrove mud

General

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General
Aluminum semi-cylindrical bracelet anode, square ended
corner: flush mounted with concrete coating

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General

Stand-off anode for jacket

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General
ELECTROCHEMICAL INFORMATION OF ANODE IN CP DESIGN:
-Electrochemical capacity
-Closed circuit potential
-Anode utilization factor
Suitable composition of anode material helps it meet these requirements

Facilities of bracelet anode:


- Inner side coating of anode
- Cable for anode electrical continuity

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Criteria for Cathodic Protection

Potential Criteria:
Media with high salinity (offshore)
maximum -800 mV, ref Ag/AgCl
minimum -1100 mV, ref Ag/AgCl
Media with immediate salinity (nearshore)
maximum -850 mV, ref Cu/CuSO4
minimum -1100 mV, ref Cu/CuSO4

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FLOWCHART OF CP CALCULATION

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Coating
type; design
life

Water depth;
CP design
temperature
Protected
total surface
area

Coating breakdown
factor

Initial/mean/final current density

Initial/mean/final current
demand

Number of anodes with the


selected spacing

Total net anode mass


Pipe diameter +
line pipe coating

Pipe diameter +
line pipe coating

Net weight of each anode

Anode
diamete
r

Anode
diamete
r

Length of anode
Initial exposed surface area of
anode

Final exposed surface area of


anode

Anode
thicknes
s

Anode
thicknes
s

CWC

CWC
Initial anode resistance

Initial anode current


output

Driving voltage =
(Protection potential;
Closed circuit
potential) ???

Checking calculation criteria:


Total current capacity
Initial/ Final current
demand

1
2

Final anode resistance

Final anode current output

Number of anode based on


final condition

Protected
total
surface
area

Coating type;
design life

Water
depth; CP
design
temperatur
Initial/mean/final
current
e
density

Coating breakdown
factor

Initial/mean/final current
demand
Total net anode mass
Net weight of each anode
Length of anode

Initial exposed surface area of


anode
Initial anode resistance
Initial anode current
output
Checking calculation criteria:
Total current capacity
Initial/ Final current demand

Final exposed surface area of


anode
Final anode resistance
Final anode current
output
Number of anode based
on final condition

REFERENCE OF CP DESIGNED
PARAMETERS
1/ Current densities = (Depth, Climate, pipe-environment surfaces
temperature)

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REFERENCE OF CP DESIGNED
PARAMETERS
2/ Coating breakdown factor = (Design life, coating type)

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REFERENCE OF CP DESIGNED
PARAMETERS
3/ Electrochemical parameters = (Environment)

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REFERENCE OF CP DESIGNED
PARAMETERS
4/ Anode utilization factor = (Anode Type)

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REFERENCE OF CP DESIGNED
PARAMETERS
5/ Anode resistance= (Anode dimensions and environment resistivity)

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ANODE INSTALLATION &


DISTRIBUTION
BRACELET
ANODE
Anode spacing is set at a fix number of pipe joints, limiting < 300m
Anode installed post: middle of pipe (usually)
Consider to install anode on the portion of pipeline near the platform
STAND-OFF ANODE
Minimum distance from anodes to protective object is 300 mm.
Whenever practical, anodes dedicated to CP of surfaces buried in
sediments shall be located freely exposed to the sea.
Anodes shall be located with 0.5 meter or more spacing between
each other to avoid interaction effects that reduce the useful current
output.
No anodes shall be located for welding to areas with high fatigue
loads.
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