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Unit 1 Basic Economic

Chapter 1


For students to understand the basic

economic problem.
- For students be able to make rational
economic choices.
For students to be able to explain the
factors of production.
For students to understand the Circular
Flow Model

Topics to be discussed

What is Economics
Basic Economics Question
Circular Flow
Opportunity Cost
3 Basic Questions
4 Factors of Production
Micro and Macro Economics

What is Economics Quiz

Choose the correct answer

Economics is the political science that deals

with unemployment, inflation, taxes,
business cycles, money, supply, and trade.
Economics is the social science that studies
money and banking
Economics is the social science that
examines the interaction of demand and
Economics is the social science concerned
with the problem of scarcity

And the answer is

Economics is the social science concerned

with the problem of scarcity
What is Scarcity?

Not enough resources to meet demand

Why do you think scarcity is a problem?

What else is Economics?

Economics is common sense made confusing.

Economics is the science of decision making.


The social science concerned with

how individuals and societies decide
how to satisfy there unlimited wants
given our limited resources.

I cant buy a car if I dont have an


The science of decision making

How to make decisions

The Economic Problem

Scarcity What is it?

Limited resources but unlimited wants

Unlimited wants VS Limited Resources

You cant buy 10 candy bars if the store only

has 5 candy bars to sell.
Cant buy 3 burgers if you only have enough
money for 1.
What are some things that you want to
have? Do you have the resources to
purchase them?
Needs VS Wants

What are some of your needswants.

Scarcity means

We must use things efficiently in order

to maximize the number of goods and
services we can produce.

Dont waste

The Economic Problem (Scarcity)

We cant have everything we want!!

Because of this we need to make choices.

What we want (need) VS what we can give up

(live without)

How does scarcity impact you?

Have you ever wanted something

you couldnt afford to buy?
Did a store ever run out of the item
that you wanted?
Has anyone ever wanted you to do
something that you didnt have time
to do?

Production Possibilities Curve

Graph showing the maximum

combinations of goods and services
that can be produced from a fixed
amount or resources in a given
period of time.

Because resources are limited we are

only able to use so much of them to
produce certain goods.

Pg. 17 18 of your text

Resources Factors of Production

Natural resources (Land) free gifts of nature

Capital Resources manufactured aids to production

Tools, machines, equipment, factories

Things used in producing goods and services and getting
them to consumers.

Human Resources (Labor) mankinds physical and

mental talent

Land, minerals, oil, forests, air, and timber

These are the skills people have that are used to produce
goods and services.

Entrepreneur the individual who combines the

factors of production in order to produce a good or

Risk taker, policy maker, and innovator

Would it be possible to start a

business without one of these

If you would create any type of

business you wanted what would it
be and what would you need to get

Opportunity Cost

The true cost of choosing one alternative

over the other.

The one that you give up when the choice

is made.

Trade offs giving up one thing in order to

obtain another.

Give an example of a time when you had to

make an economic choice. What was the
opportunity cost?

Opportunity cost is the opportunity lost

College Vs. Work

What are you planning on doing after

you finish high school?

What factors did you consider when

making this decision?

College or work

money now or money later


How will this decision impact your

What are the trade offs of this
decision? Opportunity cost?


What is the basic economic problem?

As consumers what do we need to
weigh when making economic choices?
What are the four factors of
What is economics?
How do trade offs lead to opportunity

Lets keep on moving

Economics is common sense made
confusing, so if you are confused you
are likely not alone!!
If you have any questions on the
material that we just covered please
stop me here and we will review a bit
on what you are having a tough time

Types of Economics

Macroeconomics branch of economics that

deals with economic theory and the
economic decisions of large bodies like the

Theories of Economics
Countries and their governments
Trade between countries

Microeconomics branch of economics that

deals with behavior and decisions of smaller
unit like individuals and businesses.

Families, businesses, and communities

Domestic economies

Circular flow of income and


What does the circular flow model

show us?
Why is a relationship between the
factor market and the product
market necessary for the economy to
stay strong?

Business Cycle

Parts of the Business Cycle

Peak (boom) Highest point in the

economic cycle.

Economy is at its best and will likely

begin to contract.

Recession (contraction) decline in

the economies performance that
could lead to depression.

Not long term and does not always

impact other economies

Trough (depression) A sustained

economic downturn that impacts our
economy and that of other countries.

Lowest economic point

Recovery (expansion)- Economic

activity begins to pick up and
depression begins to end.

Economic growth occurs

History of the U.S. Economy

Look up the economic patterns of the

United States from the 1800s until
now and map out the various points
on the business cycle to what was
happening in the United States.

3 Basic Economic Questions

What to produce?

With limited resources, deciding what is

needed the most is often a factor in
determining what will be produced.
What is the need or want of this product?
What is the point of making a product
that no one is going to buy. Businesses
need to make moneyso they choose
products that people want.

3 Basic Questions Cont

How should it be produced?

Technology, labor, capital, ect.

getting the lowest cost to make the
Are we going to make the product from
scratch or will a machine be making the

What will each option cost?

Will having new technology allow us to

lower our expenses?

3 Basic Questions Cont

Whom should it be produced for?

Who is going to use this product?

Most goods and services are distributed to

individuals through a price system.

Did Apple market the ipod to the large population

of elderly people in the U.S. or the youth? Why?

If you want it and can afford to buy ityou will.

Products can also be distributed through

other means; force, first come, lottery,
majority, ect.


What are the three basic economic

Compare and contrast micro and
macro economics.
Explain the circular flow of income
and output as it relates to the
Describe the business cycle.


The rate at which the general level of

prices for goods and services is
rising, and, subsequently, purchasing
power is falling.

As inflation rises, every dollar will buy a

smaller percentage of a good. For
example, if the inflation rate is 2%, then
a $1 pack of gum will cost $1.02 in a


A significant decline in activity across the

economy, lasting longer than a few

It is visible in industrial production,

employment, real income and wholesale-retail
trade. The technical indicator of a recession is
two consecutive quarters of negative economic
growth as measured by a country's gross
domestic product (GDP).
A recession generally lasts from six to18
months, and interest rates usually fall in during
these months to stimulate the economy by
offering cheap rates at which to borrow money.

Recession is a normal (albeit unpleasant) part

of the business cycle; however, one-time crisis
events can often trigger the onset of a
recession. The global recession of 2008-2009
brought a great amount of attention to the
risky investment strategies used by many
large financial institutions, along with the truly
global nature of the financial sytem. As a result
of such a wide-spread global recession, the
economies of virtually all the world's
developed and developing nations suffered
extreme set-backs and numerous government
policies were implemented to help prevent a
similar future financial crisis

What is the connection between

Inflation and Recession?

Which came first the chicken or the recession?

In many cases the causes of recession can be

confusing. Can inflation cause/worsen a recession?
Or does a recession cause/worsen inflation?

Botha recession does not always have a single cause,

but can be caused by many factors. Once a recession
begins, its impact is usually felt all over the economy,
including inflation. Inflation occurs without a recession,
but a dramatic change in the value of money can push
an unstable economy into a recession.

Look at the causes or influences

of our most recent recession

Poor business practices started the


It was likely on its way already

Decline in the stock market
Increased foreclosures/ drop in
housing prices

In Short

Economics is common sense made


We cant have everything that we want, so we have to

make choices with our money.
Businesses have to make choices with their products.
Society has to make choices about how it should or will
The Government makes choices about laws and expenses.
Just to name a few!!!

Chapter Review

What is the basic Economic question?

What does a production possibilities curve show
What are the four factors of production?
What are trade offs and opportunity costs?
What are the three basic economic questions?
Define microeconomics and macroeconomics.
What are inflation and recession?
How does the circular flow of income and output
impact the economy?