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Chapter

27

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Sistem
Reproduksi
Pria

Tujuan Pembelajaran
1. Menjelaskan Struktur Sistem reproduksi pria
2. Menjelaskan fungsi Sistem reproduksi pria

Reproductive System

Reproductive system functions in gamete

Production
Storage
Nourishment
Transport

Fertilization
Fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote

Reproductive system includes:

Gonads (testes, ovaries)


Ducts
Accessory glands and organs
External genitalia

Males and Females


Males
Testes produce spermatozoa
Expelled from body in semen during ejaculation

Females
Ovaries produce oocytes
Immature ovum

Travels along uterine tube toward uterus


Vagina connects uterus with exterior of body

Male Reproductive System


Pathway of spermatozoa
Epididymis
Ductus deferens
Ejaculatory duct

Accessory organs

Seminal vesicles
Prostate gland
Bulbourethral glands
Scrotal sac encloses testes
Penis

Figure 26.1 The Male Reproductive System

Figure 26.1

The testes
Descent of the testes
Movement of testes through inguinal canal into scrotum
Occurs during fetal development
Testes remain connected to internal structures
Spermatic cords

Figure 26.2 The Descent of the Testes

Figure 26.2a

Figure 26.2 The Descent of the Testes

Figure 26.2b

Figure 26.3 The Male Reproductive System in


Anterior View

Figure 26.3

Male Anatomy

Musculature of scrotal sac


Dartos muscle wrinkles scrotal sac
Cremaster muscle pulls sac close to body

Testes anatomy
Tunica albuginea surrounds testis
Septa extend from tunica albuginea to epididymus
Lobules

Sperm production
In seminiferous tubules
Interstitial cells between seminiferous tubules
Secrete sex hormones

Sperm pass through rete testis


Efferent ductules connect rete testis to epididymus

Figure 26.4 The Structure of the Testes

Figure 26.4

Spermatogenesis
Seminiferous tubules
Contain spermatogonia
Stem cells involved in spermatogenesis

Contain sustentacular cells


Sustain and promote development of sperm

Figure 26.5 The Seminiferous Tubules

Figure 26.5a, b

Figure 26.5 The Seminiferous Tubules

Figure 26.5c

Figure 26.6 Chromosomes in Mitosis and


Meiosis

Figure 26.6

Spermatogenesis
Spermatogenesis involves three processes
Mitosis
Meiosis
Spermiogenesis

Figure 26.7 Spermatogenesis

Figure 26.7

Anatomy of spermatozoon
Each spermatozoon has:
Head

Nucleus and densely packed chromosomes

Middle piece

Mitochondria that produce the ATP needed to move the tail

Tail

The only flagellum in the human body

Figure 26.8 Spermiogenesis and


Spermatozoon Structure

Figure 26.8

Male reproductive tract


Testes produce mature spermatozoa
Sperm enter epididymus

Elongated tubule with head, body and tail regions


Monitors and adjusts fluid in seminiferous tubules
Stores and protects spermatozoa
Facilitates functional maturation of spermatozoa

Figure 26.9 The Epididymus

Figure 26.9

Ductus deferens AKA vas deferens

Begins at epididymus
Passes through inguinal canal
Enlarges to form ampulla
Ejaculatory duct at base of seminal vesicle and
ampulla
Empties into urethra

Urethra
Urinary bladder to tip of penis
Three regions
Prostatic
Membranous
Penile

Accessory glands
Seminal vesicles
Active secretory gland
Contributes ~60% total volume of semen
Secretions contain fructose, prostaglandins, fibrinogen

Accessory glands
Prostate gland
Secretes slightly acidic prostate fluid

Bulbourethral glands
Secrete alkaline mucus with lubricating properties

Figure 26.10 The Ductus Deferens and


Accessory Glands

Figure 26.10ae

Contents of Semen
Typical ejaculate = 2-5 ml fluid
Contains between 20-100 million spermatozoa per ml

Seminal fluid
A distinct ionic and nutritive glandular secretion

External genitalia
Male external genitalia consist of the scrotum and
the penis
Skin overlying penis resembles scrotum

Penis

Contains three masses of erectile tissue

2 corpora cavernosa beneath fascia


1 corpus spongiosum surrounding urethra

Dilation of erectile tissue produces erection

Figure 26.11 The Penis

Figure 26.11

Hormones and male reproductive function


FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone)
Targets sustentacular cells to promote spermatogenesis

LH (leutinizing hormone)
Causes secretion of testosterone and other androgens

GnRH (Gonadotropin releasing hormone)


Testosterone
Most important androgen

Figure 26.12 Hormonal Feedback and the


Regulation of the Male Reproductive Function

Figure 26.12

Male sexual function


Arousal

Leads to erection of the penis

Parasympathetic outflow over the pelvic nerves

Emission and ejaculation

Occur under sympathetic stimulation


Results in semen being pushed toward external urethral
opening

Detumescence

Subsidence of erection
Mediated by the sympathetic nervous system

Male climacteric
Levels of circulating testosterone begin to decline
FSH and LH levels rise

Gradual reduction in sexual activity