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Chapter

29

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Sistem
Reproduksi
Wanita

Tujuan Pembelajaran
1. Menjelaskan Struktur Reproduksi wanita
2. Menjelaskan fungsi Reproduksi wanita

Principle organs of the female reproductive system

Ovaries
Uterine tubes
Uterus
Vagina

Figure 26.13 The Female Reproductive System

Figure 26.13

The ovaries
Held in position by ovarian and suspensory
ligaments
Blood vessels enter at ovarian hilus
Tunica albuginea covers ovary

Figure 26.14 The Ovaries and Their


Relationships to the Uterine Tube and Uterus

Figure 26.14a,
b

Oogenesis
Ovum production
Occurs monthly in ovarian follicles
Part of ovarian cycle
Follicular phase (preovulatory)
Luteal phase (postovulatory)

Figure 26.15 Oogenesis

Figure 26.15

The ovarian cycle


Steps in the ovarian cycle

Formation of primary, secondary, and tertiary follicles


Ovulation
Formation and degeneration of the corpus luteum
Degradation of the corpus luteum

Figure 26.16 The Ovarian Cycle

Figure 26.16.1

Figure 26.16 The Ovarian Cycle

Figure 26.16.2

The Uterine tubes


Uterine tubes (Fallopian tubes or oviducts)
Infundibulum
End closest to the ovary with numerous fimbriae

Ampulla
The middle portion

Isthmus
A short segment connected to the uterine wall

Each uterine tube opens directly into uterine cavity

Fertilization occurs in uterine tube


12-24 hours after ovulation
During passage from infundibulum to uterus

Figure 26.17 The Uterine Tubes

Figure 26.17ac

The uterus
Muscular organ
Mechanical protection
Nutritional support
Waste removal for the developing embryo and fetus

Supported by the broad ligament and 3 pairs of


suspensory ligaments

Uterus
Major anatomical landmarks

Body
Isthmus
Cervix
Cervical os (external orifice)
Uterine cavity
Cervical canal
Internal os (internal orifice)

Uterine wall consists of three layers:


Myometrium outer muscular layer
Endometrium a thin, inner, glandular mucosa
Perimetrium an incomplete serosa continuous
with the peritoneum

Figure 26.18 The Uterus

Figure 26.18a

Figure 26.18 The Uterus

Figure 26.18b

Figure 26.19 The Uterine Wall

Figure 26.19a

Figure 26.19 The Uterine Wall

Figure 26.19b

Uterine cycle
Repeating series of changes in the endometrium
Continues from menarche to menopause
Menses
Degeneration of the endometrium
Menstruation

Proliferative phase
Restoration of the endometrium

Secretory phase
Endometrial glands enlarge and accelerate their rates of
secretion

Figure 26.20 The Uterine Cycle

Figure 26.20

The vagina
Major functions
Passageway for elimination of menstrual fluids
Receives the penis during sexual intercourse
Forms the inferior portion of the birth canal

Figure 26.21 The Histology of the Vagina

Figure 26.21

External genitalia
Vulva

Vestibule
Labia minora and majora
Paraurethral glands
Clitoris
Lesser and greater vestibular glands

Figure 26.22 The Female External Genitalia

Figure 26.22

Mammary glands
Pectoral fat pad
Nipple surrounded by the areola
Function in lactation under control of reproductive
hormones

Figure 26.23 The Mammary Glands

Figure 26.23ac

Hormones of the female reproductive cycle


Control the reproductive cycle
Coordinate the ovarian and uterine cycles

Hormones of the female reproductive cycle


Key hormones include:
FSH
Stimulates follicular development

LH
Maintains structure and secretory function of corpus
luteum

Estrogens
Have multiple functions

Progesterones
Stimulate endometrial growth and secretion

Figure 26.25 The Hormonal Regulation of Ovarian Activity

Figure 26.25

The Hormonal Regulation of the Female Reproductive Cycle

Figure 26.26ac

The Hormonal Regulation of the Female Reproductive Cycle

Figure 26.26d-f

Female sexual function


Stages are comparable to those of male sexual
function
Arousal causes clitoral erection

Vaginal surfaces are moistened


Parasympathetic stimulation causes engorgement
of blood vessels in the nipples

Menopause
The time that ovulation and menstruation cease
Typically around age 45-55

Accompanied by a decline in circulating estrogen


and progesterone
Rise in GnRH, FSH, LH