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Channel Assignment Strategies, Handoff

Strategies Improvement in Coverage and

Capacity(Sectoring splitting and Microcell zoning)

For Efficient utilization of spectrum

Concept of frequency reuse

Co-channel interference reduction
Desired carrier to noise ratio
Handoff mechanism

Cellular Concept
To replace a single, high power transmitter with many low power
transmitters, each providing coverage to a small geographical area
Neighboring base stations are assigned different groups of channels so that
interference between base stations are minimized
No need for high power and high antennas
Can plan for frequency reuse
Frequency Reuse
Each base station is allocated a group of radio channels with in a
geographical area called a cell
Channel groups can be carefully selected and allocated to different base
stations for efficient spectrum utility
Sectored directional antennas are used for corner-excited cells.

The fixed transmit/receive unit that serves each
geographical unit
Geographical area covered by a single basestation
Most commonly used cell shape is hexagon
Downlink or Forward Link(s)
Link from base station to user(s)
Uplink or Reverse Link(s)
Link from user(s) to base station
Co-channel Cells
Cells that use the same set of frequencies

Co-channel Interference
Interference between cochannelcells
Cell Cluster
The space between adjacent cochannelcells can be filled
with other cells that use different frequencies to provide
frequency isolation. A group of cells that use a different set
of frequencies in each cell is called a cellcluster
Cluster Size
Number of cells in a cluster
Mobile Switching Center
each of the base stations in the cluster is connected to a
mobile switching center (MSC) by wire lines

Frequency Reuse
Suppose there are a total of S duplex frequency channels
available for use in a cellular system.
If each cell is allocated a group of k channels (k<S), and the
S channels are distributed among N cells, then
S= kN
These N cells will form a cell cluster.
If a cluster is repeated N times then capacity is given by
The frequency reuse factor is given by 1/N, as each cell is
allocated 1/N of the total available channels in the system.

N is the function of how much interference a mobile or base station can tolerate while maintaining the
sufficient quality of communication

Cellular Frequency Reuse


Frequency Reuse
Due to the geometry of the cell (hexagon), the number of
cells per cluster, N, can only have values
N= i2+ ij+ j2
where I and j are non-negative integers
To find the nearest co-channel cells
1.Move I cells along any chain of hexagons
2.Turn 60 degrees counterclockwise and move j cells


i= 3, j= 2

Relations between Cluster Size and i, j
The distance between two adjacent cells

Distance between two nearest co-channel cells

Area of a cell

Area of a large area (3 areas of a cell cluster)

How the call is managed when mobile user is

handed off from one cell to another


System designers must specify an optimum level at which

handoff is initiated.
A slightly strong signal is used as threshold at which a
handoff is made
= Pr handoff - Pr minimum usable

Value of delta must be selected carefully

Before hand off ensure that fading is not momentary

Information of Speed of vehicle that can be computed from

statistics of received signal short term fading signal.

Dwell time: maintained call within a cell without hand-off

Depends upon propagation, interference, distance between
subscriber and base station, speed of car .
dwell time is different for user moving in car and user in
dense area.
Intersystem handoff: mobile moves from one cellular
system to different cellular system maintained different
Prioritizing Handoff: Guard channel concept, queuing
Disadv: reduced carrier traffic, but offer effient spectrum
uttillization when used with dynamic channel statergies

Practical handoff

Wide range of mobile velocities

MSC become burdened
Difficult to provide new cell site for different users
Umbrella cell approach: Different antenna height and
different power levels
Speed of user is estimated by base station /MSC by
evaluating how rapidly the short term average signal
strength on RVC is varying.
Concept of cell dragging: with pedestrian users