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LT/HT MOTORS

PROTECTION
TESTING
AND
MAINTENANCE

ELECTRICAL
PROTECTION

Why Protection
is required?

To isolate the
faulty section from
healthy section as
quickly as possible.

Why the winding of


motor fails ?

Temperature rise

Heat

Losses in the form of


Copper, friction and
windage

Temperature
Heat
Losses

Classification of Insulation
Class

Max.Working temp.

90

105

120

130

155

180

ABOVE180

Typically the following abnormal conditions


may be observed in an induction motors:

Over loads : Sustained Overload or


Momentary Overload
Supply Failures: Single phasing
Motor Internal faults , i.e., Phase to Phase
faults, Phase to Earth faults or Open circuit
faults
Starting Failures: Prolonged Starting of the
Motor
Rotor Failures : Blocked Rotor

Low Rating LV Motors: Up to 100


KW motors, Contactors shall be
provided
with
the
following
protections:
Bi-metallic thermal relay for overload
protection
Fuses for Short Circuit protection

415V
Supply

Remote stop

4A

2A
Switch

Local stop

C-2

C-3

Power fuses

Start

C-1
Bimetal relay

Power
Contactor

Motor

2A

Link
O/L
T/F
415/110

Bimetal relay
Fe Ni

Bimetal Overload relay


These are popular in LT Motor applications.
Bending of one or more bimetal strips causes
movement of a common lever, which in turn
operates the trip contact in the case of
overloads.
These relays can be provided directly in series
with the load current. For the larger rating
motors, these bimetallic relays can be
connected through CTs.
These relays are also either self reset type or
hand reset type.
Before selecting the
bimetallic relay, the following shall be
monitored:

Bimetal Overload relay


Select the relay rating nearer
to the motor FL current rating.
Set the relay current at the
normal operating current.

FUSE
In the case of the short circuits, bimetal
overload relays will operate in delay and
may worsen further the situation.
Hence, for quick isolation is required in
case of short circuits.
HRC ( High
Rupturing Capacity) fuses shall be used
for this purpose.
The rating of this fuses shall be depends
on the starting currents of the motors.

Low Voltage Motors beyond 100


kW: Air Break Circuit Breakers shall
be provided with protective relays
with the following functions:
Overload Protection by IDMT Relays
Short Circuit Protection with High set
relays
Locked rotor Protection with Definite
time relays

MOTOR WITH CIRCUIT


BREAKER
3 - P h a s e 4 1 5 V S u p p ly

C ir c u it B r e a k e r

3 -P h a se O v e r C u rre n t
& E a r th F A u lt R e la y

Power Contactor & CB


Power Contactor

CB

One Coil for starting /


Stopping
Motor
stops
when
supply fails and will
not start when the
supply restores , as
the control supply is
derived from power
supply.

Close coil for closing


Trip coil for tripping
Motor
stops
when
supply fails and will
start when the supply
restores, if the trip
command was not
given

Inverse Definite Time Over Current


Relay

This Relay operates


when ever the current
exceeds the Set value.
The relay operation
time is inversely
proportional to the
magnitude of Current
Application: E/F prot.,
LT Motor
Prot.
Example : CDG Relay of EE
make

CDG
Relay

Instantaneous Over Current


Relay
This Relay operates when ever the current
exceeds the Set value (No time delay)
Set slightly more than the starting current
(in general it is 6 to 7 times)
Application : Generator Inter turn,
GT Restricted E/F prot,
Instantaneous prot LT motors.
Example : CAG Relay of EE make

CAG
Relay

CAG Relay

Definite Time Over Current


Relay
This Relay operates when ever
the current exceeds the Set
value and that current shall
persist for defined time

Current

Application : Blocked Rotor


Protection, Over Load Alarm etc..
Example : CTU Relay of EE make

Time

&

Operation

High Voltage Motors: These motors shall


be generally controlled by Circuit Breakers
and these shall have a typical Motor
Protection relay (MPR) with the following
functions:
Thermal Overload Protection with alarm and
Trip
Short Circuit protection
Unbalanced Protection
Locked Rotor Protection
Earth Fault Protection by Residual Connection or
with CBCT
Limitation of Number of starts
Bus Under Voltage Protection

ABB MPR

Front panel
Fixed
function
LEDs

Lithium
battery

Local
communications

Alarm
viewer
P441

Menu browser
User
configurable
LEDs
Download /
Monitor port
Facility for
lead seal

Thermal Overload
Protection
Thermal overload protection relays gives protection
against heating of the rotor due to negative
sequence currents caused by an unbalance system.
Multiple of square of Negative sequence current is
added to the thermal element. The equivalent
current Ieq is calculated as:
Ieq = ( I1 2 + Ke I2 2)
I1 = Positive Sequence current of the motor
I2 = negative sequence current of the motor
Ke = Negative sequence current recognition factor
(adjustable) ( For CTM Relays, Ke = 6)

Unbalance Protection
Unbalance protection is generally
provided in the following ways:
By
measuring
Negative
phase
sequence currents
By Monitoring the difference between
Max and Minimum phase currents

EARTH FAULT Protection

If the source is from 3 wire supply


derived form the Transformer having
neutral solidly earthed or low resistance
earthed, earth fault protection shall be
extended to trip the motor.

If the similar supply is derived form the


Delta Transformer or the transformer with
resistance earthing, earth fault protection
need not be given for tripping of the
motor and can be connected to an alarm.

EARTH Fault Protection


P1

3 3 3

CBCT

M o to r
P2

E arth
F au lt
relay
elem en t

F ig 5 .1 E a r th F a u lt R e la y C o n n e c tio n b y R e s id u a l C o n n e c tio n & C B C T

M o to r

E a rth
F a u lt r e la y
e le m e n t

EARTH FAULT Protection

Earth
fault
current
generally set at 30% of the
full load current.

Negative Sequence
Protection
Negative sequence currents in
the motor are due to following
reasons:
Non closure of one or two poles
of the Circuit Breaker
Failure of Power fuses in one or
two fuses
Sustained Faults in the network

Negative Sequence
Protection
Negative sequence currents results in
rotating magnetic field revolves in opposite
direction.
This field induces double
frequency induced currents in the rotor body
and conductors, gives rise to heat due to
copper losses. The rotor gets heated and
the temperature of the motor winding
increases beyond the limits.
Negative sequence protection can be either
definite time or with IDMT characteristic.

Differential Protection
The motors with rating more than
1500 kW, shall be protected
additionally
with
Differential
protection. This protection covers
the
switchgear, Motor and the
power cables.

Differential Protection
CB

3
3
3

M O T O R

R st
87

M e t r o c ils

F ig 5 . 2 M o t o r D iffe r e n t ia l p r o t e c t io n

Differential Protection
For better stability of the protection,
Stabilizing
resistors
shall
be
connected in series with the relays.
To safeguard the entire protection
system in the case of open CTs,
Non-linear resistor ( Metrocils) shall
be connected parallel to the Relay
and resistor circuits.

TESTING

TESTING

when protection acted


Pre-commissioning

When motor tripped on


Protection
Check the flag relays and note
down on what protection the motor
tripped.
If the motor tripped on motor
protection
what protection acted ?
Inform to maintenance wing with
details.

When motor tripped on


protection
Whether any damage at the
switchgear?
Whether any smoke observed
at the TB ?
Do not go for further starting of
motor until, getting clearance
from maintenance wing.

When motor tripped on


protection
Ask the shift operator whether earth
alarm came on bus
Check the IR value of motor
it should be > 10M-ohms
if it is Zero :
Open the power cable at the TB and
then take the IR value of both the
motor and the cable.

When motor tripped on


protection
If the motor tripped on short circuit
protection:
check the winding resistance and inductance
of the winding :
--- if it is DELTA connected Open the Links
and
measure each Phase, it must be equal
--- if it is STAR connected internally, measure
Phase to Phase, it must be equal

When motor tripped on


protection
If the motor tripped on Over load
protection:
-- Rotate the drive rotor for One or Two
rotations
--- if it is not rotating freely, then
disconnect the coupling and then check
whether problem is with motor or pump.
--- Plan to replace bearings accordingly

Pre-Commissioning tests
Note down the Name plate details.
Check IR value
Measure winding resistance & inductance
and note down in the history record for
future comparison.
Check the differential CT connections (if any)
Note down the No Load currents of all phases
Check for proper alignment.

IP PROTECTION
Degree of Protection of Enclosures
The degree of protection provided by an
enclosure is indicated by the IP code in the
following way Code Letters IP 3 1
(International Protection)
First Numeral
(Resistance to solid objects 0-6)
Second Numeral
(Resistance to water 0-8)

IP PROTECTION FOR FIRST LETTER


IP

TEST

SHORT DESCRIPTION

0
1 50
mm

NO IP PROTECTION
A large surface of the body, such
as a hand (but no protection
against deliberate
access) solid
objects
exceeding
50mm
in
Diameter

2
12.5
mm

Fingers or similar objects not


exceeding 80mm in length; solid
objects exceeding 12.5 mm in
diameter

3 2,5
mm

Tools, wires, etc...., of diameter or


thickness greater than 2.5mm;

IP PROTECTION FOR FIRST LETTER


IP

TEST

SHORT DESCRIPTION

4 1
mm

Wires or strips of thickness greater


than 1.0mm; solid objects
exceeding 1.0 mm in diameter

5 dust

Ingress of dust is not totally


prevented but dust does not enter
in sufficient quantity to interfere
with satisfactory operation of the
equipment

6 Dust- No ingress of dust


tight

IP PROTECTION FOR SECOND LETTER


IP

TEST

SHORT DESCRIPTION

NO IP PROTECTION

Drippin Dripping water (vertically falling drops)


g
shall have no harmful effect

15o

Vertically dripping water shall have no


harmful effect when the enclosure is tilted
at any angle up to 15 from its normal
position Protected against spraying water
Water falling as a spray

Sprayi
ng

Water falling as a spray at an angle up to


60 from the vertical shall
have no harmful effect

splashi Water splashed against the enclosure


ng
from any direction shall have no harmful
effect

IP PROTECTION FOR SECOND LETTER


IP

TEST

SHORT DESCRIPTION

water
jets

Water projected by a nozzle against the


enclosure from any direction shall have no
harmful effect

heavy
seas

Water from heavy seas or water projected


in powerful jets shall not
enter the enclosure in harmful quantities

Immer Ingress of water in a harmful quantity


sion 15 shall not be possible when the enclosure
cm
is immersed in water under defined
conditions of pressure and time

Subme
rsion
(meter
)

The equipment is suitable for continuous


submersion in water under conditions
which shall be specified by the
Manufacturer

Maintenance

Preventive Maintenance

Inspect
Touch
Feel

Preventive Maintenance
Inspect: Hear the sound and
observe the surroundings.
Touch: Sense the temperature of
the motor & cable and vibrations
Feel: Whether it is same as
before.

Preventive Maintenance
Open the terminal box and
check for healthiness quarterly
According to running hours, fill
the grease
and replace
bearings (in general it is 1000
hrs)

Preventive Maintenance
Take the vibrations and compare
with previous readings
Observe the sound by rotating the
rotor with hand during Overhaul
period (All drives).

Preventive Maintenance

Replace
the
bearings
for
important drives during Overhaul
(Ex: AH main drives)
Replace the lugs if they are in
damaged condition

Precautions while giving


PTW
For Modules:
Conform that the motor is in off
condition.
Switch off the supply and
remove only
Control fuses

Precautions while giving


PTW
For Circuit Breakers:
Conform that the motor is in off
condition.
Open the mechanical inter lock

Keep the breaker in TEST


position

SELECTION OF
MOTOR

IEC DUTY CYCLES


S1
S2

S3
S4
S5
S6
S7

S8

The motor works at a constant load for enough time to


reach temperature equilibrium.
The motor works at a constant load, but not long
enough to reach temperature equilibrium. The rest
Short-time duty
periods are long enough for the motor to reach
ambient temperature.
Sequential, identical run and rest cycles with constant
Intermittent periodic
load. Temperature equilibrium is never reached.
duty
Starting current has little effect on temperature rise.
Sequential, identical start, run and rest cycles with
Intermittent periodic
constant load. Temperature equilibrium is not reached,
duty with starting
but starting current affects temperature rise.
Intermittent periodic
Sequential, identical cycles of starting, running at
duty with electric
constant load and running with no load. No rest
braking
periods.
Continuous
Sequential, identical cycles of running with constant
operation with
load and running with no load. No rest periods.
intermittent load
Continuous
Sequential identical cycles of starting, running at
operation with
constant load and electric braking. No rest periods.
electric braking
Continuous
Sequential, identical duty cycles run at constant load
operation with
and given speed, then run at other constant loads and
periodic changes in
speeds. No rest periods.
load and speed
Continuous duty

DETERMINATION OF
POWER RATING
1. Continuous duty and constant load:
P= TN KW
975
T is the load torque in kg-m
N speed in rpm
is the product of the efficiency of the
driven
equipment
and
that
of
transmitting equipment.

DETERMINATION OF
POWER RATING
in case of hoist mechanisms
P = Fv KW
2x102
due to counter weight is always one-half
of the useful load is always presents
V vary from 0.5 to 1.5m/s for passenger
lifts

DETERMINATION OF
POWER RATING
in case of linear motion
P = Fv KW
102
F is the Force caused by load in kg
v is the velocity of motion of load in m/sec
is the product of the efficiency of the
driven
equipment
and
that
of
transmitting equipment.

DETERMINATION OF
POWER RATING
in case of pumps
P = HQ KW
102
is the density of liquid pumped in kg/m 3
H is the gross head in meters
Q is the delivery of the pump in m3/sec
varies from 0.8 to 0.9 for reciprocating.
0.4 to 0.8 for centrifugal

DETERMINATION OF
POWER RATING
for fan motors
P = Qh KW
102
h is the pressure in mm of water
Q is the volume of air/gas in m3/sec
may be taken 0.6 for small fans
0.8 for large fans

DETERMINATION OF
POWER RATING
2. Continuous duty variable load:
n
P2i ti
Peq=
i=1
n
ti
i=1
P is the load power
This is called method of Average power

DETERMINATION OF
POWER RATING OF
CONSTANT LOAD

Ex: primary water pump using in stage-I


Q= 11 liter/sec, H= 45 m.
Find Power rating: HQ KW
102
= 1000 kg/m3 as the liquid is water
Take = 0.6 as it is the centrifugal pump
P: 1000X45x11 = 8.08Kw (9.3kw nearest)
102X0.6x1000

DETERMINATION OF
POWER RATING OF
VARIABLE LOAD
P
74
66
32

32

32

27

27

30 5
15 40

148

200

27

12

70

DETERMINATION OF
POWER RATING OF
VARIABLE LOAD

EX:
Part of
Cycle
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Time
sec (t)
15
40
30
5
148
200
12
70
520

Required HP
32
74
27
32
66
27
32
27

(HP)2t
15,360
219,040
21,870
5,120
644,690
145,800
12,290
51,030
1,115,200

DETERMINATION OF
POWER RATING OF
VARIABLE LOAD
Peq=

Peq=

n
P2i ti
i=1
ti
i=1

1,115,200
520
= 2145 = 46.3 HP
Add 10% tolerance: 46.3x1.1=50.9

Why equipment fails


Even though we
adopt all the
protections?

Thank you
V.SRINIVASULU
ADE/MRT-I/STAGE-I
Dr.NTTPS