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Why Protection
is required?

.To isolate the faulty section from healthy section as quickly as possible.

Why the winding of motor fails ? .

Temperature rise .

Heat .

friction and windage .Losses in the form of Copper.

Temperature Heat Losses .

Working temp. Y 90 A 105 E 120 B 130 F 155 H 180 C ABOVE180 .Classification of Insulation Class Max.

. Phase to Phase faults. i.Typically the following abnormal conditions may be observed in an induction motors:   • Over loads : Sustained Overload or Momentary Overload • Supply Failures: Single phasing • Motor Internal faults .e. Phase to Earth faults or Open circuit faults • Starting Failures: Prolonged Starting of the Motor • Rotor Failures : Blocked Rotor .

Contactors shall be provided with the following protections: – Bi-metallic thermal relay for overload protection – Fuses for Short Circuit protection .• Low Rating LV Motors: Up to 100 KW motors.

415V Supply Remote stop 4A 2A Switch Local stop C-2 C-3 Power fuses Start C-1 Bimetal relay Power Contactor Motor 2A Link O/L T/F 415/110 C R G .

Bimetal relay Fe Ni .

these bimetallic relays can be connected through CTs. For the larger rating motors. the following shall be monitored: .Bimetal Overload relay • These are popular in LT Motor applications. Before selecting the bimetallic relay. • These relays can be provided directly in series with the load current. Bending of one or more bimetal strips causes movement of a common lever. which in turn operates the trip contact in the case of overloads. • These relays are also either self reset type or hand reset type.

Bimetal Overload relay • Select the relay rating nearer to the motor FL current rating. . • Set the relay current at the normal operating current.

. • The rating of this fuses shall be depends on the starting currents of the motors. HRC ( High Rupturing Capacity) fuses shall be used for this purpose.FUSE • In the case of the short circuits. for quick isolation is required in case of short circuits. • Hence. bimetal overload relays will operate in delay and may worsen further the situation.

• Low Voltage Motors beyond 100 kW: Air Break Circuit Breakers shall be provided with protective relays with the following functions: – Overload Protection by IDMT Relays – Short Circuit Protection with High set relays – Locked rotor Protection with Definite time relays .

P h a s e 4 1 5 V S u p p ly C ir c u it B r e a k e r 3 -P h a se O v e r C u rre n t & E a r th F A u lt R e la y .MOTOR WITH CIRCUIT BREAKER 3 .

Power Contactor & CB Power Contactor CB • One Coil for starting / Stopping • Motor stops when supply fails and will not start when the supply restores . as the control supply is derived from power supply. • Close coil for closing • Trip coil for tripping • Motor stops when supply fails and will start when the supply restores. if the trip command was not given .

The relay operation time is inversely proportional to the magnitude of Current Application: E/F prot. LT Motor Prot. Example : CDG Relay of EE make ..Inverse Definite Time Over Current Relay • • • This Relay operates when ever the current exceeds the Set value.

CDG Relay .

GT Restricted E/F prot. • Example : CAG Relay of EE make .Instantaneous Over Current Relay • This Relay operates when ever the current exceeds the Set value (No time delay) • Set slightly more than the starting current (in general it is 6 to 7 times) • Application : Generator Inter turn. Instantaneous prot LT motors.

CAG Relay .

CAG Relay .

• Example : CTU Relay of EE make Time & Operation ..Definite Time Over Current Relay • This Relay operates when ever the current exceeds the Set value and that current shall persist for defined time Current • Application : Blocked Rotor Protection. Over Load Alarm etc.

• High Voltage Motors: These motors shall be generally controlled by Circuit Breakers and these shall have a typical Motor Protection relay (MPR) with the following functions: – Thermal Overload Protection with alarm and Trip – Short Circuit protection – Unbalanced Protection – Locked Rotor Protection – Earth Fault Protection by Residual Connection or with CBCT – Limitation of Number of starts – Bus Under Voltage Protection .


Front panel Fixed function LEDs Lithium battery Local communications Alarm viewer P441 Menu browser User configurable LEDs Download / Monitor port Facility for lead seal .

• Multiple of square of Negative sequence current is added to the thermal element. The equivalent current Ieq is calculated as:   Ieq = √( I1 2 + Ke I2 2) I1 = Positive Sequence current of the motor I2 = negative sequence current of the motor Ke = Negative sequence current recognition factor (adjustable) ( For CTM Relays.Thermal Overload Protection • Thermal overload protection relays gives protection against heating of the rotor due to negative sequence currents caused by an unbalance system. Ke = 6)   .

Unbalance Protection Unbalance protection is generally provided in the following ways: • By measuring Negative phase sequence currents • By Monitoring the difference between Max and Minimum phase currents   .

• If the similar supply is derived form the Delta Transformer or the transformer with resistance earthing. earth fault protection need not be given for tripping of the motor and can be connected to an alarm.EARTH FAULT Protection • If the source is from 3 wire supply derived form the Transformer having neutral solidly earthed or low resistance earthed. earth fault protection shall be extended to trip the motor. .

1 E a r th F a u lt R e la y C o n n e c tio n b y R e s id u a l C o n n e c tio n & C B C T M o to r E a rth F a u lt r e la y e le m e n t .EARTH Fault Protection P1 3 3 3 CBCT M o to r P2 E arth F au lt relay elem en t F ig 5 .

EARTH FAULT Protection

generally set at 30% of the
full load current.

Negative Sequence
Negative sequence currents in
the motor are due to following
Non closure of one or two poles
of the Circuit Breaker
Failure of Power fuses in one or
two fuses
Sustained Faults in the network

Negative Sequence
• Negative sequence currents results in
rotating magnetic field revolves in opposite
This field induces double
frequency induced currents in the rotor body
and conductors, gives rise to heat due to
copper losses. The rotor gets heated and
the temperature of the motor winding
increases beyond the limits.
• Negative sequence protection can be either
definite time or with IDMT characteristic.

Motor and the power cables. shall be protected additionally with Differential protection. .Differential Protection • The motors with rating more than 1500 kW. This protection covers the switchgear.

2 M o t o r D iffe r e n t ia l p r o t e c t io n .Differential Protection CB 3 3 3 3 3 3 M O T O R R st 87 M e t r o c ils F ig 5 .

To safeguard the entire protection system in the case of open CTs. Non-linear resistor ( Metrocils) shall be connected parallel to the Relay and resistor circuits. Stabilizing resistors shall be connected in series with the relays. .Differential Protection • For better stability of the protection.


TESTING  when protection acted  Pre-commissioning .

• If the motor tripped on motor protection what protection acted ? Inform to maintenance wing with details. .When motor tripped on Protection • Check the flag relays and note down on what protection the motor tripped.

When motor tripped on protection • Whether any damage at the switchgear? • Whether any smoke observed at the TB ? • Do not go for further starting of motor until. getting clearance from maintenance wing. .

When motor tripped on protection • Ask the shift operator whether earth alarm came on bus • Check the IR value of motor it should be > 10M-ohms if it is Zero : Open the power cable at the TB and then take the IR value of both the motor and the cable. .

it must be equal --. it must be equal . measure Phase to Phase.if it is DELTA connected Open the Links and measure each Phase.if it is STAR connected internally.When motor tripped on protection  If the motor tripped on short circuit protection: check the winding resistance and inductance of the winding : --.

Rotate the drive rotor for One or Two rotations --.Plan to replace bearings accordingly  . then disconnect the coupling and then check whether problem is with motor or pump.if it is not rotating freely. --.When motor tripped on protection If the motor tripped on Over load protection: -.

• Check IR value • Measure winding resistance & inductance and note down in the history record for future comparison. . • Check the differential CT connections (if any) • Note down the No Load currents of all phases • Check for proper alignment.Pre-Commissioning tests • Note down the Name plate details.

IP PROTECTION Degree of Protection of Enclosures The degree of protection provided by an enclosure is indicated by the IP code in the following way Code Letters IP 3 1 (International Protection) First Numeral (Resistance to solid objects 0-6) Second Numeral (Resistance to water 0-8) .

wires.. solid objects exceeding 12..5 mm in diameter 3 ø 2. . of diameter or thickness greater than 2. such as a hand (but no protection against deliberate access) solid objects exceeding 50mm in Diameter 2 ø 12...IP PROTECTION FOR FIRST LETTER IP TEST SHORT DESCRIPTION 0 1 ø 50 mm NO IP PROTECTION A large surface of the body.5 mm Fingers or similar objects not exceeding 80mm in length.5 mm Tools.5mm. etc.

0 mm in diameter 5 dust Ingress of dust is not totally prevented but dust does not enter in sufficient quantity to interfere with satisfactory operation of the equipment 6 Dust.No ingress of dust tight . solid objects exceeding 1.IP PROTECTION FOR FIRST LETTER IP TEST SHORT DESCRIPTION 4 ø1 mm Wires or strips of thickness greater than 1.0mm.

IP PROTECTION FOR SECOND LETTER IP TEST 0 SHORT DESCRIPTION NO IP PROTECTION 1 Drippin Dripping water (vertically falling drops) g shall have no harmful effect 2 15o Vertically dripping water shall have no harmful effect when the enclosure is tilted at any angle up to 15º from its normal position Protected against spraying water Water falling as a spray 3 Sprayi ng Water falling as a spray at an angle up to 60º from the vertical shall have no harmful effect 4 splashi Water splashed against the enclosure ng from any direction shall have no harmful effect .

IP PROTECTION FOR SECOND LETTER IP TEST SHORT DESCRIPTION 5 water jets Water projected by a nozzle against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effect 6 heavy seas Water from heavy seas or water projected in powerful jets shall not enter the enclosure in harmful quantities 7 Immer Ingress of water in a harmful quantity sion 15 shall not be possible when the enclosure cm is immersed in water under defined conditions of pressure and time 8 Subme rsion (meter ) The equipment is suitable for continuous submersion in water under conditions which shall be specified by the Manufacturer .

Maintenance .

Preventive Maintenance Inspect Touch Feel .

Preventive Maintenance Inspect: Hear the sound and observe the surroundings. . Touch: Sense the temperature of the motor & cable and vibrations Feel: Whether it is same as before.

fill the grease and replace bearings (in general it is 1000 hrs) .Preventive Maintenance Open the terminal box and check for healthiness quarterly According to running hours.

.Preventive Maintenance Take the vibrations and compare with previous readings  Observe the sound by rotating the rotor with hand during Overhaul period (All drives).

Preventive Maintenance  Replace the bearings for important drives during Overhaul (Ex: AH main drives)  Replace the lugs if they are in damaged condition .

 Switch off the supply and remove only Control fuses .Precautions while giving PTW For Modules:  Conform that the motor is in off condition.

Precautions while giving PTW For Circuit Breakers:  Conform that the motor is in off condition.  Open the mechanical inter lock  Keep the breaker in TEST position .


running at operation with constant load and electric braking. intermittent load Continuous Sequential identical cycles of starting. No rest periods. Sequential. identical cycles of starting. electric braking Continuous Sequential. Temperature equilibrium is never reached. identical cycles of running with constant operation with load and running with no load. load and speed Continuous duty . No rest periods.IEC DUTY CYCLES S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 The motor works at a constant load for enough time to reach temperature equilibrium. identical start. duty Starting current has little effect on temperature rise. identical duty cycles run at constant load operation with and given speed. run and rest cycles with Intermittent periodic constant load. The motor works at a constant load. The rest Short-time duty periods are long enough for the motor to reach ambient temperature. duty with starting but starting current affects temperature rise. Temperature equilibrium is not reached. but not long enough to reach temperature equilibrium. No rest braking periods. Intermittent periodic Sequential. then run at other constant loads and periodic changes in speeds. No rest periods. identical run and rest cycles with constant Intermittent periodic load. Sequential. Continuous Sequential. running at duty with electric constant load and running with no load.

Continuous duty and constant load: P= TN KW 975ή T is the load torque in kg-m N speed in rpm ή is the product of the efficiency of the driven equipment and that of transmitting equipment. .DETERMINATION OF POWER RATING 1.

5 to 1.DETERMINATION OF POWER RATING in case of hoist mechanisms P = Fv KW 2x102ή due to counter weight is always one-half of the useful load is always presents V vary from 0.5m/s for passenger lifts .

.DETERMINATION OF POWER RATING in case of linear motion P = Fv KW 102ή F is the Force caused by load in kg v is the velocity of motion of load in m/sec ή is the product of the efficiency of the driven equipment and that of transmitting equipment.

DETERMINATION OF POWER RATING in case of pumps P = ρHQ KW 102ή ρ is the density of liquid pumped in kg/m 3 H is the gross head in meters Q is the delivery of the pump in m3/sec ή varies from 0.4 to 0.9 for reciprocating.8 to 0.8 for centrifugal . 0.

DETERMINATION OF POWER RATING for fan motors P = Qh KW 102ή h is the pressure in mm of water Q is the volume of air/gas in m3/sec ή may be taken 0.8 for large fans .6 for small fans 0.

DETERMINATION OF POWER RATING 2. Continuous duty variable load: n √ ∑P2i ti Peq= i=1 n √ ∑ ti i=1 P is the load power This is called method of Average power .

H= 45 m. Find Power rating: ρHQ KW 102ή ρ = 1000 kg/m3 as the liquid is water Take ή = 0.6 as it is the centrifugal pump P: 1000X45x11 = 8.3kw nearest) 102X0.08Kw (9.6x1000 .DETERMINATION OF POWER RATING OF CONSTANT LOAD Ex: primary water pump using in stage-I Q= 11 liter/sec.

DETERMINATION OF POWER RATING OF VARIABLE LOAD P 74 66 32 32 32 27 27 30 5 15 40 148 200 27 12 70 t .

200 .870 5.360 219.290 51.800 12.040 21.DETERMINATION OF POWER RATING OF VARIABLE LOAD EX: Part of Cycle 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Time sec (t) 15 40 30 5 148 200 12 70 520 Required HP 32 74 27 32 66 27 32 27 (HP)2t 15.690 145.115.030 1.120 644.

9 .3x1.115.1=50.3 HP Add 10% tolerance: 46.DETERMINATION OF POWER RATING OF VARIABLE LOAD Peq= Peq= n n √ ∑P2i ti i=1 √ ∑ ti i=1 √ 1.200 520 = √2145 = 46.

Why equipment fails Even though we adopt all the protections? .