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Data Processing

Data
Data consists of raw facts typically
about physical phenomena or
business transactions.
Data are objective measurements of
the attributes (the characteristics) of
entities (such as people, places,
things and events).

Information
Information is a collection of facts
organized (or processed) in such a
way that they have additional value.
Processed data is information.

Module-1
Introduction to computers
Overview Computer
Architecture Input output and
storage devices

What is computer?
- The word computer comes from word
compute, which means to calculate.
- Computer is an electronic device that takes
input from its user, stores, processes data and
generates the required output as per the
processing instructions given to it by the user.

An automatic electronic apparatus


for making calculations or controlling
operations that are expressible in
numerical or logical terms.(Oxford
Dictionary)

Overview Of Computer

Generation Of Computers
Characteristics of Computers
Limitation of Computer
Classification of Computer

Generations of computers

5 Main generations

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

First Generation( 1942-1955)


Second Generation( 1955-1964)
Third Generation( 1964-1975)
Fourth Generation( 1975-1989)
Fifth Generation (1989-Present)

First generation(1942-1955)
Hardware: Vacuum Tubes
Software: Machine Language (Binary Language)
Features
-The vacuum tube computers were very big in
size.
-These computers use to dissipate lot of heat.
-Rate of failure was more as vacuum tubes burn
out very frequently.
-Electric power consumption was very large.
-Air conditioning required
-used for scientific purposes
Examples: ENIAC, EDVAC, EDSAC, UNIVAC 1

Second Generation(19551964)
Hardware: Transistors
Software: High Level Languages, eg: FORTRAN,
COBOL
Features are
- Very small in size as compared to first
generation.
- Dissipate lesser heat than first generation
- Rate of failure was lesser than vacuum tubes
computers.
- Electric power consumption was lesser than
first generation.

- Used for commercial purposes


- Air-conditioning required.
Examples: LARC (Livermore Atomic
Research Computer)

Third Generation
Computers(1964-1975)
Hardware: Integrated Circuits(IC)
Software: High Level Languages, eg: PASCAL,
BASIC, VISUAL BASIC, C, C++, Java
Main features
-more compact as compared to second generation.
-these computers use to dissipate lesser heat than
second generation.
-Failure of IC was rare.
-Electronic power consumption was far lesser.
-Different languages were developed.

Used for both scientific and


commercial purposes
Air-conditioning required
Examples: Mainframe, Minicomputers

Fourth Generation(1975-1989)
Hardware: Microprocessor made up of
LSI and VLSI.
Software: Advanced Java, HTML, XML,
SQL
Features
-More compact as compared to third
generation.
-These computers use to dissipate lesser
heat than third generation.

-Failure rare is negligible


-Air-conditioning is not required.
-Electric power consumption was far
lesser.
-Sophisticated languages like query
languages are developed.
Examples: Personal Computers

Fifth Generation (1989-Present)


Hardware: Ultra Scale Large Integration
(USLI), optical disks
Software: Artificial Intelligence, PROLOG,
OPSS, Mercury
Features
- Less prone to hardware failure
- User- friendly features
- Air-conditioning not required
Examples: Portable PCs, Laptop, Palmtop

Characteristics of
Computers
1. Speed: Computer is very fast and accurate device. It
can
process millions and millions of instructions within
seconds.
2. Accuracy: Computer results are highly accurate.
3. Memory: Computers have a large amount of memory to
hold a very large amount of data or information.
4. Programmed Intelligence: Computer themselves as
such are dumb terminals. But they are programmed in
such a way that they can perform those operations which
have been fed into them in the form of executable
programs.

5. Diligence: Computer is free from problems like


lack of
concentration, and confusions etc. Computer may
never be confused like humans.
6. Versatility: We can perform many different
types of tasks on computer. One moment it might
be busy in calculating the statistical data for
annual performance evaluation of a business
organization and next moment it might be
working on playing movies.
7. Power of Remembrance: Unlike humans,
computer can
store things for unlimited period of time

Types of Computers
There are three basic kinds of
computers:
Analog computers
Digital Computers
Hybrid computer

Analog computers
Analog computers are analog devices. That
is, they have continuous states rather than
discrete numbered states.
Generally used in industrial process controls
and to measure physical quantities such as
pressure, temperature etc.
Performs computations using electric
resistance, voltage etc.
Operating speed is faster than digital
computer but memory capacity is less.

Analog Computer

Digital Computer
A digital computer uses discrete states.
A binary digital computer uses two
discrete states, such as
positive/negative, high/low, on/off, used
to represent the binary digits zero and
one.
Digital computer stores data in the form
of digits.
Commonly used for data processing and
problem solving using specific programs.

Hybrid Computer
Is a mixture of analog and digital
computer.
Some functions were performed in
digital part and some in analog part.
Used to process both continuous and
discrete data.
Generally used for weather
forecasting and industrial process
control.

Difference between Analog and


Digital computer
Analog Computer

Digital Computer

1. Contains a huge
network of electronic
components
2. Widely used in
engineering and
scientific jobs
3. It is costly
4. Suitable for
programming

1. Contains less
electronic
components
2. Used in commercial
purposes.
3. Less costly
4.
Difficult for
programming

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Classification based on
processing and storing
capabilities and size

Micro computers
Mini computers
Main frame computers
Super computers
Note book/Laptop
Tablet PC
PDA

1.Micro computers

Small processing computers and can do


a variety of jobs such as storage of data,
calculations, control and output.
Meant for single individuals
Also called personal computers / PCs.
I st Microcomputer- IBM PC
Small in size and cost is less compared to
others

Characteristics of Micro-Computer
1. Speed: 100 Kilo instructions per
second
2. Word length: 8 to 16 bits
3. Storage: 64 kilobytes to 640 kilobytes
4. Functions: Word processing,
Graphics, Science etc.
5. Peripherals used: Floppy disks, hard
disks, key board, V.D.U Printers.

2.Mini Computers

Fabricated for general purposes.


Smaller in size.
Commonly used for business, education
and government depts.
1st Minicomputer introduced by Digital
Equipment Corporation(DEC)


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Characteristics of Mini Computer


Speed: 500 Kilo instructions per second
Word length: 16 bits
Storage: 256 Kilo bytes to 1024 Kilo
Bytes
Functions: Engineering, Scientific
Peripherals used: Line printers,
Hard disc, Magnetic tapes

3.Main frame Computers

More powerful.
All high level languages are available for
main frame computers.
Can be used in banks, insurance
companies, hospitals and railways.
It placed in central location with several
user terminals connected to it, and
terminals act as access stations.

Characteristics Of Mainframe Computer


1. Speed: 1000 to 10000 Kilo instructions
per second
2. Word length: 32 to 60 bits
3. Storage: 2 Mega Bytes to 16 Mega Bytes
4. Functions: Scientific, engineering,
designs, railway and airlines
reservations etc.
5. Peripherals used: Hard disc,
Line printer, Laser Printer.

4. Super Computers

Most powerful and expensive computer.


Very fast in operations
Designed for complicated scientific jobs
Main users- Military organizations, major
R&D centres, chemical laboratories and
universities
Manufactures of Super Computers IBM,
Silicon Graphics, Fujitsu and Intel.

Characteristics Of Super Computers


1. Speed: 10000 Kilo instructions per
second
2. Word length: 64 to 96 bits
3. Storage: 8 Mega Bytes to 64 Mega Bytes
4. Functions: Space research, weather,
designing
5. Peripherals used: Hard disk,
Laser Printer or very high speed printers

5. Notebook
Popularly known as laptop
Battery operated personal
computers.
Portable
Have large storage space

6. Tablet PC
Is a mobile computer looks like a
writing slate but uses a stylus pen or
your finger tip to write on the touch
screen.

7. PDA
Personal Digital Assistant
Is a small palm sized hand held
computer which has a small colour
touch screen with audio and video
features.

Components of Computer
Components or entities of computers
can be classified into two broad
categories as:
Hardware
Software

Hardware
Hardware refers to any physical
component of a computer.
For example, CPU, Monitor, Keyboard,
Hard Disk, Floppy Disk, Printer, etc.
are physical components and thus, is
hardware.

Software
Software refers to the programs, which are
required to operate the computer.
An analogy of hardware can be the book,
which you are reading, and then software
would be the text written on this book.
Another analogy could be brain is
hardware but memory stored in brain is
software.
E.g. of software, which you come across
daily, are: Windows, Internet Explorer or
any other Browser, Messenger etc.

Computer Architecture

1.
2.
3.
4.

A computer system has the


following main components:
Input Unit/Devices
Output Unit/Devices
Central Processing Unit includes
ALU and CU.
Memory Unit/Storage Devices

Organization/ Architecture
of computer
Secondary storage
Input Device

Output Device
Primary storage

Control Unit

ALU

Input Devices
Hardware used
to enter data
and instructions

Input Devices

Input Device
The Input device is used for input the information and
to change this instruction in binary form for
acceptance by the computer.

Mouse
Keyboard
Track ball
Joy Stick
Touch screen

Light Pen
Digitizer
Web Cam
Scanner
Voice input
OMR

1.Keyboard
Keyboard :- It is the CUI (Character user
interface) user friendly device. It contain
alphabets, digits, special character and some
control keys.
Every key board is compatible with standard
101-key keyboard with QWERTY layout.

Types of Keyboard: Serial Keyboard :- A serial keyboard


sends the data ,bit by bit, in a serial
manner these serial data is
converted into the parallel data.
Parallel Keyboard:- While a keyboard
sends the data as a byte in parallel
form and all the bits are sent
simultaneously on different lines.

Keys
Function Keys: 10-12 F keys at the top of
the key board
Arrow keys, Page Up, Page Down, Home,
and End-known as cursor movement keys
as it move the cursor around onscreen.
Ctrl and Alt keys: these keys make the other
keys on the keyboard act different from the
way they act eg: Ctrl+S shortcut to save
Esc Save: Can be use to back out of or quit
whatever you are currently doing

Print Screen/SysRq: this key send a


copy of your screen to your printer. In
windows, this sends the screen
image to the windows clipboard, a
temporary storage area for data.
Pause/ Break: It used to stop your
computer from performing the same
task over and over again.

2. Mouse
Used to position your cursor,
navigate through documents, enter
commands and more.
Functions
- Pointing
- Clicking
- Dragging

3.Track ball & Space ball


Basically an upside down mouse.
Instead of sliding the mouse, we can
roll the ball.
Doesnt require much desk space.

4. Bar Code Reader


It scans a bar code image and converts it
into an alphanumeric values which is fed
into the computer to which the bar code
reader is connected.
The laser bean scanning technology has
been used for reading bar codes.

5.Joy stick
Used for playing arcade games in
computer.
It has a base with a lever sticking out
of it and lever has a few buttons for
firing weapons and accelerating.

6. Touch Screen
A touch screen is an electronic
visual display that can detect the
presence and location of a touch
within the display area.

7. Light Pen
A light pen looks like a pen light with a
cable attaching it to the system unit.
We can point the pen directly at objects
on the screen and then press the pen tip
against the screen to click or drag.

8. Graphic Tablet
It is an input device used to create graphics.
It is commonly used at CAD terminals,
engineering workstations and other data entry
sites.
It contains 100 of copper wire embedded below
the surface. A stylus (an electronic pen) is
provided for drawing.

9. Web Cam
A webcam is a video capture device
connected to a computer or computer
network, often using a USB port or, if
connected to a network, ethernet or Wi-Fi.
The most popular use is for video
telephony, permitting a computer to act as
a videophone or video conferencing station.

10.Scanner

Scanner is an optical device that can input any


graphical matter and display it back.
The common optical scanner devices are Magnetic
Ink Character Recognition (MICR), Optical Mark
Reader (OMR) and Optical Character Reader (OCR).
1.Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR): - This is
widely used by banks to process large volumes of
cheques and drafts.
2.Optical Mark Reader (OMR): used for checking OMR
sheets.
3.Optical Character Recognition (OCR): - This technique
unites the direct reading of any printed character.

Output device
Hardware

that conveys
information
to one or more people.
It is an electro mechanical
device
- accepts processed data
from the computer
- transforms data into user
understandable form

What is an output device?

Output Device

Monitor
Printer
Plotter
Speakers
Modem

Monitor or VDU (Video Display


Unit)
Monitors also called
display unit
2 types of display
screen technology
i. Cathode Ray Tube
(CRT)
ii.Liquid Crystal
Display(LCD)

i) Cathode Ray Tube:


Electron gun -electronic beamcreates image falls on a phosphate
coated glass display screen.

ii) Liquid Crystal Display:


CRT is replaced with LCD
LCD make monitors more compact
and slimmer.
Low energy consumption than CRT

Printer
It is an important output device
which can be used to get a printed
copy of the processed text or result
on paper
Printers are evaluated on the basis of
image quality, speed and cost of
operation.

Types of printers
i) Depending on their speed, printing
technology and printing quality,
printers are classified into,
i. impact
ii.non-impact printers

Impact Printers
using oldest printing technology
Impact printers use the familiar
typewriter approach of hammering a
typeface against the paper and inked
ribbon.
Common forms are dot matrix, daisy
wheel and line printers

Non-impact Printers
Non-impact printers do not hit or
impact a ribbon to print.
They use electro-static chemicals
and ink-jet technologies.
Laser printers, thermal printers,
page printers and Ink-jet printers are
of this type.

Plotter
Used to produce larger pictures or images such as
-drawing graphics,
- making maps,
- construction plans for buildings,
- plotting contour lines
- detailing of civil engineering structures or
blue
prints for machine components.

Types of Plotter
2 types on the basis of technology,
i. Pen Plotter/ Flat bed Plotter: draw
images with multi coloured pens
ii.Electrostatic Plotter/ Drum Plotter:
work on same technology as laser
printers

MODEM
Modulator Demodulator
Both an input and out put device
A modem is a device that connects your
computer to the outside world.
2 types: External modem and internal
modem.

External modem: it is connected to


the computer through a serial port
and to the telephone system with a
standard telephone jack. It indicates
transmission of data.
Internal modem: is a circuit board
that is plugged into one of the
computers expansion slot. It doesnt
indicate transmission of data.

What is the system unit?

The Case
containing
electronic
components
used to process
data

CPU

The CPU is attached to the Main


memory and this combination is the
main basis of the modern general
purpose computer.
It has 2 main tasks
- to control the fetching and
interpretation of instructions from
memory and the movement of data
between memory and the CPU.
- to carry out the instructions

CPU have two main component


1. Control Unit
2. Arithmetic Logic Unit

Control Unit
It is a most complex unit and work as a
Traffic police.
It controls
-the fetching of instructions from main
memory
-execution of the instructions
-passing of data to and from the
Arithmetic/ Logical Unit for computation.

Arithmetic Logic Unit


-It perform logical and Arithmetic
functions like Add, Subtract,
Multiply, Divide, Compare, Shift and
rotate.

What are two main components on the


motherboard?
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Also called a processor

Memory

4. Memory Unit/ Storage


Devices
Consists of

A. Main Memory or Primary


storage

B. External Memory/ Auxiliary


Memory/ Secondary Storage

Memory
Memory
Primary memory
RAM

DRAM

Secondary Memory

ROM
PROM
EPROM

SRAM

EEPROM

A. Main Memory or Primary


storage
Main memory stores programs and data
when computer is running
Memory is a set of chips that stores data or
instructions.
Data can be stored temporarily or
permanently.
PCs use several different kinds of memory
but the two very important are Read only
Memory (ROM) and Random Access Memory
(RAM).

Random Access Memory


(RAM):
Part of memory can be accessed for
reading and writing.
RAM holds data and instructions which the
CPU needs to work with.
Fast access
This data is held temporarily, it is volatile,
its contents are erased when the computer
is switched off or power failure occurs.

Read Only Memory (ROM):


- Memories can only be read, and
not possible to write the data.
- ROMs can be written only at the
time of manufacture
- It permanently stores its data even
when computer is switched off.
- It is non-volatile because its
contents are never erased.

Cache Memory
Are small , high speed memories that
function between CPU and main
memory
Faster than main memory
Very costly

B. External Memory/
Auxiliary Memory
Also called secondary storage
External memory holds large
quantities of information too large for
storage in main memory.
It used to keep a permanent copy of
programs and data.

Storage
The process of saving data and
instructions permanently is
known as storage. Data has to
be fed into the system
All data and instructions are
stored here before and after
processing.

Storage device
1) Magnetic drives
a.
b.
c.
d.

Hard disk
Floppy
Zip drive
Magnetic Tapes

2) Optical drives
a. CD ROM
b. HD-DVD
c. Blu-Ray

3) Solid state devices


- Flash Memory
- Smart Card
- Solid State disks

Magnetic Storage Devices


Most common form of storage
They are magnetized storage media on which digital or
analog information is recorded as electro magnetic
symbols.
All magnetic drives work the same

Working Magnetic Storage Devices


Data storage and retrieval
Media is covered with iron oxide
Read/write head is a magnet
Magnet writes charges on the media
Positive charge is a 1
Negative charge is a 0

Magnet reads charges


Drive converts charges into binary

Magnetic Storage Devices


Floppy Disk
Hard Disk

Tape

What is a hard disk?


Provides greater storage
capacity than a
floppy disk, Zip disk, or
USB flash drive

Illustrated Hard Disk

What is a floppy disk?


Thin, flexible disk
enclosed in rigid
plastic shell
Low capacity and
cheap
Highly prone to dust
and scratching

Zip drives
Similar to floppy disks but with thicker
magnetic disks.
Introduced to overcome the
liumitations of floppy disks
Faster than floppy disks

Magnetic Tapes:
Used in the 1980s and 1990s as back
up devices
Due to their slow speed they are
become virtually obsolete.

Optical drives
Is a type of storage medium that
stores content in digital form, which
is read and written by a low density
laser .

What is a compact disc?


Flat, round, portable metal disc
CD-ROM
DVD-ROM

HD DVD
High density mostly single sided,
double layered optical disks which can
hold up to 15 GB on a single layer and
30 GB on a dual layer disc.

Blu-Ray
High density optical storage media
Mainly used for high definition video
and storing data

What is a USB flash drive?


Provides much
greater storage
capacity than a
floppy disk or
Zip disk
Small and
lightweight enough
to be transported
on a keychain or
in a pocket

Solid State Devices

Data is stored physically


No magnets or laser
Very fast
Eg: Flash memory, Smart Cards and Solid state
disks

Flash memory
Found in cameras and USB drives
Combination of RAM and ROM
Long term updateable storage

Smart cards

Credit cards with a chip


Chip stores data
Eventually may be used for cash
Hotels use for electronic keys

Solid-state disks

Large amount of SDRAM


Extremely fast
Volatile storage
Require battery backups

Computer Software
What is software?

Consists
Consists of
of aa series
series
of
of instructions
instructions that
that
tells
tells the
the computer
computer
what
what to
to do
do

Also
Also called
called aa
program
program

What is system software?


Programs that control or maintain the
operations of the computer and its devices

What is application software?


Programs that perform
specific tasks for users
Word
Processing

Spreadsheet

Database

Presentation
Graphics

Who is a programmer?
Someone who develops application
or system software
Programmer
writes
instructions to
direct computer to
process data into
information

Resulting Internet application

Javascript program

Limitations of Computer
1. It cannot think intelligently like
human being.
2. It can neither take decision nor can
correct wrong instructions
3. It is maintained and updated by a
programmer or user
4. It has no feelings and ethics
5. It cannot work without power