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TRANSFER

By Nur Hashimah Alias

Heat Transfer

The transfer of energy in the form of heat occurs in many

Heat transfer often occurs in combination with other

separation processes, such as drying of foods, alcohol

distillation, burning of fuel, and evaporation.

Why it occurs: because of a temperature-difference

driving force and heat flows from the high to the lowtemperature region

Mode of heat transfer : Conduction, Convection and

Radiation

Conduction

Occurs when a temperature gradient exists through a

Heat is conducted by transfer of energy of motion

between adjacent molecules.

Specifically energy is transferred by free electron:metallic

solids

Example ??

Convection

Occurs within a moving fluid or between a solid surface

temperatures.

A fluid is forced to flow past a solid surface by

mechanical, natural and free convection : warmer or coller

fluid next to solid surface causes a circulation because of

(a density difference resulting from the temperature

differences in the fluid)

Example:???

Radiation

Radiation is the transfer of energy through SPACE by

No physical medium is needed for its propagation

The same law: transfer of light that govern the radiant

transfer of heat.

Solid and liquid tend to absorb the radiation transferred to

them, so radiation is primarily important in transfer

through space and gases

Important in transport of heat to earth from the sun

Examples:??

Heat Transfer

(Rate of heat in)+(Rate of generation of heat) =

Based on Fouriers Law (assuming heat by conduction)

Applied to all three main types :momentum, heat and mass

transfer

Heat conduction in fluids and solids follow equation:

: heat-transfer rate in x direction in Watts (J/s)

A : cross-sectional area normal to the direction of flow of

heat (m2)

x : distance in (m)

K : thermal conductivity (W/m.k)

Quantity : Temperature gradient in the x direction

Minus sign : required because if the heat flow is positive in

a given direction, the temperature decrease in this

direction.

Fouriers Law Equation can be integrated for the case of

vary with temperature;

Example 1

Calculate the heat loss per m2 of surface area for an

board, where the inside temperature is 352.7K and

outside temperature is 297.1K. Given that the thermal

conductivity of fiber insulating board is 0.0048W/m.K.

Answer: 105.1 W/m2

Example 2

Calculate the heat loss per m2 of surface area for a

where the outside temperature is 299.9K and the inside

temperature 276.5K. The wall is composed of 25.4 mm of

corkboard having k of 0.0433 W/m.K.

Answer : 39.9 W/m2

Thermal Conductivity

Gases have quite low values of thermal conductivity, liquids

Thermal conductivity varies moderately with temperature and

Thermal Conductivity

Mechanism of thermal conduction

1. Gases : the molecules are continuous random motion,

momentum

2. Liquid : Similar with gas (higher energy molecules collide

with lower energy molecules) but the molecules are packed

closely together. Hence, molecular force exerted a strong effect

on energy exchange.

3. Solid : two mechanisms

by free electron which move to metal lattice

b) Present in all solids : heat is conducted by transmission of

energy of vibration between adjacent atom.

When the fluid outside the solid surface is in forced or natural

convective motion, the rate of heat transfer from solid to the fluid

expressed as:

: Average or bulk temperature of fluid flowing past (K)

h : Convective heat transfer coefficient (W/m2)

Coefficient h is a function of the system geometry, fluid properties,

When a fluid flows past a surface there is a thin (almost stationary

resistance to heat transfer. Hence, h also call as film coefficient.

1. Conduction through a flat slab or wall

For a flat slab or wall where the cross sectional area A

)

If the thermal conductivity is not constant but varies linearly

with temperature:

temperature plot.

In transport processes, the rate of a transfer process

2. Conduction through a Hollow Cylinder

In many industries, heat is being transferred through the walls of

thick-walled cylinder, such as pipe that may or may not be

insulated.

Considering the heat is flowing radially from the inside

The cross sectional area normal to the heat flow is;

Rearranging and integrating;

Multiplying numerator and denominator by

Where,

is the area log mean

In engineering practice, if the linear mean area of is

Example 3

A thick walled cylindrical tubing hard rubber having an

inside radius of 5 mm and the outside radius of 20mm is

being used as temporary cooling coil in a bath. Ice water is

flowing rapidly inside and the inside wall temperature is

274.9K. The outside surface temperature is 297.1K. A total

of 14.65W must be removed from the bath by the cooling

coil. How many m of tubing are needed. Given that the

thermal conductivity k=0.151W/m.K

Answer: 0.964m

Since 15.2W is removed for 1m length;

3. Conduction Through a Hollow Sphere

distance , where r is the radius of the SPHERE;

The cross sectional area normal to the heat flow is

1. Plane walls in series

The temperature profile in the three materials A, B and C

are shown.

Solving for

Rearrange the equation;

Example 5

A cold storage room is constructed of an inner layer

of

12.7 mm of pine, a middle layer of 101.6 mm of cork

board and an outer layer of 76.2 mm concrete. The wall

surface temperature is 255.4K inside the cold room and

297.1 K at the outside of the concrete. Use conductivities

of 0.151, 0.0433 and 0.762W/m.k for pine, cork board and

concrete respectively. Calculate the heat loss in Watt for

1m2 and the temperature at the interface between the

wood and cork board.

2. Multilayer cylinders

Heat transfer often occurs through multilayers of cylinder, e.g : heat

is being transferred through the walls of an insulated pipe.

it.

The temperature drop is across material A, across

material B and across material C

Heat transfer rate, q will be the same for each layer

(steady state).

Example 6

A thick-walled tube of stainless steel (A) having a k=21.63

OD is covered with a 0.0254m thick layer of an insulation

(B), k=0.2423 W/m.K. The inside wall temperature of the

pipe is 811K and the outside surface of the insulation is at

310.8K. For a 0.305m length of pipe, calculate the heat

loss and also the temperature at the interface between

the metal and the insulation.

Answer: 331.7 W, 805.5K

Application of heat transfer concept can be found in

(multistage separator, distillation column, packed column),

direct fired heater, heat exchanger, furnace, reboiler, etc.

General heat transfer equation is:

q = mCpT

(J/kg.oC) and T is the temperature different (oF ) or (oC).

Heat transfer for heater-treater equipment is:

where Qoil is the oil flow rate (BOPD) or (m 3/hr), and (SG)oil

is the specific gravity of oil relative to water.

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