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Lecture Review 22

Which of the following is not an organ of the urinary


system:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Kidneys
Liver
Ureters
Urinary Bladder
Urethra
Answer: Liver

Which of the following is not a


function of the urinary system?
1. Remove waste from the
bloodstream.
2. Storage and excretion of urine.
3. Regulation of blood pressure and
volume.
4. The cleansing and decomposition of
blood.
Answer: Number 4.
5. Secretion of erythropoietin to
regulate RBC production.

True/False questions concerning the


kidney:
1. The kidneys are intraperitoneal,
meaning they are found within the
pericardial cavity.
2. The right kidney is generally about 2
cm above the left one.
3. The kidneys are surround and
suspended by fat.
4.
The adrenal gland rests below the
Answers:
1. False.
They are
retroperitoneal
againstseveral
the
kidney
and
secretes
posterior abdominal wall.
2. False.
The left kidney is about 2 cm above
hormones.
the right.
3. True. Mesentery.

Locate where each


of the following
structure of the
kidney are:

2
1

1.Renal capsule
2.Renal cortex
3.Renal medulla
4.Renal columns

6
7
8
9

5.Renal pyramids
6.Renal papilla
7.Minor calyx

(1 per pyramid)

8.Major calyx

(2-3 per kidney)

9.Renal pelvis
10.Ureter

10

Interlobar artery

Arcuate artery
Interlobular artery

Segmental
artery

Name the
missing
areas of
renal blood
flow:

Renal artery

Renal vein

Interlobar vein

Arcuate vein

Interlobular vein

Nephrons are the functional unit of the kidney.


Approximately how many nephrons do you have per
kidney?

1.
2.
3.
4.

1 million
100,000 thousand
1 thousand
10 million
Answer: 1 million

Do you have more cortical or


juxtamedullary nephrons?
Answer: Cortical (85%)

12

3
5

Cortex

What do each of the


labeled numbers
represent?
Medulla

Answers:
1. Glomerus
2. Glomerular capsule
3. Proximal convoluted tubule
(PCT)
4. Nephron loop (loop of henle)

Collectin
g ducts

Renal papilla

Name the structures of nephron blood


supply:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Arcuate artery
Interlobular artery

5
6

Afferent arteriole

Glomerulus
Efferent arteriole

8
9

Peritubular
Cappilaries

Medulla

Vasa recta
Interlobular vein
Arcuate vein

Cortex

Collecting duct

Fill in the blanks:


The renal corpuscle is the site offiltration
___________.

afferent arterial is wider and brings filtrate to the


The __________
glomerular capsule as where theefferent
_________ arterial takes
filtrated fluid away from the glomerular capsule.
Bowmans

Another name for the glomerular capsule is __________


capsule.

podocytes

Cells surrounding the fenestrated capillaries are known as


__________ and form filtration slits to help form the filtation
membrane.

What is the purpose of the


juxtaglomerular apparatus?
1. Regulate urine storage
2. Regulate the amount of glucose put back
into veins
3. Regulate blood volume and pressure
4. Regulate
hormone distribution
Answer: regulate blood volume and pressure.
The juxtaglomerular apparatus is found where an afferent
arteriole and the distal convoluted tubule touch. What do the
numbered structures represent on the picture to the right?
Answer:
1. Macula densa cells
2. Juxtaglomerular cells

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Fill in the missing steps of urine formation:


Afferent Arteriole

Efferent Arteriole

Glomerulus
Glomerular
Capsule

Renal Tubule

Filtration
Filtration

Peritubular
Capillary

Tubular
Reabsorption

Tubular Secretion

To venous
system

Urine Excretion

What percentage of fluid flows down


the renal tubule after filtration?
1.
2.
3.
4.

20
40
60
80

Answer: 20%. 80% is sent down the efferent


arteriole before tubular reabsorption and secretion
in the peritubular capillary.

Therefore the equation for urine excretion is as


follows
Urine =
Materials filtered
Materials reabsorbed
+ Materials secreted

Match the structure with the


definition:
Proximal Convoluted
Tubule
Nephron Loop
Distal Convoluted Tubule
Collecting Duct

Reabsorption of sodium, chloride and


water takes place here.
Secretion of potassium and hydrogen
ions. Is made up of simple cuboidal
epithelium with few microvilli. Some
water reabsorption.
Very active reabsorption of nutrients,
electrolytes and water. Made up of
simple cuboidal epithelium with a lot
of microvilli.
Variable reabsorption of water. Fluid
leaving this duct is called urine.

Fill in the missing steps of urine


flow:
Collecting duct
Minor calyx (1 per
pyramid)

Major calyx (2-3 per


kidney)

Renal pelvis
Ureter
Urinary Bladder
Urethra

The ureters are retroperitoneal


organs.
1. True
2. False

Answer:
True

Can you name the three layers of the ureters (what they
are made of)?
Mucosa-transitional epithelium
1. Muscularis-longitudinal and circular smooth muscle
2. layers
3. Adventitia-connective tissue

Which structure of the urinary


bladder functions as a funnel to
direct urine into the urethra as the
bladder contracts?
1.
2.
3.
4.

Mucosa
Trigone
Spindel
Urether Valve
Answer: Trigone

How many layers does the urinary bladder have.


What is the difference between urinary bladder and
ureter
tissues?
1. Mucosa
transitional epithelium
2. Submucosa dense irregular connective
tissue
3. Muscularis detrusor muscle

1
2

internal

Urethra:

1. The __________ urethral sphincter thickens the detrusor muscle. It is made of smooth muscle and is therefore involuntary.
2. The __________ urethral sphincter is a portion of the urogenital diaphragm and is made up of skeletal muscle, therefore under voluntary control.

external

Name the three


regions of the male
urethra:
Prostatic urethra
Membranous
urethra

Spongy urethra

Micturition, more commonly known


urination is controlled by 2 divisions.
State whether each division stimulates
or inhibits micturition.
stimulate
The parasympathetic nervous system
__________
s
micturition.
inhibits
The sympathetic nervous system __________
micturition.

Name the three stages of the micturition reflex:


1.
2.
3.

Stretch receptors in the bladder are


stimulated
Internal and external urethral sphincters
relax
Detrusor and abdominal muscles contract

Fill in the blanks:


Between weeks 6-9 of pregnancy, the
___________ migrates from the pelvic
metanephro
cavity to the ________ portion of the
s
pelvic
lumbar
_________ cavity.
The pronephros and mesonephros both
degenerate
_________ during this time period.

Match the disorders of the urinary


system with their descriptions below:
Urinary Tract Infection
(UTI)

Urinary Incontinence

Urolithiasis (Kindey
Stones)

Inability to control the expulsion


of urine.
Could be from multiple types of
inflammation: urethritis, cystitis,
pyelonepritis. Associated with
dysuria, urgency, fever, nausea,
back pain.
Causes include inadequate fluid
intake and diet. Can be associate
with small stones that are easily
passed or large ones that can
become stuck in urinary tract.

Renal Failure Questions:


You can donate a kidney while still living. (True/
Answer: True. You only need one kidney
false)
to function normally and therefore can
donate one.

What type of drug must you take if you have had


Immunosuppressants.
Forlong?
the rest of
a kidneyAnswer:
transplant?
For
how
your life.
Answer:
Dialysis
blood iscan
cycled
What is another way that
renal
failure
be
through a machine several times a
treated.
week.

Name the type of kidney variation or


anomaly that may occur during
embryology
Pelvic
_____________
is caused when the
Kidney
metanephros/kidney never migrates from the
pelvic cavity to the abdominal cavity.

Renal
Agenesis
_____________
occurs when the metanephros never
becomes the kidney and instead degenerates.
Horseshoe
Kidney
________________
occurs when the 2 kidney fuse
together while moving up towards the abdominal
cavity.