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EMERGING INTERFACE

BETWEEN POLITICAL
PROCESS AND EDUCATION

UNIT-3

Content of the Unit..


Action plans and programme implementation and
essentiality of political support,
Political will and effort, Macro level requirements,
Research and financial support: research and feedback
for policy analysis and planning,
Grant-in-aid and developmental grants for
implementing educational policy,
Role of planning commission, Education as key area of
public policy-relevance, essentiality,
Right to education, National and state education
policies and their formulation-political decision making
process,
Constitutional provisions and educational policies

After the completion of this Unit,


You all will..
Describe about action plans and programme
implementation
Justify the essentiality of political support,
Write down the meaning of political will and effort,
Identify the macro level requirements,
Explain about research and financial support
Highlight the importance of research and feedback for
policy analysis and planning,
Analyze the significance of grant-in-aid and developmental
grants for implementing educational policy,
Depict role of planning commission, Education as key area
of public policy-relevance and essentiality,
Write a note on right to education,
Enlist national and state education policies and describe
about their formulation-political decision making process,
Examine the significance of constitutional provisions and
educational policies

Action Plan and programme


implementation (Action plan as
tool for Policy Implementation)
and essentiality of Political
Support

What is Action plan????....


A sequence ofstepsthat must be
taken, oractivitiesthat must be
performed well, for
astrategytosucceed.
An actionplanhas threemajor elements:
(1) Specifictasks: what will be done
and by whom.
(2)Time horizon: when will it be done.
(3)Resource allocation: what
specificfundsare available for
specific activities. Also called
actionprogram.

Action Plan- EFA


EFA Action Plan is
commitment of Government to implement EFA
framework
developed with support of UNESCO.
prepared using participatory approach from
November 2001 to May 2003
approved by PM in July 2003
praised by international community and national
institutions

GOALS OF EFA
Goal 1: Expand early childhood care and education
Goal 2: Provide free and compulsory primary
education for all
Goal 3: Promote learning and life skills for young
people and adults
Goal 4: Increase adult literacy by 50 per cent
Goal 5: Achieve gender parity by 2005, gender
equality by 2015
Goal 6: Improve the quality of education

EFA Action Plan

Access
Quality
Management

Situation Analysis

Goals

Objectives

Targets

Action Programs &


components

ECCE
Primary
Sec.
NFE

Policy Analysis for the


National Report
Utilizing evidence-based policy making
Use of data and statistics to analyze
impact of national policy
Focus on analysis of disparities
between social groups and geographic
areas
Focus on gaps in implementation of
national policy at the sub-national
level
Focus on equitable access to quality
education

Evidence-based Policy Making


GATHERING INFORMATION
on indicators, policies & plans from
surveys, research documents, reports
ANALYSIS
of root causes &
their linkages
POLICY DECISION
on areas of
Education Reform

EFA National Report

Policy Cycle
2. Institutionalization

1. Formulation of Policy

5. Monitoring,
Evaluation &
Assessment

3. Implementation

4. Impact

1. Formulation of Policy

Targets &
Goals

Budgeting
& Finance

Implementation
Agencies

Beneficiaries

2. Institutionalization

( i.e. how to implement it through various


institutions)

National
Constitution
(thru const.)

Legislation
& Laws
(legal
directions
for
institutions )

Budgeting &
Financing
(centre/state)

Agency
Implementation

3.

Budgetary
Allocation
cash/
provision of
material

Mode of
Deliveryformal/Nonformal

Implementation

Curriculum
& Material

Teacher
Training- as
required

4. Impact
Promotion of Gender
& Social Equality

Equal Learning
Opportunities

Results/Outcomes

5. Monitoring,
Evaluation &
Assessment
Monitoring of
Implementation

Evaluation of
Strategy
(outcome/
performance of
policy)

Assessment of
Outcomes(how
outcomes can
be improved)

Political will and effort

POLITICAL WILL
Political will can be thought of as support from
political leaders.
Enough support from political leaders is needed----- to bring about policy change.
---to sustain the change

In fact for the implementation of any


educational policy, political will and effort is
required

Elements of political will


Political want- desire to perform political task
(peoples representative and want to serve society)
Political can- efficiency of political task
(capacity)
Political must.- necessary existing points to be in
political task (necessary for existence of pol.
Parties)

Need of political will


To make policy on various issues-Initiative
on the part of political parties to understand
underlying problems and issues in the society
To make laws according to the requirements
on the subjects that are included in
different lists
Implementation of programmes and policies
Introduce legal and regulatory reform to
facilitate participatory governance,( rules
for system to work; decentralization )
Create platforms and mechanisms for
participatory governance, (machinery)
Allocate adequate resources

Macro Level requirements

Planning

Planning
Planning implies chalking out a
direction for future actions to
achieve pre-determined objectives
through the optimum use of available
resources.
Planning exercise can be attempted
at different levels

Macro level planning may concern itself with targets and


priorities at federal/ governmental level
-macro plans are developed atthe level which is just above
the sub-national level i.e. state and national level
Micro Level planning may modify its targets and priorities
in view of the local/ social, economic and cultural conditions.
-In micro level planning, educational plans are prepared at
the sub-national level, such as, institution, village, block and
district level

Macro level requirements in educational planning


Keeping in view the planning requirements, information is needed in certain
areas; also focuses on limitations and gaps in the existing information
system.Data gaps are grouped under different headings,--- such as,
demographic and literacy,
education,
Institutions
Enrolment
teachingpersonnel /Teaching staff
Building and area
Equipment
Non-teaching Staff ( administrative and supervisory staff)
Examination results
Financial statistics( Income and expenditure)
Miscellaneous Information

Demography and Literacy Data


A detailed list of items on which information is required for
educational planning includes--.Number of districts/tehsils/administrative and educational blocks;
Population by age and sex, school-specific age (6-10, 11-13 & 6-13
years), regions, castes and economic levels, sex ratio, density of
population, mortality (death) andfertility (birth) rates;
Distribution of habitations according to provision of primary, middle
and secondary schoolingfacilities, walking distance and
populationslabs; habitationswithout schooling facilities;
Number of villages/towns in different population slabsand
Number of literates and illiterates by age and sex separately for
rural and urban areas and scheduled caste and scheduled tribe
population.

Education
(a)Institutions
Information is collected on the following-
capacity and utilization of existing institutions;
number, intake and location of teachers training institutions;
institution/teacher ratio
institution/pupil ratio
hostel facilities with intake capacity and actual enrolment;
number of single teacher primary schools;
number of schools without blackboards;
and number of schools with/without building,
type of buildings and vocational and technical institutions.

(b)Enrolment
Both aggregate and grade-wise enrolment together
By age i.e. age-grade matrix,
sex (boys/girls),
grades (I to XII),
subjects
area (rural/urban)
institution-wise (primary, middle etc.);
average daily attendance;
enrolment of SC and ST population;
admission data (entry rate) and data on various courses; out-ofschool children in different age-groups,
repeaters and drop-outs by age,
scholarships granted and number of beneficiaries under different
schemes.

(c)Teaching Staff

Teachers by age and sex,


rural/urban,
grades of pay
subjects, qualificationsand experience,
trained and untrained and stage for which employed,
attrition rate,
Operation Blackboard information on teachers
posts sanctioned,
appointed and transferred,
teachers-training institutions,
persons trained and type of training.

(d)Building and Area


Type, ownership and year of construction,
present status;
number and size of rooms with nature of their
utilization and seating capacity;
vacant area available for new or additional
construction;
intake capacity;
availability of drinking water, toilet and electricity
facilities, playground facilities
andOperation Blackboard information on number of
classrooms/buildings sanctioned and constructed.

(e)Equipment
Physical facilities in school library and their
utilization (number of books, average number
of readers etc.),
laboratory equipment,
furniture,
sports material,
audio-visual aids,
additional requirements, and
educational kits and their utilization,
supply and adequacy.

(f)Non-teaching Staff ( administrative and


supervisory staff)
Number and working of inspection and supervisory
staff,
pay scales of non-teaching staff
sex and school-wise supervisions or inspections per
month/year, ( male/female ratio)
persons involved in data collection according to
qualifications and training at different levels.

(g)Examination Results

Examination results of all classes,


Results of National Talent Search
Examination,
Policy of no detention.

(h)Income and Expenditure


School-wise,
scheme-wise,
recurring and non-recurring capital
income and expenditure
Cost on education,
tuition fee,
laboratory fee and other fees etc.

(i)Miscellaneous Information

In addition, miscellaneous information on the following

items is also required which in most of the cases either


not available or very limited information is available:
Parent Teacher/Mother Parent Organisation
Student Union/Organisation
Student Health Services
Sports Facilities
District Institute of Education and Training
State Institute of Educational Management and
Training
Navodaya Vidhyalayas
Total Literacy Campaigns
Distance Education
Teaching Material and Text Books
Village Education Committees
Number of Working Days in an Academic Year
Mid-day Meal Scheme and
On-going Programme/Projects.

Education as a key area of


Public Policy-Relevance
and Essentiality

Introduction
Indian State through itsPublic
policies aims to bring change in
society.
Public policy aims to address
issues of public concern at large.
Public policy is the most
effective mechanism to bring
change at all levels in thesociety

What is public policy?


A Public Policy is a goal oriented course
of action adopted and implemented by
the government bodies and officials in
pursuit of certain objectives or goals of
public interest.
Basically, Public Policies are:
Goal oriented
Decision making process
Governments collective action
Addresses public concerns
Interaction of peoples demands with
power structures

Public Policy
Public policy
includes any policies that are concerned with the public, at
the federal, state, or local government level.
is basically a law or rule that is enforcedbyanylevel
ofgovernment,whethercentral,state orlocal.
Varioustiersofgovernment also formulate a variety of
schemes and programs.

Public policy includes:


schemes, programs, policies, rules, regulations, laws, as well
asjudicial policy-decisions.
Private business decisions, decisions by charitable
organizations, interest groups and other social groups or
individuals are not in themselves public policies.
Public policy can be generally defined as
a system of laws, regulatory measures, courses of action,
and funding priorities concerning a given topic
promulgated ( put into effect officially)by a governmental
entity or its representatives.

Who makes policy?


Publicpolicy is made by different tiers ofgovernment.
Institutions that play a crucial role in policy makingare:
Legislature, Executive and Cabinet
Prime Minister and Prime Ministers Office, NDC and
Planning Commission,
IAS, IPSand IFS officers,Judiciary.

All the abovementionedinstitutions has a unique role to


play inthe formulation of policy
In any society, governmental entities enact laws, make policies, and
allocate resources. This is true at all levels.
It implies that the primary agent of public policy is a government
initiatives sanctioned by government .

Issuesaddressed bypublic policy inIndia


Poverty , Education, Health, Infrastructure, Energy, Rights, Gender,
etc. are issues, based on these issues thereare certaintypes
ofpublic policyframework are made.

Relevance and Essentiality of Public policy in


Education ( connected/ appropriate)
For the sake of public interest and for social welfare and
growth. Thus the study of Public Policy, also called Planned
view of development,
For Development of country
Smooth run of society
Future economic well-being, national security, and social
cohesion are dependent on public policy
For the survival of democracy, it is essential to have growth
enhancing policies, with equity given due recognition.
For addressing moral hazard (danger), ( value crises)
For recognition of the importance of social capital(assets)
The scientific analysis of public policy helps in understanding
the causes and consequences of the policy thereby facilitating
practical solutions to social problems.
A Policy which is formulated and is implemented in a
participative, transparent, open and accountable manner is an
effective public policy serving public interest.

Policy Formulation in
Education

Policy formulation- Hierarchy


Policy-----1. Private
2. Public ---
Foreign policy
Domestic/national
Social
Education
Employment
Social Security
Health (Public health, health care)
National Education Board

The National Education Board (NEB) has a primary role in policy


formulation in education.
It is chaired by the Secretary of Education and has the
responsibility, as defined by theEducation Act, 1995 to advise and
make recommendations to the Minister on such matters relating
to education as he refers to it, and on such other matters relating
to education as seem proper.
Part of MHRD (erstwhile Ministry of Education)

FORMULATION OF EDUCATIONAL POLICY


The Ministry of Education is the main centre for decisionmaking and the formulation of educational policies.
Moreover, the majority of the educational establishments
are controlled by this Ministry.

Role of the Ministry of Education


formulates educational policies according to the political
orientation (direction/course) of the countrys administration.
These policies generate draft-laws (decrees) that are
submitted to Parliament for debate, after which - with
occasional amendments - they become laws.
responsible for implementation and puts into action through
decrees, directives, and circulars at regional and local levels.
follows-up the implementation of these laws and intervenes if
necessary, to adjust or correct their implementation.
decides on almost all the issues that concern teaching,
personnel administration, expenditure, school operation, etc.
responsible for drafting and managing the annual education
budgets.

Bodies and Agencies


In policy formulation various agencies
participate directly or indirectly.

The role of the governmental agencies is direct


while the role of the non-governmental agencies
indirect.
Some of the agencies which take part in policy
formulation are legislature ( law making bodies),
cabinet, state governments, civil servants,
judiciary, boards and commissions, mass media,
political parties, pressure groups and public.

It is essential to examine the role of these


agencies in the formulation of an educational
policy in India.

Cabinet

In the democratic form of government, it is the


constitutional task of the Cabinet to decide the policies
which are to be placed before the legislature for its
sanction.
Members of the Cabinet are the immediate and
proximate (nearby)policy makers". Within the Cabinet it
is said that, the power of the Prime Minister in recent
times has increased.
Prime Minister exerts strong influence over policy
decisions if he has the majority support of members of
the union legislature. Same is the case with the Chief
Minister at the State level.
The Cabinet and the Cabinet Committees play only an
advisory and deliberative role while the real decisions
are taken by the Prime Minister himself.

( heads of various dept which advises Govt.)

Legislature
In a democratic form of government, the
role of the legislature as the prime
policy making is significant.
It role is in legitimizing the policies and
decisions of government, rather than as
an independent policy making unit.

State Government
The Union Government and the State
Governments participate in policy making.
The State Governments formulate policies
and make laws on items mentioned in the
state and concurrent lists.
At the state level, the state legislature and
council of ministers under the leadership of
the Chief Minister and other advisory bodies
participate in the formulation of policies

Boards and Commissions

Various boards and commissions attached to different


ministries like
the Railway Board, the University Grants Commission(UGC), and
the Union Public Service Commission(UPSC)
assists the respective ministries or the cabinet as a whole in
policy formulation when public policy is not in its final stage.

Bureaucracy
Public servants at the top management level assist the ministers
in policy making
The bureaucracy, in the developing countries, plays a dominant
role in policy making
Administrators, both specialists as well as general, are part and
parcel of various policy making bodies like Planning Commission
and other expert bodies

Judiciary

The Judiciary is also regarded as an important agency in


process.

the policy making

In the United States and India, constitution entitle the Supreme Courts to exercise
judicial review.
When going out of law, judiciary keeps a check

Mass Media
Mass media is an important means of communication between the citizen and the
government, and so helps in shaping their reactions to each other's decisions.
It communicates information to the citizens about the decision of the government.

Political Parties
Political parties are an important part of the machinery for policymaking.
The party system is itself a source of policy making in many
democracies.( debate and discussion)

Decision making

Decision making
Steps involved in policy making--- Agenda setting-related to issue
Decision making
Implementation

Decision making is one of steps of policy


making
Tarter and Hoys (2010) says
decision making is a rational, deliberative, purposeful action,
beginning with the development of a decision strategy and moving
through implementation and appraisal of result

Decision Making does not operate in a vacuum rather


it is the sum total of three issues in one, all of which are
interdependent
Decision making process
Decision maker
Decision making environment

DECISION MAKING PROCESS


In a typical democratic setting, decision making process
with formulation of issues,

begins

which comes about from the social environment referred to as INPUT


from the demands of the sub-environment [socio-cultural, economic,
religious, educational, psychological, individual, etc.]

Decision Making entails the methods followed in arriving at a


choice out of several alternatives.
In a democracy, decision making is all encompassing, because all the
arms of government take decision in one form or the other.
The legislative decisions are implemented at three levels:
Federal level [Federal Executive Council] (centre)
State level [ State Executive Council]
Local level [Local Government Council]
When it comes to implementation, the council ( bodies and
agencies) decides the most appropriate and best course of
action and this in it self is an aspect of decision making.
The Judiciary interprets the laws in settlements of
disputes/crisis. This in itself is also the act of decision
making as the judges will sit down and pass judgments
based on the issues available to them

Decision maker

Decision making process does not operate by itself.


It is always actualized by individuals and groups.
On individual basis, [Decision maker] on collective basis
[decision makers].

Decision Making Environment


Every decision is made within a decision environment, which is
defined as the collection of information, alternatives, values,
and preferences available at the time of the decision.
An ideal decision environment would include all possible
information, all of it accurate, and every possible alternative.
the decision environment continue to expand.

Evaluation is one of components of decision making


because
it is concerned about results of action already
formulated and implemented which forms a basis of
complete circle of the decision making process
Leads to refined or reformed or reformulated decision which
were earlier taken based on the outcome resulting from
evaluation.

The decision-making process involves


the following steps:

Define the problem.


(a) problem recognition
(b) situation analysis
(c) problem definition
(d) priority determination

Value and Goal Clarification


(a) consideration of values and goals
(b) clarify normative foundation
(c) describe desired results
(d) develop criteria and indicators

Develop potential alternatives.


Option Generation ( different options available)
(a) focus on goals
(b) develop alternatives
(c) think broadly and outside of established norms

The decision-making process involves the


following steps:
Analyze the alternatives.
Select the best alternative.
(a) use tools to evaluate alternatives
(b) understand potential impacts (c) consider, debate alternatives
(d) compromise, make tradeoffs, bargain
(f) decide/recommend
(g) close the loop

Implement the decision.


(a) understand success factors (b) assess capacity-(resources )
(c) assign responsibility
(d) choose instruments-(agencies)
(e) align sequence
(f) transfer- central-state-local

Establish a control and evaluation system.


(a) monitor/obtain feedback
(b) compare actual and desired results
(c) learn
(d) modify as necessary

Process of policy making


with the help of education
example

STAGES OF MAKING POLICIES AND LAWS

(AN EXAMPLE OF COMPULSORY EDUCATION)

Stage one Ruling party conference gives


vision, goals and direction
Stage two Executive (Ministry) draws policy on
an issue
Stage three - Finalizing a policy
The policy is finalized by the relevant Department and
Ministry after it has been debated and the
Department and Ministry look at the issues and options
and draw up a final policy which is published as a
White Paper.
The White Paper is a statement of intent( aim/goal) and a
detailed policy plan which often forms the basis of
legislation. It is debated and adopted by Parliament and
approved by Cabinet.

Stage four - Passing a law/Bill


Stage five - Subordinate legislation and
implementing the law and policy

STRUCTURES OF POLICY MAKING


POLICIES IN INDIA ARE MADE THROUGH
SPECIFIED STRUCTURES AT DIFFERENT
LEVELS
THREE LEVELS :
UNION/NATIONAL LEVEL : LEGISLATURE,
EXECUTIVE, JUDICIARY AND OTHER
INSTITUTIONS
STATE LEVEL : LEGISLATURE AND EXECUTIVE
LOACL LEVEL : ELECTED REPRESENTATIVES
AND EXECUTIVE

Types of Policies
Policies are two types--- Policies made at national level are known as National
policies; e.g. SSA; RMSA
Policies made at State level are known as State policies;
e.g. Nali-Kali; Lok Jumbish

Councils and bodies at local level taking into


account needs of local population and based upon
guidelines issued by the state and central
government frame appropriate policies

National Policies

Sarva ShikshaAbhiyan(SSA) is

Government of India's leading programme for achievement of Universalization of


Elementary Education (UEE). SSA is being implemented in

partnership with State Governments

RMSA:

This scheme was launched in March, 2009 with the objective to


enhance access to secondary education and to improve its quality.

With Central and State Governments share 75 and 25 %

State Policies

Nali Kali
Started in 1995 with Unicef assistance when a group of 15
teachers and administrators from HD Kote (Mysore District)
visited the rural schools run by Rishi Valley education Trust.

Teachers made an analysis of the ills of the education system that


hinder children (mostly first generation learners) from fully
accessing and participating in the school system and achieving predetermined levels of learning.

Lok Jumbish:

The literal meaning of Lok Jumbish is 'people's movement' which signifies


both the spirit and mode of universalization of elementary education

Launched in 1992 to universalize elementary education of satisfactory


quality in Rajasthan.

Role of Planning
Commission

About Planning Commission.


The Planning Commission was set up by a Resolution of the
Government of India in March 1950.
Jawaharlal Nehru was the first Chairman of the Planning
Commission.
The Planning Commission was charged with the responsibility
of making assessment of all resources of the country,
augmenting (increase) deficient resources, formulating plans
for the most effective and balanced utilization of resources
and determining priorities.

The Prime Minister, the Chairman of the Planning


Commission, works under the overall guidance of the
National Development Council which comprises of the Deputy Chairman and
the full time Members of the Commission, as a composite body,

provide advice and guidance to the subject Divisions for


the formulation of Five Year Plans, Annual Plans, State
Plans, Monitoring Plan Programmes, Projects and
Schemes.

Scope- Education Division


Planning Commission has many divisions health, agriculture,
education, infrastructure, power and energy, etc.
The scope of work of the Education Division covers:
Different stages of education such as Pre-primary, formal
and non-formal Education, Secondary, Senior Secondary,
University and Technical Education;
Special areas such as that of Girls' education, Education
for the children of scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and
other backward classes; Adult Education and Education in
the backward areas.
The major Education programmes relate to achieving the
aim of Universalisation of Elementary Education through
Sarva Siksha Abhiyan, Adult Education, Vocationalisation of
Education, Teacher Education, etc.

Grant-in-Aid System
'Grant-In-Aid' A transfer of money from
the federal government to a state
government, local government or individual
person for the purposes of funding a
specific project or program. The federal
government gets this money from income
tax revenues.
Types
Categorical grants
Block grants
General revenue sharing

Categorical grants
Categorical grants can be used only for a
specifically aided program and usually are
limited to narrowly defined activities;
legislation generally details the programs
parameters and specifies the types of
funded activities.
There are four types of categorical grants:

project categorical grants,


formula-project categorical grants,
formula categorical grants, and
open-end reimbursement categorical grants.

Block grants
Block grants are a form of grant-in-aid
that
the federal government uses to provide
state and local governments a specified
amount of funding to assist them in
addressing broad purposes, such as
community development, social services,
public health, or law enforcement.
Although legislation generally details the
programs parameters, state and local
governments are typically provided greater
flexibility in the use of the funds and are
required to meet fewer administrative
conditions than under categorical grants

General Revenue Sharing


General revenue sharing provides
state and local governments funds
that
are distributed by formula,
accompanied with few restrictions
on the purposes for which the
funding may be spent, and have the
least administrative conditions of
any federal grant type.
The general revenue sharing program
is no longer operational.

Process of getting developmental grants


for implementing educational policy
In the case of development grants,
UGC analyses past performance of central universities, their
lines of development and needs.
UGC also estimates the availability of resources based on
allocation made in the past.
Then UGC formulates its proposals for the plan period, which
includes plan programmes of universities and presents them to
government.

These proposals are then finalized after detailed discussions


between UGC and government.
Then they go before the Planning Commission for final
allocation.
After indicating the provisional allocation of funds of each
of the central university, UGC calls for detailed proposals.
The plans are scrutinized by expert committees at the
head quarters after holding discussions with universities.

CONTENTS OF THE PROPOSAL


. The proposal for grant-in-aid should be submitted

giving in detail the following :


(i) The statement of the problem which the project
seeks to tackle.
(ii) The objectives of the project.
(iii)The geographical area that will be covered.
(iv) The client group that is Sought to be served.
(v) The services that will be delivered, both institutional
and non-institutional and the charges, if any, that will be
realized from the beneficiary.
(vi) The physical targets that the project seeks to achieve.
(vii) The expertise/experience that the organization has in
planning and implementation such programmes services.
(viii) The cost estimates (separately item wise) for
recurring and non-recurring items for each year.
(ix) The anticipated Output of the Project (project
quantitatively specifies their feasibility).

Kind of Grants Available


There are two kinds of grants for
universities, institutions deemed to be
universities and colleges, they are:
Development (Plan) Grants
Maintenance (Non-Plan) Grants

Central universities and colleges affiliated


to them and institutions deemed to be
university receive both the plan and nonplan grants.
However, the state universities and their
affiliated colleges receive only plan grants.

Relationship between
Constitutional Provisions and
Educational Polices

Constitutional provisions/constitution
A constitution is the foundational law in most
countries, including the United States.
The term constitutional provision specifies that a
rule or law comes from the constitution itself and
not from common law.

Purpose
The purpose of a constitutional provision is to establish
the most basic vital rights, restrictions and
organizations in society.
Constitutional provisions establish broad notions of what
is legal and what is illegal in a country, and
Establish the structure of government

CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS OF EDUCATION


Art. 21A. : TheRightof Children to Free and Compulsory
Edu. act

The State shall provide free and compulsory


education to all children of the age of 6-14 years in
such manner as the State may, by law, determine.
(EIGHTY-SIXTH AMENDMENT ACT, 2002)
(Article 21 A came into effect from April, 2010)
Art. 45. Provision for free & compulsory education for
children
(1) The State shall endeavour to provide, within a period
of ten years from the commencement of this
Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all
children until they complete the age of fourteen years.
(2) The State shall endeavour to provide early
childhood care and education for all children until
they complete the age of six years. (EIGHTY-SIXTH
AMENDMENT ACT, 2002)

Art. 51A who is a parent or guardian to provide


opportunities for education to his child or, as the case
may be, ward between the age of six and fourteen
years. (EIGHTY-SIXTH AMENDMENT ACT, 2002)

Education of weaker sections


The State shall promote with special care the educational
and economic interests of the weaker sections of the
people
Art. 46. Promotion of educational and economic interests
of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other
weaker sections.
Art. 15. Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of
religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.
Article 15 and 29: Article 15 states, Nothing in this
Article or in clause (2) of Article 29 shall prevent the
state from making any special provision for the
advancement of any socially and educationally backward
class of citizens or for the scheduled castes and
scheduled tribes.
Article 15 (3) reads, Nothing in this Article shall prevent
the State from making any special provision for women
and children. Provision has been made for separate
institutions for girls.
Article 15(1) states that the state shall not discriminate
against any citizen on grounds only of sex.

Education of Minorities
Art. 29. Protection of interests of minorities.
(1) Any section of the citizens residing in the territory of India or any
part thereof having a distinct language, script or culture of its own
shall have the right to conserve the same.
(2) No citizen shall be denied admission into any educational institution
maintained by the State or receiving aid out of State funds on
grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of them.
Art. 30. Right of minorities to establish and administer educational
institutions.
(1) All minorities, whether based on religion or language, shall have the
right to establish and administer educational institutions of their
choice.
(2) The State shall not, in granting aid to educational institutions,
discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it
is under the management of a minority, whether based on religion or
language

Instruction in Mother Tongue


Art. 350A. Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at
primary stage.
It shall be the endeavour of every State and of every local
authority within the State to provide adequate facilities
for instruction in the mother-tongue at the primary
stage of education to children belonging to linguistic
minority groups;
Article 351:
It is to promote the development of Hindi language and
states that it shall be the duty of the Central
Government to promote the spread of Hindi language in
the entire country.

Relation constitutional provisions


(theory) and education policy (practice)
An education policy outlines what a government
ministry hopes to achieve and the methods and
principles it will use to achieve them.
It states the goals of the ministry
An education policy document is not a law but it will
often identify new laws needed to achieve its goals

Educational policy is application or practical part but rest


with the constitution making is theory.
Education policy focus on interests of personality, but
the constitutional principles look on to the welfare of
society.
Constitutional provisions are constitution itself but
education policies are the deliberate strategies of the
constitution

Research and Feedback for


Policy Analysis and Planning
Research helps to find the solution for
existing problems
Collects necessary information and
feedback about policy implementation
Analyzes the information and feedback
Helps to work for the planning of new
policy

Research and Feedback for Policy


Analysis and Planning
Policy research has a direct application to
current issues in educational policy or practice
Policy research is distinct from other forms of
educational research in terms of purpose rather
than in choice of subject or method.
The end product of policy research is decisions
or recommendations for action
Policy research operates within the context of
existing policy, it is limited in its generalizability
Policy research modifies the existing situation by
identifying or anticipating problems.
It may challenge established policy by
demonstrating its impracticability and may even
develop or explore alternative policies.