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Psychology 205 Perception

30 January 03

Day 04

Signal Detection Theory

Four categories of stimuli & responses:

hits, misses, false alarms, & correct rejections

Two aspects measured:

Criterion

ß

bias, mental set

Sensitivity

d’

physiological attunement

Assumptions:

  • 1. normal distribution (of noise)

properties of "normality" means & standard deviations; z scores

  • 2. signal with unchanging strength

  • 3. fixed decision criterion

Some examples, and with criterion shifts:

  • 1. unbiased,

Y=N

in “middle”

  • 2. "conservative"

Y< N

to right

  • 3. "risky"

Y> N

to left

Signal Detection Methods

Four categories of responses

Signal Detection Methods Four categories of responses
2X2 matrix
2X2 matrix
z table
z table

double graph with lines

Two aspects to be measured from a 2X2 matrix of data

in Signal Detection Theory:

Criterion

ß

bias

 

mental set

Sensitivity

d’

physiological attunement

Assumptions:

1. normal distribution (of neural noise)

relatively long digression into:

properties of "normality" means & standard deviations z scores

  • 2. signal with unchanging strength

  • 3. fixed decision criterion

Distributions

Distributions bar graph
bar graph
bar graph
frequency polygon

frequency

polygon

1 3 2
1
3
2
3 properties
3 properties
axes
axes
new ordinate
new ordinate
new ordinate

percentiles are located along the distribution

percentiles are located along the distribution one measures where one is by what is called the

one measures where one is by what is called the standard deviation (SD)

What is the standard deviation?

General idea:

Find the mean. Take all values in the distribution and add up the difference between the mean and each value Find average.

Actual calculation:

Square the differences, average them, and take the square root of the average.

Purpose: emphasizes the larger differences

YOU DO NOT NEED TO KNOW THIS

SATs, GREs

Mean =

500, SD = 100 IQ, Mean = 100, SD = 16
500,
SD
= 100
IQ,
Mean = 100,
SD = 16

SDs below mean

standard deviations above the mean

from handout
from handout
from handout

z of 1.0 z of 2.0

= 1 SD above the mean, = 2 SDs above the mean,

z of -1.5 = 1.5 SDs below the mean, etc.

z of 1.0 z of 2.0 = 1 SD above the mean, = 2 SDs above

whole distribution

normalized to have an area of

1.0

Find area of 1-
Find area of 1-
that is the percentile
that is the
percentile
check out the table

check out the table

go from z s to percentiles

go from zs to percentiles

9 values to be known

9 values to be known the lower half of the distribution

the lower half of the distribution

Signal Detectio n Theory
Signal Detectio n Theory
Signal
Detectio
n Theory

Assumptions:

1. normal distribution (of noise) properties of "normality" means & standard deviations z scores

2. signal with unchanging strength

3. fixed decision criterion

add signal to the noise and it moves the entire distribution to the right

add signal to the noise and it moves the entire distribution to the right

Assumptions:

1. normal distribution (of noise) properties of "normality" means & standard deviations z scores

2. signal with unchanging strength

3. fixed decision criterion

responds “no”
responds “no”
responds “yes”
responds “yes”
responds “no” responds “yes”
What is the relationship of 2x2 table to plots?

What is the relationship of

2x2 table to plots?

What is the relationship of 2x2 table to plots?
What is the relationship of 2x2 table to plots?
What is the relationship of 2x2 table to plots?
What is the relationship of 2x2 table to plots?

Computational purpose of Signal Detection Theory is

to measure d

(sensitivity)

procedure:

Go from numbers in a 2X2 table to hypothetical noise and signal + noise distributions.

From those distributions, calculate d

will do later

must be aware of possible biases,

criterion shifts:

1. unbiased

Y=N

in “middle”

  • 2. "conservative"

Y< N

to right

  • 3. "risky"

Y> N

to left

observer always says no observer always says yes unbiase d
observer
always says no
observer always
says yes
unbiase
d
no yes
no
yes
no yes
no
yes

Question:

why would one’s criterion ever vary?

the theory asks that one consider the

relative costs of false alarms and misses, and/or

relative benefits of hits and correct rejections

miss false alar m
miss
false
alar
m

sometimes there are very real differences

why fire departments always say “yes”

why fire departments always say “yes”

no yes
no
yes

How to calculate sensitivity:

d' = z [CR/(CR+FA)] ­

z [M/(H+M)]

one of the two formula to know in this course

d'
d'

CASE

1

CASE 1

d' = z [CR/(CR+FA)] ­ z [M/(H+M)]

d' = z [84/(84+16)] ­ z[16/(84+16)]

d' = z [CR/(CR+FA)] ­ z [M/(H+M)] d' = z [84/(84+16)] ­ z[16/(84+16)]

d' = z [CR/(CR+FA)] ­ z [M/(H+M)]

d' = z [84/(84+16)] ­ z[16/(84+16)]

d' =

z[.84] ­ z[.16]

see table

d' = z [CR/(CR+FA)] ­ z [M/(H+M)] d' = z [84/(84+16)] ­ z[16/(84+16)] d' = z[.84]

d' = z [CR/(CR+FA)] ­ z [M/(H+M)]

d' = z [84/(84+16)] ­ z[16/(84+16)]

d' =

z[.84] ­ z[.16]

see table

d' =

1.00 ­ (­1.00)

d' =

2.00

­­> the mean of the signal + noise

distribution is two SDs above the mean of the noise distribution; the signal strength is 2 SDs of the ambient noise in the nervous system

CASE 2
CASE 2
CASE 1
CASE 1
CASE 2 CASE 1
CASE 2 CASE 1

d' = z [CR/(CR+FA)] ­ z [M/(H+M)]

d' = z [98/(98+2)] ­ z[50/(50+50)]

d' = z [CR/(CR+FA)] ­ z [M/(H+M)] d' = z [98/(98+2)] ­ z[50/(50+50)]

d' = z [CR/(CR+FA)] ­ z [M/(H+M)]

d' = z [98/(98+2)] ­ z[50/(50+50)]

d' =

z [.98] ­ z[.50]

d' =

2.0 ­ 0.0

= 2.0

CASE 3
CASE 3
CASE 1
CASE 1
CASE 2
CASE 2
CASE 3 CASE 1 CASE 2
CASE 3 CASE 1 CASE 2
CASE 3 CASE 1 CASE 2

d' = z [CR/(CR+FA)] ­ z [M/(H+M)]

d' = z [69/(69+31)] ­ z[7/(7+93)]

d' = z [CR/(CR+FA)] ­ z [M/(H+M)] d' = z [69/(69+31)] ­ z[7/(7+93)]

d' = z [CR/(CR+FA)] ­ z [M/(H+M)]

d' = z [69/(69+31)] ­ z[7/(7+93)]

d' =

z [.69] ­ z[.07]*

see table

d' =

.50 ­ (­1.50) = 2.00

*not a value you need to know

CASE 1
CASE 1
CASE 1 CASE 2 CASE 3 all have d’s = 2.00 same sensitivity, different criteria
CASE 2
CASE 2
CASE 1 CASE 2 CASE 3 all have d’s = 2.00 same sensitivity, different criteria
CASE 3
CASE 3
CASE 1 CASE 2 CASE 3 all have d’s = 2.00 same sensitivity, different criteria

all have d’s =

2.00

same sensitivity, different criteria

For the 1st prelim:

1. understand the 2x2 table

  • 2. understand the graph pair (N & S+N)

  • 3. be able to draw a graph pair

  • 4. know the 9 value pairs in the table

  • 5. be able to use the formula

(go back and forth between the table and the graphs)

Caveat: the criterion does not have to be between the means of the noise and the signal + noise distributions

advanced

topic:

If these were noise and signal + noise distributions, would the d’ in each be the same?

advanced topic: If these were noise and signal + noise distributions, would the d’ in each
advanced topic: If these were noise and signal + noise distributions, would the d’ in each

advanced

topic:

If these were noise and signal + noise distributions, would the d’ in each be the same?

no, the standard deviations are smaller in the lower set

advanced topic: If these were noise and signal + noise distributions, would the d’ in each
d’ ~ 1.0
d’ ~ 1.0
advanced topic: If these were noise and signal + noise distributions, would the d’ in each
d’ ~ 3.0
d’ ~ 3.0

Signal Detection Theory

Four categories of stimuli & responses:

hits, misses, false alarms, & correct rejections

Two aspects measured:

Criterion

ß

bias, mental set

Sensitivity

d

physiological attunement ­­> our major

Assumptions:

interest

  • 1. normal distribution (of noise)

properties of "normality" means & standard deviations; z scores

  • 2. signal with unchanging strength

  • 3. fixed decision criterion

Some examples, and with criterion shifts:

  • 1. unbiased

Y=N

in “middle”

­­> Case 1

  • 2. "conservative"

Y< N

to right

­­> Case 2

  • 3. "risky"

Y> N

to left

­­> Case 3