Psychology 205 Perception

30 January 03
Day 04
   

         Signal Detection Theory
Four categories of stimuli & responses: Two aspects measured:   Criterion  ß         bias, mental set Sensitivity d’ physiological attunement Assumptions: 1. normal distribution (of noise) 2. signal with unchanging strength 3. fixed decision criterion Some examples, and with criterion shifts:
 

hits, misses, false alarms, & correct rejections

properties of "normality" means & standard deviations; z scores

1. unbiased,              Y=N  2. "conservative"      Y< N        3. "risky"         Y> N

     in “middle”      to  right      to left

Signal Detection Methods
Four categories of responses

 

 

2X2 matrix

z table

double graph with lines

 

 

Two aspects to be measured from a 2X2  matrix of data 
in Signal Detection Theory:    Criterion  ß          bias    Sensitivity
d’ 

mental set physiological attunement

 

 

Assumptions: 1. normal distribution (of neural noise) relatively long digression into: properties of "normality" means & standard deviations z scores 2. signal with unchanging strength 3. fixed decision criterion
   

Distributions

bar graph
   

frequency polygon
   

1

3 2

3 properties
   

axes

 

 

new ordinate
   

percentiles are located along the distribution

one measures where one is by what is called the standard deviation (SD)
   

       What is the standard deviation? General idea:
Find the mean. Take all values in the distribution and add up the difference between the mean and each value Find average.

Actual calculation:

Square the differences, average them, and take the square root of the average. 
Purpose: emphasizes the larger differences

                 YOU DO NOT NEED TO KNOW THIS
   

SATs, GREs Mean = 500, SD = 100 IQ, Mean = 100, SD = 16

 

SDs below mean

 

standard deviations above the mean

from handout

 

 

z of 1.0 = 1 SD above the mean, z of 2.0 = 2 SDs above the mean, z of -1.5 = 1.5 SDs below the mean, etc.

 

whole distribution normalized to have an area of 1.0

Find area of 1α  

that is the percentile

check out the table

 

 

go from zs to percentiles

 

 

9 values to be known

 

 

the lower half of the distribution

Signal Detectio n Theory

 

 

Assumptions: 1. normal distribution (of noise) properties of "normality" means & standard deviations  z scores 2. signal with unchanging strength 3. fixed decision criterion
   

add signal to the noise and it moves the entire distribution to the right

 

 

Assumptions: 1. normal distribution (of noise) properties of "normality" means & standard deviations z scores 2. signal with unchanging strength 3. fixed decision criterion
   

responds “no”

responds “yes”

 

 

 

 

What is the relationship of 2x2 table to plots?

 

 

 

 

Computational purpose of Signal Detection Theory is  to measure d’ (sensitivity) procedure: 

Go from numbers in a 2X2 table to hypothetical  noise and signal + noise distributions.
From those distributions, calculate d’
   

will do later 

must be aware of possible biases, criterion shifts:
1. unbiased             Y=N       in “middle” 2. "conservative"    Y< N           to  right 3. "risky"               Y> N      to left

 

 

observer always says no

observer always says yes

unbiase d

 

 

no

yes

 

 

no

yes

 

 

Question: why would one’s criterion ever vary?          the theory asks that one consider the
relative costs of false alarms and misses, and/or relative benefits of hits and correct rejections

 

 

miss

false alar m
   

sometimes there are very real differences

why fire departments always say “yes”

 

 

no

yes

 

 

How to calculate sensitivity: d' =  z [CR/(CR+FA)] ­    z [M/(H+M)]

one of the two formula to know in this course
   

 

 

 

 

d'

 

 

CASE 1

 

 

d' =  z [CR/(CR+FA)] ­ z [M/(H+M)] d' =  z [84/(84+16)] ­ z[16/(84+16)]

 

 

d' =  z [CR/(CR+FA)] ­ z [M/(H+M)] d' =  z [84/(84+16)] ­ z[16/(84+16)] d' =  z[.84] ­ z[.16]       see table   

 

 

d' =  z [CR/(CR+FA)] ­ z [M/(H+M)] d' =  z [84/(84+16)] ­ z[16/(84+16)] d' =  z[.84] ­ z[.16]       see table    d' =  1.00 ­ (­1.00) d' =  2.00   ­­> the mean of the signal + noise 
distribution is two SDs above the mean of the noise  distribution; the signal strength is 2 SDs of the  ambient noise in the nervous system
   

CASE 2

CASE 1

 

 

d' =  z [CR/(CR+FA)] ­ z [M/(H+M)] d' =  z [98/(98+2)] ­ z[50/(50+50)]

 

 

d' =  z [CR/(CR+FA)] ­ z [M/(H+M)] d' =  z [98/(98+2)] ­ z[50/(50+50)] d' =  z [.98] ­ z[.50] d' =  2.0 ­ 0.0  = 2.0
   

CASE 3

CASE 1

CASE 2

 

 

d' =  z [CR/(CR+FA)] ­ z [M/(H+M)] d' =  z [69/(69+31)] ­ z[7/(7+93)]

 

 

d' =  z [CR/(CR+FA)] ­ z [M/(H+M)] d' =  z [69/(69+31)] ­ z[7/(7+93)] d' =  z [.69] ­ z[.07]*              see table d' =  .50 ­ (­1.50) = 2.00
   

    *not a value you need to know

CASE 1

CASE 2

CASE 3

all have d’s = 2.00
 

same sensitivity,   different criteria

For the 1st prelim: 1. understand the 2x2 table 2. understand the graph pair (N & S+N) 3. be able to draw a graph pair 4. know the 9 value pairs in the table 5. be able to use the formula     (go back and forth between the table and the graphs)
Caveat: the criterion does not have to be between the  means of the noise and the signal + noise distributions
   

advanced topic: If these were noise and signal + noise distributions, would the d’ in each be the same?

 

 

advanced topic: If these were noise and signal + noise distributions, would the d’ in each be the same? no, the standard deviations are smaller in the lower set
   

d’ ~ 1.0

d’ ~ 3.0

                     Signal Detection Theory
Four categories of stimuli & responses: Two aspects measured:   Criterion  ß        bias, mental set Sensitivity d’       physiological attunement ­­> our major Assumptions:          interest 1. normal distribution (of noise) 2. signal with unchanging strength 3. fixed decision criterion Some examples, and with criterion shifts:
     
 

hits, misses, false alarms, & correct rejections

properties of "normality" means & standard deviations; z scores

1. unbiased               Y=N  2. "conservative"      Y< N        3. "risky"         Y> N

     in “middle”      ­­> Case 1      to  right             ­­> Case 2      to left                 ­­> Case 3

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