Psychology 205 Perception

06 Feb 03
Day 06
   

     Three Kinds of Adaptation definition: "Modify to suit new conditions" biology:   Darwin ­­ change in the genome so that the phenome
      better fits its ecological niche; better ­­> reproduction;       change random with selection

perception:    1. Responding to constant stimuli     2. Accommodating different ranges of stimulation    3. Accommodating different patterns of stimulation    
cortex sensory systems sensory neurons

 

 

1. Response to constant stimuli 
touch, olfaction, gustation, vision
not audition, pain, or kinesthesis

    neuronal

response decrement, spontaneous recovery cross­adaptation adaptation (d') vs. habituation (ß) stabilized images    
Purkinje's tree

saccades & fixations pursuit movements physiological nystagmus (eye tremors)
   

sensory systems like change without change they “adapt” sensation begins to go away
sometimes complete; sometimes not neural response declines

sensory organs fire less

transient cells can be thought of as rapidly adapting sustained cells can be thought of as slowly adapting 

 

 

slowly adapting

 

rapidly   adapting

for convenience look at rapidly adapting systems

 

 

 

 

how to test?

 

 

one test interval

 

 

2nd test interval

 

 

3rd test inteval

 

 

Result by connecting data points

 

 

adapt with one stimulus

test with a different stimulus

no crossadaptation

 

 

some cross adaptation

 

 

adaptation (d') 

change in the sensitivity d'  decreases with increased neural adaptation

but adaptation is not the only cause for a change in d' 

habituation (ß)
change in one’s bias;  possible increase in boredom,  or simply “tuning out”

 

 

stabilized images                  ­­­­­>Purkinje's tree
3 basic eye movements
1. saccades & fixations:  2. pursuit movements:  3. physiological nystagmus   
    endogenous control exogenous control eye tremors, automatic,        uncontrolled

 

 

eye movements
1. saccades & fixations:
3­4/s in reading, watching cinema, often less elsewhere fixations        ~200­300 ms; saccades ~50­100 ms saccades        up to 600°/s

2. pursuit movements:

up to 80º/s, lowered acuity (tracking not perfect) 

3. physiological nystagmus
 

up to 150 cycles/s; amplitude = half diameter of cone   
 

classical method

 

 

 

 

Process of perception:
1. One sees the content of the slide perfectly 2. Then content fades 3. Then content fades to neutral gray, not black

 

 

Approximation: stare at black dot over  time rings  will fade
   

Stabilized edges (Krauskopf, 1963)

 

 

alternative method, not quite as good

 

 

Stabilized edges (Krauskopf, 1963)

Importance of edges!

 

 

Filling in of color, despite the fact that the receptors are stimulated differently

Are there any stabilized images in  the real world of our natural experience?

 

 

 

9 of 10 photons entering the eye are absorbed before nearing the receptors; many receptors are beneath blood vessels and arteries  

fovea

optic disk

 

Purkinje’s   tree

2. Accommodating different ranges of stimulation
sensory systems

light & dark adaptation photopic & scotopic cones & rods mesopic ossicular dampening signal­to­noise ratios
optimality in sensory systems
 

 

light & dark adaptation:

light ­­> quick; dark ­­> slow

two light­catching systems photopic day vision, color, cones   scotopic  night vision, black and white, rods  ~500 times as sensitive after complete dark adaptation  mesopic both, room light
   

 

 

from text

Is there an analog in audition?
partial

ossicular dampening

 

 

Ossicular dampening caused by muscles around ossicles

 

When in the midst of constant loud noise, they clench and dampen the   sound by about 6 dB, ~3x

Why not simply build a supersensitive system?
avoid the necessity of needing two (or more) systems

 

 

1. Range of neural spikes/unit time is relatively small      maximal firing = 1000 s 2. The system should avoid firing near maximal rate     for too long. Possible tissue damage; ossicular dampening.

 

 

3. Accommodating different patterns of  stimulation
cortical

re­learning using Molyneux's paradox in animals and humans Roger Sperry
neural regeneration in amphibians George Stratton, Ivo Kohler, and others   inverting lenses body schema
   

William Molyneux, Dioptrica Nova, 1692
Molyneux’s Paradox ­ the orientation of the visual field
Relevant to Müller VIII Molyneux’s Premise ­ depth perception Moylneux’s Conjecture ­ the blind given sight

 

 

upside down and backwards; rotated 180°

 

 

Neuroplasticity and behavior
Roger Sperry

 

 

rotate the eyes

upside down, backwards, depth wrong
   

switch optic nerves

 

 

In frogs and newts, no adaptation (after two years in newts) In human beings?

 

 

Dolezal Snyder & Pronko
   

In response to Molyneux

 

 

upside down; swinging; coordination

 

 

gradual improvement

 

 

still more improvement; left­right; swinging

 

 

gradual build up of unified sense of body and sight
   

Ivo Kohler after a 30­day period of adaptation to  inverting lenses

 

 

Ivo Kohler after a 30­day period of adaptation to  inverting lenses
able to drive a Vespa rapidly, weaving in an out of traffic, in  downtown Innsbruck

 

 

the return to normal: odd (but not inverted); reverse swinging;

almost gone in 1 hour; slight return the next day 
   

slow adaptation to new state of affairs; old schema suppressed, not changed
   

wedge prisms

 

sensorimotor adaptation

 

people adapt; chicks don’t

adaptation to spatial inversion and displacements are cortical,   and beyond V1

 

Three Kinds of Adaptation definition: "Modify to suit new conditions” biology:  perception:    1. Responding to constant stimuli 
sensory neurons    ­­>

   2. Accommodating different ranges of stimulation
sensory systems  ­­>          light/dark adaptation   ossicular dampening cortical   ­­> 

   Purkinje’s tree & lab phenomena

   3. Accommodating different patterns of stimulation    
  inverting & wedge lenses
   

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