Psychology 205 Perception

Day 08 13 Feb 03

    Haptics, Posture, & Movement Neuro­muscular Apparatus Haptics  Vestibular Apparatus Balance
detection thresholds, Golgi tendon and  muscle spindle organ, & an illusion

responses to:  linear acceleration           angular acceleration gravito­inertial force endolymphs & density          2 heat, alcohol, and  H2O gaze­stability motion sickness

Contributions of & to Vision 

fissure of Rolando

front back

right hemisphere,   reversed from Day 07


Sylvian fissure

sensory humunculus weighted by cortical   area


motor humunculus weighted by cortical area

look for noncorrespondences



Neuro­muscular apparatus

knowing where you’re muscles are

                                         ­­­> Kinesthesis

1. Golgi tendon organs

on tendons of extrafusal muscles 

long muscles within muscle bundle isotonic exercise   ­­>change in muscle length

2. muscle spindle organs
in intrafusal muscles 
short muscles within muscle bundle isometric exercise ­­>change in resistance


a kinesthetic illusion


sensory organs about the state of muscles (feedback), not the nerves signaling the muscles to twitch; afferent (conducting inward), not efferent (conducting outward) Extrafusal = “slow twitch” Intrafusal = “fast twitch”

-->distance runners

--> sprinters, body









Activity in:






muscle spindle  organ  some lots

 Golgi tendon  organ 

1. muscles at rest   2. muscles lengthened 3. muscles shortened 4. muscles at rest length but flexed (isometric)

some some




                    s.n.a. = spontaneous neural activity 

Activity in:






muscle spindle  organ  yes yes no

 Golgi tendon  organ  yes no yes

2. muscles lengthened 4. muscles at rest length but flexed (isometric) 3. muscles shortened

curl in weightlifting

Analog in Cutaneous senses Activity in:       Temperature receptors warm cold
Hot Warm Cold yes yes no yes no yes

coding of a continuous dimension, often with two  populations of receptors

illusions  illusory felt positions



Arm position with vibrated tendon
vibration stimulates both muscle tendon and spindle organs --> lengthened muscle

perceived arm position
perceived lengthened muscle

Haptics = active touch (Day 07) + kinesthesis
touch sensations from hand  and  muscle sensations from hand & arm 
(body schema) (object schema)

investigation of muscle sensations alone

perception of shape by wielding





cross modality matching chance = 20%

Performance = 37% = 60 trials


Different inertial properties in different directions

Vestibular apparatus 6 degrees of freedom in movement linear acceleration
(the Galilean group)
side­to­side:     utricle front­back: saccule up­down: both rotations:     macula, otoliths

angular acceleration

vestibulo­ocular reflex (VOR) doll reflex

semicircular canals ampulla, crista, cupola


visual direction, vestibulo­muscular adaptation, &  baseball players  

6 degrees of freedom



3 semicircular canals



0th derivative  1st derivative

spatial position velocity 
change in position

2nd derivativeacceleration 

change in velocity change in the change of position

3rd derivative


change in acceleration change in the change of velocity change in the change in the change of position


inside utricle and saccule



consider one semicircular canal in horizontal plane







dizziness after spins

Balance against forces of acceleration



Balance even when not necessary



endolymph     ~water, slightly salty
What is the cause of instability when blood alcohol is elevated? 1. part of the global effect of alcohol 2. direct effect of the specific gravity of alcohol (lighter than water) heavy water ­  deuterium oxide    2           H2O   

Gaze­stability systems Vestibulo­Ocular Response (VOR) ­­ y axis rotation (yaw) Doll Reflex       ­­ x axis rotation (pitch)

ocular reflexes and adaptation
visual direction,  vestibulo­muscular adaptation,  & baseball players



the role of vision in balance and vection 
perception of self­motion 
Gunnar Johansson David Lee

sustained (slowly adapting) cells  ­ cortex transient (rapidly adapting) cells ­ cortex & central core



Motion Sickness: Cause(s)? NASA
no gravity, only inertial forces

1. dissociation of vision and normal vestibular  activity
back of buses, children in cars

2. lack of control over visual/vestibular experience                       environmental anchoring

sea sickness and the horizon

    Haptics, Posture, & Movement Neuro­muscular Apparatus
detection thresholds, Golgi tendon and  muscle spindle organ, & an illusion

Haptics Vestibular Apparatus responses to:  linear acceleration Balance
gravito­inertial force endolymphs & density        2 heat, alcohol, and  H2O gaze­stability motion sickness

     angular acceleration

Contributions of & to Vision 

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