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DEVELOPING

HIGHER ORDER
THINKING SKILLS
(HOTS)

Thinking skills are natural to


every learning activity.
Mere recall of facts and information
is of little value to students, rather
they must be trained in the use of
thinking skills.
In actual life situations, such thinking
skills are used to apply knowledge
gained in solving problems, making
decisions and generating new ideas.
Thought processes are considered of
far more importance than the

The teacher should have a sound


knowledge of what thinking is and
the nature of human discourse in the
process of LEARNING TO THINK.
Common questions:
*What does thinking mean?
* What are thinking skills?
* What are higher order thinking
skills?

Higher Order Thinking Skills


(HOTS)
>THINKING is a process involving such mental skills
like induction, deduction, classification and
reasoning; and the ability to analyze and criticize
and to reach conclusions based on sound inference
or judgment
HOTS are described as abstract intellectual
processes and operations
Higher order thinking tends to be complex, yields
multiple situations, and involves application of
multiple criteria. It includes elements of uncertainty
and self-regulation of the thinking process. (Arrend,
1995)

Classification of HOTS
A. INFERENTIAL THINKING
1. Formulating inferences (explanation of an observation)
2. Observing relationships (perceiving similarities and
differences in ideas or objects)
3. Drawing conclusions and generalizations
*Conclusion a statement or decision based on evidences
at
hand
*Generalizing grasping the overall meaning from a
number of conclusions
B. CRITICAL THINKING
1. Analysis the act of critically examining
2. Evaluation entails questioning and making judgements
based on existing information

C. CREATIVE THINKING leads to the development of


new and unusual ideas
1. Synthesis combining simple ideas or elements
into larger concepts
2. Fluency the skill of generating many ideas
3. Flexibility the creation of ideas that fit into many
different categories
4. Originality the ability to produce unique
responses
5. Imagination enables one to create a mental
picture of a thing that is not present at the moment

D. COMBINATION OF THINKING SKILLS


1. Problem-solving
a) identifying a problem
b) forming hypothesis
c) testing the hypothesis
d) forming a conclusion
2. Decision-making
a) identifying a goal
b) collecting relevant data
c) identifying alternatives
d) analyzing the alternatives
e) choosing the best alternative

Strategies for
Developing HOTS
1. Questioning Technique
> How and Why qs sharpen reasoning power
> Open-ended qs require greater responses and provide
creative insights
> Provide sufficient wait time
2. Discussion Format
> avoid lecture, more on small group discussions to
encourage focused thinking about a particular topic,
resulting in high level arguments
3. Problem Solving Approach
> students are confronted with a problem or a situation
that needs immediate solution; they are to gather facts and
determine additional information needed; their abilities to
weigh evidences, analyze recorded observations and arrive
at conclusions are greatly enhanced

Strategies for
Developing HOTS
4. Creative Thinking Activities
> brain-storming, simulation and roleplaying stimulate students to come
up with original, unique and new
ideas
> these activities develop
communication skills, creative
thinking processes, and clarification of
values

Strategies for
Developing HOTS
5. Test and Evaluative Instruments
> A holistic approach to evaluation
considers not only acquisition of
knowledge but the development of
inquiry skills and scientific attitudes as
well. The evaluation technique employed
by the teacher will encourage the
students to think critically and not
merely accumulate knowledge for its
own sake.

Strategies for
Developing HOTS
6. Modeling Strategies
> Everyday problems along with
scientific examples can be used to show
how these skills can be employed in all
aspects of life.
> The teacher must be free from bias
and prejudices. Sharpness in
observations can be contagious. He/she
can model analytical responses.

Critical Thinking Components and their


Behavioral Indicators
COMPONENT
1. ANALYSIS

CRITERIA/INDICATORS
Breaks problems of questions into
parts
Searches for assumptions to base
arguments
Identifies patterns in a set of
information
2. APPLICATION Applies knowledge to new
situations
Draws implications from
conclusions
3.
Responds when asked about
INTERPRETATIO purpose of problem

Critical Thinking Components and their


Behavioral Indicators

COMPONE
NT

CRITERIA/INDICATORS

4. LOGICAL
ARGUMENTATIO
N

Selects relevant data or


evidences to support conclusion
Identifies inadequate,
inconsistent results
Structures information by means
of graphic organizers (concept
maps, flowcharts, outlines,
graphs and models)
Checks for reasonableness of
selected approaches/conclusions

5.
ORGANIZATION

6. REFLECTION

Two Teaching Styles

The Teacher
is

TRADITIONAL
STYLE
autocratic

FACILITATING
STYLE
democratic

confrontive
direct
dominative
formal
informative
prescriptive

supportive
indirect
interactive
informal
inquiring
reflective

Two Teaching Styles


The
Classroom
is

Instructional
Modes

TRADITIONAL
STYLE

FACILITATING
STYLE

barren, nondecorative

stimulating

seats facing front

grouped or
circular

teacher centered

student - centered

competitive
learning

cooperative
learning

demonstrations by
the teacher

student inquiry

lectures

peer coaching

some problem

problem solving

Teaching is to awaken the joy in


creative expression.
Albert Einstein