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want to know is worse. Not
to hope is unthinkable. Not
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ALPHABET OF
LINES

Welcome to our page..


Enjoy yourself by using this interactive module and
have fun while learning!!!

TYPES OF
LINES
LETTERING
TRACING AND
INKING
QUIZ

Learn Lines And Lettering in Engineering


Drawing!
You will be able to identify the alphabet of lines in
engineering drawing, draw lines correctly and use different
lettering shapes.. More and more inside..

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ALPHABET OF
LINES

1.1 ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF
LINES
LETTERING
TRACING AND
INKING
QUIZ

1.
1.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF ALPHA
BET OF LINES
1.1.2 LINES IN ENGINEERING DRAWING

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

TRACING AND INKING

QUIZ

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1.1.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF ALPHABET OF LINES

A.
A.33characteristics
characteristicsof
ofalphabet
alphabetof
oflines
linesare
areas
asfollows:
follows:

Form
Usage
Darkness and thickness

B.
B.To
Todraw
drawlines
linesusing
usingthe
thecorrect
correctdarkness
darknesslevel,
level,use:
use:
HB grade Dark and heavy lines
H grade dark and light lines
2H grade - light lines

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

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C.
C.To
Todraw
drawlines
linesmust
mustconsider
considerthe
thethickness
thicknessof
oflines,
lines,use:
use:
A small point (0.25 0.3mm) for light lines
Large point (0.5 0.7mm) for heavy lines

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

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1.1.2 LINES IN ENGINEERING DRAWINGS


Construction Line

Light

Object Line

Dark and heavy

Hidden Line

Dark and light

Centre Line

Dark and light

Plane Cutting Line

Dark and heavy

Dimensional Line

Dark and light

Short Break Line

Dark and light

Long Break Line

Dark and light

Phantom Line

Dark and light

Additional/Projection Line

Dark and light

TYPE OF LINES

Long
Object

NEXT

Dimension
Phantom

Center

Additional

Short

Construction

Hidden
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Plane
Cutting
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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

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QUIZ

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A. Construction Line
Info:
Info:
Use
Use2H/0.3mm
2H/0.3mm
pencil
pencil

TYPE OF LINES

Long

Dimension

Object

Phantom

Center

Additional

Short

Construction

Hidden
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Plane
Cutting
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TYPES OF LINES

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B. Center Lines
Info:
Info:
Use
UseH/0.3mm
H/0.3mm
pencil
pencil

TYPE OF LINES

Long

Dimension

Object

Phantom

Center

Additional

Short

Construction

Hidden
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Plane
Cutting
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TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

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C. Object Lines
Info:
Info:
Use
UseHB/
HB/0.5-0.7mm
0.5-0.7mm
pencil
pencil

TYPE OF LINES

Long

Dimension

Object

Phantom

Center

Additional

Short

Construction

Hidden
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Plane
Cutting
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TYPES OF LINES

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D. Phantom Lines
Info:
Info:
Use
UseH/0.3mm
H/0.3mm
pencil
pencil

TYPE OF LINES

Long

Dimension

Object

Phantom

Center

Additional

Short

Construction

Hidden
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Plane
Cutting
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TYPES OF LINES

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E. Hidden Lines
Info:
Info:
Use
UseHB/
HB/0.3
0.3-0.5mm
-0.5mm
pencil
pencil

TYPE OF LINES

Long

Dimension

Object

Phantom

Center

Additional

Short

Construction

Hidden
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Plane
Cutting
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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

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QUIZ

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F. Dimension Lines
Info:
Info:
Use
UseH/0.25mm
H/0.25mm
pencil
pencil

TYPE OF LINES

Long

Dimension

Object

Phantom

Center

Additional

Short

Construction

Hidden
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Plane
Cutting
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TYPES OF LINES

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G. Long Break Lines


Info:
Info:
Use
UseH/0.3mm
H/0.3mm
pencil
pencil

TYPE OF LINES

Long

Dimension

Object

Phantom

Center

Additional

Short

Construction

Hidden
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Plane
Cutting
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H. Short Break Lines


Info:
Info:
Use
UseH/0.3mm
H/0.3mm
pencil
pencil

TYPE OF LINES

Long

Dimension

Object

Phantom

Center

Additional

Short

Construction

Hidden
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Plane
Cutting
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TYPES OF LINES

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I. Plane Cutting Lines


Info:
Info:
Use
UseHB/0.5-0.7mm
HB/0.5-0.7mm
pencil
pencil

TYPE OF LINES

Long

Dimension

Object

Phantom

Center

Additional

Short

Construction

Hidden
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Plane
Cutting
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TYPES OF LINES

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J. Additional/Projection Lines
Info:
Info:
Use
UseH/0.3mm
H/0.3mm
pencil
pencil

TYPE OF LINES

Long

Dimension

Object

Phantom

Center

Additional

Short

Construction

Hidden
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Plane
Cutting
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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

1.2

TYPES OF LINES
There are several types often used
in engineering drawing.

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Fives types:
Horizontal lines
Vertical lines

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Inclined lines
Parallel lines
Perpendicular lines
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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

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Drawing Horizontal lines

Horizontal lines

The head of the T-square must always be


placed closely against the drawing board

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

Drawing Vertical lines

TRACING AND INKING

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Tip:
You have to know the correct method of
creating lines neat lines.
Make sure:
-The pencil point always sharp. If you
are using a mechanical pencil, make
sure the grade of darkness and size are
appropriate. The usual sizes are 0.3,
0.5, and 0.7mm
-The pencil point must always be
contact with the paper as to apply
uniform pressure during line drawing.
-To obtain a uniform line darkness and
thickness, turn the pencil body little
(about half a turn) while drawing

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TYPES OF LINES

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Drawing inclined lines


a) Drawing 15 inclined lines

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TYPES OF LINES

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b) Drawing 30 inclined lines

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TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

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c) Drawing 45 inclined lines

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TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

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d) Drawing 60 inclined lines

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e) Drawing 75 inclined lines

75

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f) Drawing 75 inclined lines on the AB line

75

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TYPES OF LINES

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Drawing Parallel lines


Step
1

Place the set square so that its parallel the


inclined line

Step
2

Slide the set square to the position where the


parallel lines are to be drawn

Step
3

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Notes :
Parallel lines are lines
which have the same
distance between them

Draw the parallel line

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TYPES OF LINES

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Drawing Perpendicular lines


Step
1

Place the set square at 45 so that it is


parallel to the inclined line

Step
2

Slide the 45 square to that point where the


perpendicular line is to be drawn.

Step
3

Notes :
perpendicular lines are
lines that have 90
angle between them

Draw the perpendicular line

90

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ALPHABET OF
LINES
TYPES OF
LINES

1.3

LETTERING
Used to document a drawing.
Must be done without the use of ruler.
Each letter is written in uniform size, height, width

LETTERING
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and line thickness.


1.3.1 Types of Lettering

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1.3.2 Lettering Techniques


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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

TRACING AND INKING

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1.3.1 Types Of Lettering

i) The Standard upright letters


Written at 90 on the guide line.

ABCDEFGHIJKLMN

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
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ii) The standard inclined letters.


Written according to a slant range of between
60 and 75 on the guide line.

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNO
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910

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TYPES OF LINES

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1.3.2 Lettering Techniques


Use single stroke technique.
The arrows show the direction of the pencil
point while writing.

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TYPES OF LINES

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Use the same pressure while writing from top to


bottom and left to right.
Write carefully so the letters touch the guide lines.

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TYPES OF LINES

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i) Guide Lines
Used to set the height of the letters.
Drawn by using 2H pencil grade.
Do not erase the guide line after the lettering is done.
The space between the lines is half the height of a letter.

ORTOGRAPHIC
ISOMETRIC

H
H
H

Guide Line
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TYPES OF LINES

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ii) Space Between Letters and Words


Space between letters must be about the same.

L IN E S
L ET T ERS
To estimate distance between words, imagine the letter O in
between the words.

LINES AND LETTERINGS


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TYPES OF LINES

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iii) Lettering Uniformity


Important to produce good drawings.
Uniform in style, size, inclination,
weight and space.
Carelessness might result in mistakes.

ENGINEERING DRAWINGS

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TYPES OF LINES

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iv) Examples of Common Mistakes in Lettering

LEtTErING

Lettering style not uniform


Lettering height not uniform

LE

TTERING

Lettering inclination not uniform

LETTERING

Lettering thickness not uniform

LETTERING
LET T E R ING

Lettering space not uniform

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1.4 TRACING AND INKING


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TYPES OF
LINES
LETTERING

The process of copying an original drawing onto a


tracing paper using technical pen.
The product of tracing is called inked drawing.
Inked drawing may be printed using a blue printing

machine.

TRACING AND
INKING

1.4.1

Tracing and Inking Materials

QUIZ

1.4.2

Drawing Tracing and Inking Method

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TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

TRACING AND INKING

QUIZ

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1.4.1 Tracing and Inking Materials


a) Tracing Paper
A thin semitransparent paper.
Placed on top of the original drawing.
The drawing on the tracing paper is used as the
master copy for reprinting on the blue print machine.

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TYPES OF LINES

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b) Technical pen
Used to ink drawing on the tracing paper.
Various pen point sizes from 0.1mm to 2mm.
Can be assembled with compass to draw arcs circles.
A technical has to be capped after used, if not its
ink will dry out.
Avoid dropping the technical pen so that the point
does not break.

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TYPES OF LINES

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TRACING AND INKING

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1.4.2 Drawing Tracing and Inking Method


Kept away all equipments and materials.
Use the sticky tape to set the position of the drawing.
Mistakes can be erased using a blade or ink eraser.

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

TRACING AND INKING

i) Inking method

O 30

Step 2
Ink all horizontal lines.
Step 3
Ink all vertical lines
including hidden lines.

30
15

Step 4
Ink all dimension lines
Including all the details.

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O 44

Step 1
Ink all centres, arcs and
circles.

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60

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TYPES OF LINES

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ii) Inking Result


1.

Examples of good and poor inking.

Poor

Good

Suggestion

Make sure the pen point does not go beyond


the line and in contact too long at the beginning
and at the end of the line.
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TYPES OF LINES

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2.
Bad

Good

Suggestion
Make sure the pen point is not in contact too long at the
beginning and at the end of line.
3.
Bad

Good

Suggestion
Make sure the pen point is really in the middle of the tracing paper.

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4.

Good

Bad

Suggestion
Make sure the tangent line is connected neatly.

5.

Good

Bad

Suggestion
Make sure the arrow head is sharp and pointed.
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TYPES OF LINES

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6.

Good

Bad

Suggestion
Make sure the hidden lines are neat and uniform.

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Hi.. My name
is
Spongebob, i
will help you
to complete
this easy
test..!!

Break a
leg!!

QUIZ
SESSION
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1.

What is the lines that is used in the early


stages of drawing?
A.

Construction line

B.

Short break line

C.

Object line

D.

Centre line

1.

What is the lines that is used in the early


stages of drawing?
A.

Construction line

B.

Short break line

C.

Object line

D.

Centre line

Your
answer is
CORRECT!
!

Next
Question

1.

What is the lines that is used in the early


stages of drawing?
A.

Construction line

B.

Short break line

C.

Object line

D.

Centre line

SORRY,
Your
answer is
WRONG

Try Again

2. What is the lines that is used to show


dissected plane?
A.

Additional/ Projection line

B.

Long break line

C.

Cutting line

D.

Hidden line

2. What is the lines that is used to show


dissected plane?
A.

Additional/ Projection line

B.

Long break line

C.

Cutting line

D.

Hidden line

Your
answer
is
CORREC
T

Next
Question

2. What is the lines that is used to show


dissected plane?

SORRY,
Your
answer
is
WRONG

A. Additional/ Projection
line
B. Long break line
C.

Cutting line

D.

Hidden line

Try Again

3.

Which characteristics of alphabet of lines are


correct?
I. Darkness and thickness
II. Area
III. Usage
IV. Form
A.

I and II only

B.

I, II and III only

C.

I, II and IV only

D.

I, II, III and IV

3.

Which characteristics of alphabet of lines are


correct?
Your
I. Darkness and thickness
answer is
II. Area
CORRECT!
!
III. Usage
IV. Form
A.

I and II only

B.

I, II and III only

C.

I, II and IV only

D.

I, II, III and IV

Next
Question

3.

Which characteristics of alphabet of lines are


SORRY,
correct?
Your
answer
I. Darkness and thickness
is
II. Area
WRONG

III. Usage
IV. Form
A.

I and II only

B.

I, II and III only

C.

I, II and IV only

D.

I, II, III and IV

Try Again

4. Which form of line best described phantom line?

A.
B.
C.
D.

4. Which form of line best described phantom line?

A.
B.

Your
answer
is
CORREC
T

C.
D.

Next
Question

4. Which form of line best described phantom line?

A.

SORRY,
Your
answer is
WRONG..

B.
C.
D.

Try Again

5.

Table above shows types of pen point


sizes and their uses. Which of the following is correct?
A.

I and II only

B.

I and IV only

C.

I, II and IV only

D.

I, II, III and IV only

Your
answer
is
CORREC
T

5.

Table above shows types of pen point


sizes and their uses. Which of the following is correct?

A.

I and II only

B.

I and IV only

C.

I, II and IV only

D.

I, II, III and IV only

Next
Question

SORRY,
Your
answer
is
WRONG.
.

5. Table above shows types of pen point sizes


and their uses. Which of the following is
correct?
A.

I and II only

B.

I and IV only

C.

I, II and IV only

D.

I, II, III and IV only

Try Again

6.

Which phrases below best described the


definition of Tracing and Inking?
A.

Tracing and inking are the process of copying


an original drawing onto a tracing paper
using technical pen.
B.

Tracing and inking are the process of drawing


onto a tracing paper using technical pen.

C.

Tracing and inking are the process of


copying an original drawing onto a tracing
paper .
Tracing and inking are the process of
copying an original drawing using
technical pen.

D.

6.

Which phrases below best described the


definition of Tracing and Inking?
A.

Your
answer is
CORRECT!
!

Tracing and inking are the process of


copying an original drawing onto a
tracing paper using technical pen.

B.
Tracing and inking are the process of
drawing
onto a tracing paper using
technical pen.
C.
Tracing and inking are the process of copying an
original drawing onto a tracing paper .
D.

Tracing and inking are the process of


copying an original drawing using
technical pen.

Next
Question

6.

Which phrases below best described the


definition of Tracing and Inking?
A.

SORRY,
Your
answer is
WRONG..

Tracing and inking are the process of


copying an original drawing onto a
tracing paper using technical pen.

B.
Tracing and inking are the process of
drawing
onto a tracing paper using
technical pen.
C.
Tracing and inking are the process of
copying an original drawing onto a tracing
paper .
D.
Tracing and inking are the process of
copying an original drawing using
technical pen.

Try Again

7. The product of tracing is called ______.


A. Tracing drawing
B. Inked drawing
C. Printing drawing
D. Technical drawing

7. The product of tracing is called______.

Your
answer is
CORRECT!
!

A. Tracing drawing
B. Inked drawing
C. Printing drawing
D. Technical drawing

Next
Question

7. The product of tracing is called______.


A. Tracing drawing

SORRY,
Your
answer is
WRONG..

B. Inked drawing
C. Printing drawing
D. Technical drawing

Try Again

8.

What are the materials specifically used for tracing and


inking process?
I. Tracing paper
II. Technical pen
III. Mechanical pencil
IV. Liquid paper

A.

I and II only

B.

I, II and III only

C.

I, II and IV only

D.

I, III and IV only

8. What are the materials specifically used for tracing


and inking process?
I. Tracing paper
Your
answer is
II. Technical pen
CORRECT!
III. Mechanical pencil
!
IV. Liquid paper

A.

I and II only

B.

I, II and III only

C.

I, II and IV only

D.

I, III and IV only

Next

8.

What are the materials specifically used for


tracing and inking process?
SORRY,
I. Tracing paper
Your
answer is
II. Technical pen
WRONG..
III. Mechanical pencil
IV. Liquid paper
A.

I and II only

B.

I, II and III only

C.

I, II and IV only

D.

I, III and IV only

Try Again

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