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## Not to know is bad. Not to

want to know is worse. Not
to hope is unthinkable. Not
to care is unforgivable.
Nigerian saying

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ALPHABET OF
LINES

## Welcome to our page..

Enjoy yourself by using this interactive module and
have fun while learning!!!

TYPES OF
LINES
LETTERING
TRACING AND
INKING
QUIZ

## Learn Lines And Lettering in Engineering

Drawing!
You will be able to identify the alphabet of lines in
engineering drawing, draw lines correctly and use different
lettering shapes.. More and more inside..

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ALPHABET OF
LINES

## 1.1 ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF
LINES
LETTERING
TRACING AND
INKING
QUIZ

1.
1.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF ALPHA
BET OF LINES
1.1.2 LINES IN ENGINEERING DRAWING

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

QUIZ

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## 1.1.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF ALPHABET OF LINES

A.
A.33characteristics
characteristicsof
ofalphabet
alphabetof
oflines
linesare
areas
asfollows:
follows:

Form
Usage
Darkness and thickness

B.
B.To
Todraw
drawlines
linesusing
usingthe
thecorrect
correctdarkness
darknesslevel,
level,use:
use:
HB grade Dark and heavy lines
H grade dark and light lines

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

## TRACING AND INKING

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C.
C.To
Todraw
drawlines
linesmust
mustconsider
considerthe
thethickness
thicknessof
oflines,
lines,use:
use:
A small point (0.25 0.3mm) for light lines
Large point (0.5 0.7mm) for heavy lines

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

QUIZ

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## 1.1.2 LINES IN ENGINEERING DRAWINGS

Construction Line

Light

Object Line

Hidden Line

Centre Line

Dimensional Line

Phantom Line

## Dark and light

TYPE OF LINES

Long
Object

NEXT

Dimension
Phantom

Center

Short

Construction

Hidden
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Plane
Cutting
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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

## TRACING AND INKING

QUIZ

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A. Construction Line
Info:
Info:
Use
Use2H/0.3mm
2H/0.3mm
pencil
pencil

TYPE OF LINES

Long

Dimension

Object

Phantom

Center

Short

Construction

Hidden
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Plane
Cutting
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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

## TRACING AND INKING

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B. Center Lines
Info:
Info:
Use
UseH/0.3mm
H/0.3mm
pencil
pencil

TYPE OF LINES

Long

Dimension

Object

Phantom

Center

Short

Construction

Hidden
BACK

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Plane
Cutting
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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

## TRACING AND INKING

QUIZ

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C. Object Lines
Info:
Info:
Use
UseHB/
HB/0.5-0.7mm
0.5-0.7mm
pencil
pencil

TYPE OF LINES

Long

Dimension

Object

Phantom

Center

Short

Construction

Hidden
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Plane
Cutting
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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

## TRACING AND INKING

QUIZ

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D. Phantom Lines
Info:
Info:
Use
UseH/0.3mm
H/0.3mm
pencil
pencil

TYPE OF LINES

Long

Dimension

Object

Phantom

Center

Short

Construction

Hidden
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Plane
Cutting
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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

## TRACING AND INKING

QUIZ

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E. Hidden Lines
Info:
Info:
Use
UseHB/
HB/0.3
0.3-0.5mm
-0.5mm
pencil
pencil

TYPE OF LINES

Long

Dimension

Object

Phantom

Center

Short

Construction

Hidden
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Plane
Cutting
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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

## TRACING AND INKING

QUIZ

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F. Dimension Lines
Info:
Info:
Use
UseH/0.25mm
H/0.25mm
pencil
pencil

TYPE OF LINES

Long

Dimension

Object

Phantom

Center

Short

Construction

Hidden
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Plane
Cutting
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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

QUIZ

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## G. Long Break Lines

Info:
Info:
Use
UseH/0.3mm
H/0.3mm
pencil
pencil

TYPE OF LINES

Long

Dimension

Object

Phantom

Center

Short

Construction

Hidden
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Plane
Cutting
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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

QUIZ

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## H. Short Break Lines

Info:
Info:
Use
UseH/0.3mm
H/0.3mm
pencil
pencil

TYPE OF LINES

Long

Dimension

Object

Phantom

Center

Short

Construction

Hidden
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Plane
Cutting
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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

QUIZ

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## I. Plane Cutting Lines

Info:
Info:
Use
UseHB/0.5-0.7mm
HB/0.5-0.7mm
pencil
pencil

TYPE OF LINES

Long

Dimension

Object

Phantom

Center

Short

Construction

Hidden
BACK

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Plane
Cutting
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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

## TRACING AND INKING

QUIZ

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Info:
Info:
Use
UseH/0.3mm
H/0.3mm
pencil
pencil

TYPE OF LINES

Long

Dimension

Object

Phantom

Center

Short

Construction

Hidden
BACK

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Plane
Cutting
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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

1.2

TYPES OF LINES
There are several types often used
in engineering drawing.

LETTERING

## TRACING AND INKING

Fives types:
Horizontal lines
Vertical lines

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Inclined lines
Parallel lines
Perpendicular lines
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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

QUIZ

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Horizontal lines

## The head of the T-square must always be

placed closely against the drawing board

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

## TRACING AND INKING

QUIZ

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Tip:
You have to know the correct method of
creating lines neat lines.
Make sure:
-The pencil point always sharp. If you
are using a mechanical pencil, make
sure the grade of darkness and size are
appropriate. The usual sizes are 0.3,
0.5, and 0.7mm
-The pencil point must always be
contact with the paper as to apply
uniform pressure during line drawing.
-To obtain a uniform line darkness and
thickness, turn the pencil body little
(about half a turn) while drawing

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

QUIZ

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## Drawing inclined lines

a) Drawing 15 inclined lines

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

QUIZ

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## b) Drawing 30 inclined lines

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

QUIZ

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## c) Drawing 45 inclined lines

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

QUIZ

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## d) Drawing 60 inclined lines

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

QUIZ

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## e) Drawing 75 inclined lines

75

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

QUIZ

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## f) Drawing 75 inclined lines on the AB line

75

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

Step
1

inclined line

Step
2

## Slide the set square to the position where the

parallel lines are to be drawn

Step
3

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Notes :
Parallel lines are lines
which have the same
distance between them

## Draw the parallel line

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

QUIZ

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Step
1

## Place the set square at 45 so that it is

parallel to the inclined line

Step
2

## Slide the 45 square to that point where the

perpendicular line is to be drawn.

Step
3

Notes :
perpendicular lines are
lines that have 90
angle between them

## Draw the perpendicular line

90

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ALPHABET OF
LINES
TYPES OF
LINES

1.3

LETTERING
Used to document a drawing.
Must be done without the use of ruler.
Each letter is written in uniform size, height, width

LETTERING
TRACING AND
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## and line thickness.

1.3.1 Types of Lettering

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## 1.3.2 Lettering Techniques

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

QUIZ

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## i) The Standard upright letters

Written at 90 on the guide line.

ABCDEFGHIJKLMN

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

QUIZ

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## ii) The standard inclined letters.

Written according to a slant range of between
60 and 75 on the guide line.

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNO
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

QUIZ

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## 1.3.2 Lettering Techniques

Use single stroke technique.
The arrows show the direction of the pencil
point while writing.

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

QUIZ

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## Use the same pressure while writing from top to

bottom and left to right.
Write carefully so the letters touch the guide lines.

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TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

## TRACING AND INKING

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i) Guide Lines
Used to set the height of the letters.
Drawn by using 2H pencil grade.
Do not erase the guide line after the lettering is done.
The space between the lines is half the height of a letter.

ORTOGRAPHIC
ISOMETRIC

H
H
H

Guide Line
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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

QUIZ

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## ii) Space Between Letters and Words

Space between letters must be about the same.

L IN E S
L ET T ERS
To estimate distance between words, imagine the letter O in
between the words.

## LINES AND LETTERINGS

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

QUIZ

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## iii) Lettering Uniformity

Important to produce good drawings.
Uniform in style, size, inclination,
weight and space.
Carelessness might result in mistakes.

ENGINEERING DRAWINGS

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

QUIZ

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LEtTErING

## Lettering style not uniform

Lettering height not uniform

LE

TTERING

LETTERING

LETTERING
LET T E R ING

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ALPHABET OF
LINES
TYPES OF
LINES
LETTERING

## The process of copying an original drawing onto a

tracing paper using technical pen.
The product of tracing is called inked drawing.
Inked drawing may be printed using a blue printing

machine.

TRACING AND
INKING

1.4.1

QUIZ

1.4.2

## Drawing Tracing and Inking Method

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

QUIZ

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## 1.4.1 Tracing and Inking Materials

a) Tracing Paper
A thin semitransparent paper.
Placed on top of the original drawing.
The drawing on the tracing paper is used as the
master copy for reprinting on the blue print machine.

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

## TRACING AND INKING

QUIZ

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b) Technical pen
Used to ink drawing on the tracing paper.
Various pen point sizes from 0.1mm to 2mm.
Can be assembled with compass to draw arcs circles.
A technical has to be capped after used, if not its
ink will dry out.
Avoid dropping the technical pen so that the point
does not break.

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

QUIZ

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## 1.4.2 Drawing Tracing and Inking Method

Kept away all equipments and materials.
Use the sticky tape to set the position of the drawing.
Mistakes can be erased using a blade or ink eraser.

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

## TRACING AND INKING

i) Inking method

O 30

Step 2
Ink all horizontal lines.
Step 3
Ink all vertical lines
including hidden lines.

30
15

Step 4
Ink all dimension lines
Including all the details.

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O 44

Step 1
Ink all centres, arcs and
circles.

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60

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

QUIZ

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1.

Poor

Good

Suggestion

## Make sure the pen point does not go beyond

the line and in contact too long at the beginning
and at the end of the line.
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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

## TRACING AND INKING

QUIZ

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2.

Good

Suggestion
Make sure the pen point is not in contact too long at the
beginning and at the end of line.
3.

Good

Suggestion
Make sure the pen point is really in the middle of the tracing paper.

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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

QUIZ

## TRACING AND INKING

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4.

Good

Suggestion
Make sure the tangent line is connected neatly.

5.

Good

Suggestion
Make sure the arrow head is sharp and pointed.
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ALPHABET OF LINES

TYPES OF LINES

LETTERING

## TRACING AND INKING

QUIZ

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6.

Good

Suggestion
Make sure the hidden lines are neat and uniform.

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ALPHABET OF
LINES
TYPES OF
LINES
LETTERING
TRACING AND
INKING
QUIZ
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Hi.. My name
is
Spongebob, i
to complete
this easy
test..!!

Break a
leg!!

QUIZ
SESSION
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1.

## What is the lines that is used in the early

stages of drawing?
A.

Construction line

B.

C.

Object line

D.

Centre line

1.

## What is the lines that is used in the early

stages of drawing?
A.

Construction line

B.

C.

Object line

D.

Centre line

Your
CORRECT!
!

Next
Question

1.

## What is the lines that is used in the early

stages of drawing?
A.

Construction line

B.

C.

Object line

D.

Centre line

SORRY,
Your
WRONG

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dissected plane?
A.

B.

C.

Cutting line

D.

Hidden line

dissected plane?
A.

B.

C.

Cutting line

D.

Hidden line

Your
is
CORREC
T

Next
Question

## 2. What is the lines that is used to show

dissected plane?

SORRY,
Your
is
WRONG

line
B. Long break line
C.

Cutting line

D.

Hidden line

Try Again

3.

## Which characteristics of alphabet of lines are

correct?
I. Darkness and thickness
II. Area
III. Usage
IV. Form
A.

I and II only

B.

## I, II and III only

C.

I, II and IV only

D.

3.

## Which characteristics of alphabet of lines are

correct?
Your
I. Darkness and thickness
II. Area
CORRECT!
!
III. Usage
IV. Form
A.

I and II only

B.

## I, II and III only

C.

I, II and IV only

D.

Next
Question

3.

## Which characteristics of alphabet of lines are

SORRY,
correct?
Your
I. Darkness and thickness
is
II. Area
WRONG

III. Usage
IV. Form
A.

I and II only

B.

## I, II and III only

C.

I, II and IV only

D.

Try Again

A.
B.
C.
D.

A.
B.

Your
is
CORREC
T

C.
D.

Next
Question

A.

SORRY,
Your
WRONG..

B.
C.
D.

Try Again

5.

## Table above shows types of pen point

sizes and their uses. Which of the following is correct?
A.

I and II only

B.

I and IV only

C.

I, II and IV only

D.

Your
is
CORREC
T

5.

## Table above shows types of pen point

sizes and their uses. Which of the following is correct?

A.

I and II only

B.

I and IV only

C.

I, II and IV only

D.

Next
Question

SORRY,
Your
is
WRONG.
.

## 5. Table above shows types of pen point sizes

and their uses. Which of the following is
correct?
A.

I and II only

B.

I and IV only

C.

I, II and IV only

D.

Try Again

6.

## Which phrases below best described the

definition of Tracing and Inking?
A.

## Tracing and inking are the process of copying

an original drawing onto a tracing paper
using technical pen.
B.

## Tracing and inking are the process of drawing

onto a tracing paper using technical pen.

C.

## Tracing and inking are the process of

copying an original drawing onto a tracing
paper .
Tracing and inking are the process of
copying an original drawing using
technical pen.

D.

6.

## Which phrases below best described the

definition of Tracing and Inking?
A.

Your
CORRECT!
!

## Tracing and inking are the process of

copying an original drawing onto a
tracing paper using technical pen.

B.
Tracing and inking are the process of
drawing
onto a tracing paper using
technical pen.
C.
Tracing and inking are the process of copying an
original drawing onto a tracing paper .
D.

## Tracing and inking are the process of

copying an original drawing using
technical pen.

Next
Question

6.

## Which phrases below best described the

definition of Tracing and Inking?
A.

SORRY,
Your
WRONG..

## Tracing and inking are the process of

copying an original drawing onto a
tracing paper using technical pen.

B.
Tracing and inking are the process of
drawing
onto a tracing paper using
technical pen.
C.
Tracing and inking are the process of
copying an original drawing onto a tracing
paper .
D.
Tracing and inking are the process of
copying an original drawing using
technical pen.

Try Again

## 7. The product of tracing is called ______.

A. Tracing drawing
B. Inked drawing
C. Printing drawing
D. Technical drawing

## 7. The product of tracing is called______.

Your
CORRECT!
!

A. Tracing drawing
B. Inked drawing
C. Printing drawing
D. Technical drawing

Next
Question

## 7. The product of tracing is called______.

A. Tracing drawing

SORRY,
Your
WRONG..

B. Inked drawing
C. Printing drawing
D. Technical drawing

Try Again

8.

## What are the materials specifically used for tracing and

inking process?
I. Tracing paper
II. Technical pen
III. Mechanical pencil
IV. Liquid paper

A.

I and II only

B.

## I, II and III only

C.

I, II and IV only

D.

## 8. What are the materials specifically used for tracing

and inking process?
I. Tracing paper
Your
II. Technical pen
CORRECT!
III. Mechanical pencil
!
IV. Liquid paper

A.

I and II only

B.

## I, II and III only

C.

I, II and IV only

D.

Next

8.

## What are the materials specifically used for

tracing and inking process?
SORRY,
I. Tracing paper
Your
II. Technical pen
WRONG..
III. Mechanical pencil
IV. Liquid paper
A.

I and II only

B.

## I, II and III only

C.

I, II and IV only

D.

## I, III and IV only

Try Again

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ALPHABET OF
LINES
TYPES OF
LINES

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INKING
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No