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APPH 1040

The Scientific Foundations of Health

Ch. 1

1. In 1900, infectious diseases such as pneumonia and

tuberculosis were responsible for most deaths.
2. The leading cause of death among Americans age
15-25 is ________________.
3. If you have a family history of heart disease or
cancer, you are destined to develop the same no
matter what you do. T / F

4. Which lifestyle factor is the leading preventable

cause of death for Americans?
a. alcohol abuse
b. cigarette smoking
c. poor dietary habits
d. lack of exercise

What is Health????

What is Health?
World Health
Organization (WHO)
Health is a state of
complete physical,
mental, and social
well-being and not
merely the absence of
disease or infirmity.

Treatment model
freedom from illness

Wellness model striving for

high quality life

What is it?
A comprehensive concept that
health is dynamic
and is geared toward optimal
well being.
Acknowledges impact several factors: genetics,
social factors, LIFESTYLE
Focuses on prevention
Emphasizes personal responsibility
Includes caring for self as health issues arise

What impacts our health??

2014 Pearson
Education, Inc.

CDC estimates that...

50% disease and premature death
(< 65 years of age) due

to unhealthy lifestyle.

80% deaths before age 65 preventable


Lifestyle: your behavior choices

response to stressors

Trends in health

Life Expectancy 2011 USA

78.7 years


Leading causes of death 2013-USA

Heart disease: 611,105

Cancer: 584,881
Chronic lower respiratory diseases: 149,205
Accidents (unintentional injuries): 130,557
Stroke (cerebrovascular diseases): 128,978
Alzheimer's disease: 84,767
Diabetes: 75,578
Influenza and Pneumonia: 56,979
Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and nephrosis: 47,112
Intentional self-harm (suicide): 41,149

Three Leading Causes of Death in the U.S.

1900 Infectious diseases
1) Pneumonia & influenza (flu)
2) Tuberculosis (TB)
3) Diarrhea, enteritis
1) Heart Disease
2) Cancer
3) Lower Respiratory

All are
Chronic diseases

Chronic diseases

are prolonged
do not resolve spontaneously
are rarely cured completely
are significant burden in morbidity,
mortality, cost

Examples -- atherosclerosis, hypertension,

cancers, obesity, diabetes, osteoporosis,
kidney disease

Leading causes of death in US

1. heart disease
2. cancer
3. lower respiratory disease

4 Lifestyle factors that play a part in each.


Smoking causes more total deaths/year

than any other cause 440,000 deaths/year

Leading causes of death in college-age

people (ages 15-24)


What personal choices could contribute to unintentional injuries?

Why Health, Why Now?

Choosing healthy

behaviors now will

provide immediate benefits
help bring long-term


Now is a great time to develop good

health behaviors.

The Six/Seven Dimensions of Wellness

Combination and balance of:
Physical wellness
Emotional wellness
Spiritual wellness
Social wellness
Intellectual wellness
Environmental wellness
Occupational wellness


Components of Wellness
Physical Health
Proper nutrition, exercise, performing self-exams,

practicing personal safety, sleeping, smoking, etc

Emotional Health
Control emotions, self-esteem, and the ability to cope with
stress, adjust to change

Intellectual Health
Keeping your mind active through life-long learning, seek

new challenges, think critically, reason objectively

Spiritual Health
Having a sense of lifes meaning, purpose, value;
may/may not include organized religion, respect for all
living things

Components of Wellness cont.

Social Health
Developing and maintaining meaningful interpersonal

relationships, communication skills, participation in your


Environmental Health
Protecting yourself from environmental hazards AND

understanding how your behaviors that have an effect on

the environment: being good steward of our earth,
behaving in way that safeguards natural resources
Occupational Health
Job provides gratification and satisfaction
You are contributing your unique skills, talents, knowledge

The dimensions are interrelated

Low Level
of Wellness

Presence of
Disease Symptoms

Change &

High Level
of Wellness

Persons who are chronically pessimistic, angry, anxious,

depressed, inactive, isolated are clearly more susceptible to


Holistic Approach
Looking at the individual as a whole, rather

than part by part.

The body has a head,

and the head has a body. (Gustav Eckstein)

Quality of Life: an overall sense of well-being and
enjoyment of life

Health Literacy
The ability to obtain, process, and
understand basic health information and
services needed to make appropriate
informed health decisions.

Sources of health information

Look for websites that
Are not selling products
Provide well-referenced information
HON affiliatedHealth on the Net Foundation

Good practice to check several sites

NIH How to evaluate health information from the internet

Government sites Health topics A-Z
Medical facility sites
Excellent references/websites at
end of chapters

Concept of Risk
Simply put: the chance that something bad will

happen if you engage in a specific behavior.

Risk factor: a variable associated with an increase
Ex: Smoking increase ones risk of developing heart

Epidemiology: The scientific discipline of

studying the occurrence, distribution, control and

prevention of disease in a population
Cannot prove cause & effect

Absolute vs. Relative risk

Relative risk: times greater chance of something bad
happening among people who have a specific behavior
or characteristic vs. those who dont.
Absolute risk: number of people who develop a problem
in a group of specified size
Example: 5 year period, risk for blindness in diabetics treated
conventionally is 2 in 100 (2%), 1 in 100 (1%) treated aggressively
Relative risk is 50%
Absolute risk is 1% vs 2%

Additional Reading Assignment:

see T-Sq/Resources/Additional Reading/Understanding Risk
or link:

Now you try

2012 3.2 deaths/100,000 general workforce
12.3 deaths/100,000 workers in mining,
quarrying, oil and gas extraction workers
Determine absolute risk of dying in a work-related injury
for each group
Determine relative risk for workers in resource extraction

Healthy People Initiative

Health promotion and disease preventive agenda for the
nation a public health initiative

National health-related goals & objectives

set, evaluated and revised every 10 years.
Original: Healthy People 1990
Current: Healthy People 2020

IDs most significant preventable threats to public

health & sets specific goals to reduce the threat
to prevent disease and promote health.

Healthy People 2020

Primary Goals:
Attain high-quality, longer lives free of preventable disease,
disability, injury, and premature death.
Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve
the health of all groups.
Create social and physical environments that promote good
health for all.
Promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy
behaviors across all life stages.

Healthy People 2020 Health Determinants

2014 Pearson
Education, Inc.

SO, whats going on at GT??

Health (APPH 1040)
Physical Activity and Health (APPH 1050)

GT 1000
Campus Services
CRC & Aquatic Center-- excellent facility

opportunities for many activities

Recreation: Sports clubs, intramurals,
personal training, GITFIT
ORGT: Outdoor Recreation Ga Tech

GT resources (continued)
Student Health Center
Wellness Center 2nd floor
Student Health Center
Clubs & organizations
Non-credit classes
Counseling Center
Campus ministries
Combining the support

SO, whats going on at GT??

Sierra Club's greenest campuses list
Green campuses matter because
students are likely to continue
environmental lifestyle after graduation

Bottom line
Long term quality of life
is related to wise choices initiated
NOW and continued throughout life.
Dont wait until you turn 30, 40 or 50!

1. In 1900, infectious diseases such as pneumonia and

tuberculosis were responsible for most deaths.

2. The leading cause of death among Americans age
15-25 is __accidents__.
3. If you have a family history of heart disease or
cancer, there is not much you can do to reduce your
risk of developing either. T / F

4. Which lifestyle factor is the leading preventable

cause of death for Americans?
a. alcohol abuse
b. cigarette smoking
c. poor dietary habits and
d. lack of exercise